Skip to main content

Full text of "The BrickBuilder (July-Dec. 1897)"

See other formats


D EDO? laOSTTD 2 

California State Library 



CALIFORNIA 

STATE LIBRARY 



ff?,\i% 



Call No.- 



Copy No. \) ^'^ r\- f^ 



^ \^M 



CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY 
SACRAMENTO 

This book is due on the last date stamped below. 

Books may be renewed if not requested by other 
borrowers. 

Failure to return books promptly may result in 
withdrawal of borrowing privileges. 




mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm^mmmm 



THEBRICKBUILDER. iii 



THE PLANT OF 

The Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Co., 

AT RICHMOND, VA., 



Will in the future be given up 
entirely to the manufacture of 



Cream White Bricks. 



Many leading architects and their buildings will testify that these bricks have no equal. 



Through our sales agency, located at TOWNSEND BUILDING 

25th ST. and BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY, F. H. S. MORRISON, Manager, 

we have arranged to handle the product of the 

Jarden Brick Co., w the cities of new york and Brooklyn. 
O. W. KETCHAM, tLcna^Cotta, 

Supplies r\V 



OFFICE: 



v»0 £namele6 

Builders' Exchange, />^ V U^rt^fc 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. • ^f W ^^ JZ^t ICK* 

-^^'V^' Every Description. 



Telephone, 2163. 



H. F. MAYLAND Sl CO., 

MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS AND 
DEALERS IN 

FRONT AND SHAPE BRICK IN ALL COLORS. 

Telephone, 614 I8th St. 287 FOURTH AVENUE, Room 616. 

NEW YORK. 



IV 



THE BRICKBUILDER 







r 



y'n 





Panels over Entrances, eleven feet diameter. 








Illustrations of Romanesque work, executed in brown terra-cotta, for store for Messrs. Abraham & Straus, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Geo. L. Morse, Architect. 



BY 



WORKS: 

Rocky Hill, N. J. 



Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co., 

105 East 22d Street, N. Y. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Conkling, Armstrong 
^ ^ Terra-Cotta Co 







BOWLING GREEN OFFICE BUILDING,; NEW1YORK,. 
CONTAINS A LARGE AMOUNT OF OUR TERRA-COTTA. 



. Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior Qi^^lity 



WORKS: OFFICES: 

Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, 

PHILADELPHIA. PHILA. TELEPHONE CALL 9005. and 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 



VI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 



Perth Amboy, N* J* 



....Manufacturers.... 



Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

160 Fifth Avenue. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros^ 102 Milk Street* 



STANDARD TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 

PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue. 



BOSTON OFFICE: 

John Hancock Building, 

O. W PETERSON & CO., Agents. 



WASHINGTON OFFICE: PHILADELPHIA OFFICE : 



Builders Exchange, 
WM. C. LEWIS, Agent. 



Builders Exchange, 

W. LINCOLN MCPHERSON, Agent. 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VI 1 



Something New 

In Brick and Terra -Cotta Fireplace Mantels. 




Designed by Mr. J. A. SCHW: 
Del by Mr. H. F. BRISCOE. 
Modeled by Mr. TITO CONTI 



We are now prepared to furnish an entirely new and complete line of Fireplace Mantels 
H)C8iOnCb in classical style to produce rich, yet dignified HSSCttlblCb from standard interchangeable pieces in 



architectural effects. 

nijOOClCO entirely by hand in the highest perfection 
of the art. 



any desired combination, thus giving a 
great variety of size and detail with no 
additional cost. 



iPreSSCb with great care to give clear-cut outlines and Tttl gCllCral producing all the desirable effects of special 



smooth surfaces. 



JbUtnCb in a suitable variety of soft, rich colors. 



mantels, made to order, without their 
excessive cost, or their uncertainty of 
manufacture. 



166 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dealers also in Architectural Terra-Cotta and Building Bricks in all colors known to clay working. 

Fire=Proofing and General Building Materials. 



vni 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



The New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., 



Manufacturers of 



!■ 



Architectural 
Terra-Cotta. 



K, MATHIASEN, President. 



Works : PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 



Office: 108 Fulton Street, New York City, 




Terra-Cotta Capital, Stores, N. W. CORNER BROADWAY & 37th STREET, 

NEW YORK CITY. HOPPIN & KOHEN, Architects. 

Executed by THE NEW JERSEY TERFLA.-COTTA COMPANY. 



Sales Agents for New England, O* fV* 1 WichcU & C0», 19 Federal Street, Boston. 



CAUFOWFMA WTATC LIBWAWT 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



21^3055 



XI 




THE WINKLE TERRACOTTA CO., 



Manufacturers of 



AN ENTRANCE IN TERRA-COTTA, UNION TRUST BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

LOUIS H. SULLIVAN, ARCHITECT. 
Tebra-Cotta Executed by THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO. 



Architectural Terra- Cotta 



IN ALL COLORS. 



WORKS: 

Cheltenham, St. Louis. 



OFFICE: 

502-503 Century Building. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



INDIANAPOLIS TERRA-COTTA CO., 

BRIGHTWOOD, INDIANA. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA 



IN ALL COLORS. 



Makes 27,000,000 
Fine Bricks 
Annually. 



ANTHONY ITTNER, 



Established 1859. 



Manufacturer of. 



Pressed and Ornamental 



Brick. 



These bricks are perfectly homogeneous, therefore cut easily, exactly, and with inappreciable waste. Owing to details in 

manufacture the output does not vary in quality. 



YARD AT 

Belleville, 111. 



OFFICE: 

Telephone Building, St. Louis. 



YARD AT 

St. Louis, Mo. 



xn 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



THE FAWCETT VENTILATED FIREPROOF BUILDING COMPANY, L't'd. 

Patenteci in England, Belgiunn, France, United States. 



.... .. .'a-\;:r;:"'r^ H,^":.::.jx ^> \.::;a^\:.^ii^::^:.sy'^y>^ii«k':^ 






Concrete. CinotR 

l iff iii' ini j i ii i ii i iiii i iiiii«ii i i iiii:.iiiiiMJHMiiiMiiiiii[iiiT,n7?PinmmiiT.i 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION SHowrNc the Tubulak Terra-Cotta Lintel encasing the Beam; 
THE Air Passage under Beam, and the Admission of Colo Air into the End of Tubular Lintel. 



lintels with concrete 
Removed. 




■ \z^-^^::::y'i^"-:^i' 'u:im.. ■•■: ■-.<'=^;- \^.z ">i r' ^ ^i; '.'^'] 



CoNCRCTIi . CiMOtK 



iiiiiiiuiiniiiiiiiiiiiMiuiiiiriniiiL'iiinmniMiiiMTiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiDiiiiuiujumiuiniiiirmiininmiiiiUiUiiinuiiriiniiuufiiimiinnwuiiiiujiaiiniinauiiiMMi^ 



■''■"■"'■"■■■ ' ^ -■ ■■ ■...■■ 




CONCRETE WITH LINTEL 
REMOVED. 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION Showing the Concrete Bearing on the Bottom Flange op 
the Beam and Cold Air Passage under the Beam. 







TRANSVERSE SECTION Showing the Aih -"-^ 

Passage under the Beams and the Admission of TRANSVERSE SECTION Showing the Con- 
Cold Air into the Side of the Lintel. NOTE.- crete Bearing on the Bottom Flange of the 
Only two Air Bricks are absolutely necessary Beam A. NOTE.- There is no Room for the 
IN Each Room to obtain a Thorough Draught Concrete to work under the Beams at A. other- 
UNDER the Beams, and they may both be in the wise the air passage would be Stopped. 
8AME Wall. 




LINTELS FIXED READY FOR 
CONCRETING. 



^ I I I ' i I I 1 t T- 



5eAi.E IN Feet. 



Table showing t"-.e Weight of Materials used in Constructing the 
Fawcett Ventilated Fireproofing System. 


Materials 

USED 

IN Floor. 


Wt. of floor material per sq. ft. of surface, for various size beams. 


Materials 

used 
IN Fluor. 


DEPTH IN INCHES. 


4 in. 


5 in. 


6 in. 7 in. 


Sin. 


'"gin. 


10 in. 


12 in. 


Steel Beams 
I.intels 
Concrete 
Wood Floor 
Plastering 


3.7 lbs 
15.0 „ 
20.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 


5.1 lbs 
15.0 „ 
32.5 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 


C.Olbs 
15.0 „ 
39.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 


8.9 lbs 
15.0 „ 
45.5 „ 
3.6 „ 
7.0 „ 


10.5 lbs 
15.0 „ 
52.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 


12.2 lbs 
15.0 ,, 
.58.5 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 


15.5 lbs 
15.0 „ 
05.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 


19.1 lbs 
15.0 „ 
78.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 


Steel Beams 
Lintels 
Concrete 
Wood Floor 
Plastering 


Total Dead 1 
Weight ( 


52.2 „ 


63.1 „ 


71.4 „ 


79.9 „ 


S8.0 „ 


9G.2 „ 'lOG.0 „ 

1 


122.6 „ 


Total Dead 
Weight 


NOTE. The Dead Weight per sq. ft. of surface is calculated lor Concrete 
2 inches above top of Beams. 



Table showing Size of Steel Beams used in the Construction of the 


Fawcett Ventilated F"ireproofing System. 




SPANS IN FEET. 




Live 

Load 

per 

Sq. Ft. 


10 Feet. 


12 Feet. 


14 Feet. 


16 Feet. 


18 Feet. 


20 Feet. 


22 Feet. 


24 Feet. 


26 Feet. 


Live 

Load 

per 

Sq. Ft. 


o. 





s. 






11 


a. 
O 






'5 ^ 


c. 
C 




H. 
Q 


SI J 




5: S. 


iff 


100 lbs. 


41 


6.2 


41 


7.5 


51 


9.2 


51 


10.3 


61 


11.9 


61 


13.9 


71 


15.5 


81 


172 


1 
9120,3 


100 lbs. 


l.'WIbs. 


41 


7 5 


51 


9.2 


61 


11.9 


61 


13.9 


71 


14 4 


71 


17 8 8 1 


18 


91 


20 3 


9124 4 


1.50 lbs. 


■JIKllbs. 


51 


9 2 


51 


10 3 


1 


i;!.o' 7 I 


144 


71 17,8 


81 


18 91 


20 .'i 


lOIi.'i 5 


10 I. TO 


200 lbs. 


250 lbs. 


51 


10.3 


61 


11.9 


71 


14 4 7 1 


15 5 


8 1 17 2 


91 


•JO 3 91 


24 4 


10 1 .'0.0 


10133 1 


2.'.0 lbs. 


300 lbs. 


61 


11.9 


61 


13. OJ 7 I 


15.5 8 I 


17.2 


91 20 3 9 I 


25.1 101 


30.0 12130.6 


12132.0 


300 lbs. 


NOTE.— The above sizes of beams are for the finished floor including concrete 2 inches 


above top of beams, yellow pine flooring, and plastered ceiling. 



WE ALSO FURNISH TERRA-COTTA PARTITIONS, ROOF BLOCKS, FURRING, GIRDER, COLUMN, AND PIPE COVERING. 



ADVANTAGES OF OUR SYSTEM. 

The Only System that provides an Absolutely Scientific Safepard against Fire. 

Adopted by Architects and Engineers on Account of 

1. Fireproof Quality. 4. Strength. 

2. Sanitary Value. 5. Ease and Quickness of 

3. Lightness. Construction. 

6. Cheapness. 

In these 6 Main Advantages The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Floor 
Excels all Other. 



MAIN OFFICE, 

448, 449, 450, and 451 

Philadelphia Bourse, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



Sales Agent for the New England states, JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 TreiTiont BuiIding, BostoH, Mhss. 
Sales Agent for New York. A. J. COFFIN, 412 PresbyteHaii Building, Fifth Ave., New^ York. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



xiu 



C entral Fir epr oofing 
Company, 



HENRY M. KEASBEY, 

President 



Manufacturers 
and 

Contractors 
for 
the 

Erection 
of 

Hollow 

Tile 

and 

Porous 

Terra- 

Cotta 



Fireproofing, 



874 Broadway t New York* 



XIV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



..Established J 856 



HENRY MAURER & SON, 



Manufacturers of 



Fire=Proof Building Materials. 



Floor Arches, 



Partitions, 



Furring, 



Roofing, Etc, 




Porous Tcrra-Cotta 



of all Sizes, 



Flue Linings, 



Etc., Etc. 



"EXCELSIOR" END CONSTRUCTION FLAT ARCH (Patented). 

25 per cent. Stronger and Lighter than any other method. 

Office and Depot, Factories, 

420 EAST 23d STREET, j^^ 

-New York. ^ 



MAURER, N. J. 

On C. R. R. of N. J. 



Philadelphia Office, 18 South 7th Street. 




Boston Fire-Proofing Company, 



D. McINTOSH, Proprietor. 



i66 DEVONSHIRE STREET, 



BOSTON, MASS. 



Fire-Proof 



Building 



Material. 



'< Porous Terra-Cotta stands fire and water." 



UNITED STATES HOTEL EXTENSION. 
VViNSLdw & WETHiiKELL, Arcliilccl!.. Fiit-Proofed by Hoston Fike-Proofinc Co. 
WiiiDDEN & Co., Builders. Plastered by D. McTntosh. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XV 



Pioneer Fire- Proof Construction Company^ 

1545 So. Clark Street, Chicago. 



The Only System 
of 
Fire-Proofing 
Awarded a 
Medal 
and Diploma 




ISOMETRICAL VIEW. 

FLOOR -CONCRETE 



0> 



^vaOMLis 




ruAsrtRiNG^ DETAIL DFI5"ARCH. a 



SECTION OF ARCH. 



Onr Patented Transverse System of Floor Arcli Construction. Made in 9, 10, 12, and 15 incli deptls. 



At the 
WORLD'S 
COLUMBIAN 
EXPOSITION. 



Manufacturers and Contractors for every Description of 

Hollow, Solid and Porous Terra-Cotta 



FOR FIRE-PROOFING BUILDINGS. 




R. C. PENRELD, Prcs't. R. W. LYLE, Sec'y and Mgr. I, A. GREEN, Treas. 

Standard 

Fire-Proofing 

Company. 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Fire-Proofing, Flue Linings, 
Fire Brick, Sewer Pipe, 

Porous Terra-Cotta, 

ORNAMENTAL Building Brick, 

And other Clay Products. 

New York Office, 39 & 4J CORTLANDT ST. 



■ NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY 

FIRE-PROOFING CO. 

FORMERLY LORILLARD BRICK WORKS CO. 

Fire=Proof Building 
Material, Hard= 
Burned Clay and 
Porous Terra=Cotta. 



^ 



HOLLOW BLOCKS, 



For Flat, Elliptical, and Segmen- 
tal Arches of every Description. 



Hollow Clay Ceiling, Hollow Blocks for Partitions, 

Hollow Brick, Fire-Proof Covering for Iron Girders 

and Columns, Hard-Burned and Porous Furring 

Blocks, Hard and Porous Roofing. 

SPECIAL SHAPES AND DESIGNS IN ANY OF THE 
ABOVE MADE TO ORDER AT SHORT NOTICE- 

A LARGE STOCK CONSTANTLY CARRIED. ORDERS FILLED 

PROMPTLY. SHIPMENTS BY RAIL OR WATER. 

PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING, VTCW VAPIT 
156 FIFTH AVE., ilC YY I UlVJV. 

Worlu, LX>RILLARD (Keyport P. O.), N. J. 



XVI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



R. GUASTAVINO CO., 

Fire-proofing. 




Test made under the direction of the Engineering Department, City of Boston, of a 
section of floor in Hercantile Building, 270 Congress Street, Boston. 
Constructed by the Guastavino Fireproofing Co. 



Boston Office: 

444 ALBANY STREET. 



New York Office: 

11 EAST 59th street. 




JOOt !>&■ 






THE 



IBRICKBVILDERi 



i\ OFFICE {R! 

SK WATER ^V! 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN MATERIALS OF CLAY. 

PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscri]3tion price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... J52.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3.50 per year 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THH BRICKBUIl.DHR PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as .Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE IJRICKliUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 

PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT. 
No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The Brickbuilder is published the 20th of each month. 

SOME LE.SSONS OF THE PITTSI5URGH FIRE. 

THE great value of the fire that occurred in Pittsburgh on the 
3d of May as an object lesson to all who are interested in the 
reduction of fire losses in buildings has been attested by the extended 
notices and discussions that have appeared in the architectural 
and technical journals. Some of the technical journals sent special 
representatives to investigate it, who gave more or less correct accounts, 
according to the authorities they consulted. Thk HRiCKiiUiLUiCR was 
the only journal that sent an acknowledged expert in fire-proof con- 
struction to make an unprejudiced report on it, which appeared, fully 
illustrated, in the June number. It was the only report that correctly 
described and illustrated the several methods of construction used in 
the buildings. It was demonstrated that the two buildings most 
severely tested were fire-proofed with systems depending on the use 
of burned clay, and the material of each differed from that of the 
other. It was shown that the integrity of each building was assured 
by its fire-proof interior construction, and that the only parts carried 
down in one of them, involving a large and easily preventable loss, 
were destroyed through ignorance or carelessness in locating and 
supporting a huge water tank, and not through any failure of the fire- 
proofing system employed. Had this not occurred, there is no doubt 
but that all of the brick walls, and the steel work of the floors, roofs, 
ceilings, girders, and columns of both buildings would have been 
preserved. The value of fire-proofing with inirned clay was demon- 
strated to the extent that while it might not in every case save itself, 
it can preserve from loss that which it is put to preserve. 

This fire seems to have brought to the attention of underwriters, 
what is no surprise to any intelligent architect, the fact that if a 



building\loes not collapse the fire has a freer way through the goods 
contained in it. It is only a question of rates on goods with them, 
and does not concern us. If a building is undivided by partitions, 
they must necessarily put a higher rate on the goods; but the 
greatest demonstration has been made in the Jas. Home Department 
Store, that, even though undivided by jjartitions, the building itself 
can stand the fire. They ought to be convinced of a matter in which 
some of them have doubts that fire-proof buildings, well constructed, 
can take care of themselves under all contingencies, and they now 
have some data for estimating what the greatest percentage of loss 
on such buildings can be. The Home Office lUiilding is one which 
best demonstrates the risk in the average of modern fire-proof build- 
ing, and it had two dangerous elements, the exterior exposure and the 
open light court. 

The first lesson to architects and owners, no less than to under- 
writers, is, that if you put a closed tank, in the form of a steel boiler, 
on the top of a building, even though it be placed there to furnish a 
supply of water to extinguish incipient fires, you are handling a very 
dangerous thing. The most improved systems for operating water 
elevators make it imnecessary to put a closed tank on the top of a 
building. Tanks in such places are necessary only where the auto- 
matic sprinkling system is used, and they can always be open tanks, 
built of wood, and supported so that they will tip over in case of fire 
and then do some good. There is no necessity for large tanks for 
ordinary water service, where pumps may be used constantly, or with 
automatic attachments. Another valuable precaution in fire-proof 
buildings, which has been used in some, would be to place a strong 
grill of steel over every elevator, sufficient to arrest the fall of the 
shieves and their supporting beams — which have to be exposed. 



THE value of subdividing buildings by partitions needs no dem- 
onstration ; but this can be done according to a .system, and 
should be part of the original plan of the building. With a slight 
variation from what is considered the most convenient plan, any 
building can be provided with effective vertical fire barriers, and often 
buildings can be divided into sections without impairing the conve- 
nience of their plans. Forty years ago the printing house of Harper 
& Brothers, in New York, was built without an interior stairway or 
elevator, these being placed in towers in a court. There are two 
modern fire-proof buildings in this country which are built on a fire- 
proof plan. They are those of the American Hank Note Engraving 
Company, at New York, and Gore's Fire-proof Hotel, in Chicago. 
Both are built with a long court in the center, and with stairways 
and elevators so separated, being placed at both ends of the court, 
that they do not need fire escapes. In these buildings one half is the 
fire escape for the other half. 

With regard to the details of fire-proofing with burned clay, we 
always have many things to learn as well as many reasons for congrat- 
ulation in the present instance. Clay fire-proofing has to perform two 
offices; one is construction or work, and the other is protection. Pro- 
tection is also sometimes combined with construction. Floors, ceil- 
ings, and roofs are constructions. It has been demonstrated that a 
flat, hollow arch, two cells deep, will support a floor and stop fire 
even when the bottom cell is broken. It has also been demonstrated 
that a beam covered by a one-cell hollow block will be protected 



138 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



when the outside shell of that block falls off. It has been shown 
that a semi-porous tile, when used for a continuous flat arch ceiling, 
will not be flaked off on the bottom, but that it may if used around a 
beam, two sides being exposed. It has been shown that in hard, 
hollow blocks of many cells the exterior shell is likely to be broken 
under any circumstances. The advantage is with the semi-porous 
tile, but the disadvantage is with the shape required for the projec- 
tion of beams. The whole demonstration is that the continuous ceil- 
ing is the safest, especially when semi-porous tiles are used. There 
are some kinds of porous terracotta that will stand any fire-and-water 
test; but there is a difference whether the material is hollow or 
solid. In many cases it is best to use it solid, depending on the non- 
conduction of the material itself. 



T 1 1 1! covering of the heavy steel built-up girders of the Home 
I )epartment Store was effective, and yet it was not by any means 
put on in a workmanlike manner. Large flat tiles of hard fire-clay 
were cramped to the bottoms of the girder, with steel cramps, and 
the sides were covered by 4 in. partition blocks resting on the flange. 
Great risk was taken in leaving the cramps exposed. They must 
have been raised to a white heat, and could not have sustained much 
weight ; but it seems that each was able to keep its tile in place, the 
weight being, probably, not more than 4 lbs. to each cramp. The 
best methods for covering girders heretofore used have been with 
U shaped blocks of porous terra-cotta, extending far enough below the 
girder to support a soflSt tile. Such blocks are firmly held in place 
by the mortar with which they are filled in setting, and partition tiles 
built on them to cover the sides of the girders add to their stability. 

There are, unfortunately, too many Z bar columns in other 
buildings covered as were those in the Home IJepartment .Store. It 
cannot be said that these columns were fire-proofed at all ; 2 in. 
hollow partitions were simply built around them, and left to them- 
selves. This would have been a compliance with the building laws 
of any city that compels all columns to be covered with " fire-proof 
material," providing for "two air spaces of at least I in."; and it 
demonstrates how defective such laws are. The contingencies that 
surround iron columns in any building are many, and have been the 
subject of experiments and inventions of experts for twenty years ; 
but there is surely one principle that should be observed in fire- 
proofing columns, and that is that the material should be 'fastened 
to the steel column. 

The 4 in. semi-porous hollow jjartition tiles used in the Home 
Office Building were effective wherever they were set, so that they 
could stand alone, but most of them were cracked because they were 
built on wooden strips. The tiles did not crack in the walls, and 
were only broken by their fall. In Plate 10, in the June Bkick- 
liUiLDER, is seen the result of using a wooden framework when the 
door is combined with hall partition sashwood. This could be 
avoided by using channel bar .steel frames in such cases. These 
might be warpled somewhat, but would keep the partitions in place. 

The.se criticisms are offered in good part, with the hope that 
they may be of some benefit to those concerned in the fireproof- 
ing of buildings with burned clay. They show that the buildings in 
question are not the best that have been done. We have seen that 
buildings as a whole can be saved by fire-proofing; but the fire- 
proofer cannot only protect constructions of steel, but preserve his 
own work, if he studies and profits by experience. It is his interest 
to demonstrate that the saving from the loss by fire shall commence 
with his own materials and workmanship, and unquestionably this is 
possible with burned clay properly used. He has nothing to do with 
what comes after him, and is not expected to insure the goods placed 
in a building. He cannot always do as he wants to, and the archi- 
tect may ask him to put his work where he knows it will not stay ; 
but our architects can also profit by experience, and will not fail to 
heed the lessons of the hour. The model for a /iie-proof buildint; 
should be, as Mr. Keed says, a good stove that can be used many 
times, and not requiring a new lining every time that it is fired up. 



THK report of S. Albert Keed, I'h. D., Manager of the Tariff 
Association of New York, on the Pittsburgh fire, published 
in Eni^ineerin^ Record, is a very interesting and truthful statement, 
full of valuable suggestions to underwriters that will doubtless be 
heeded. We may therefore expect to see in the near future such an 
adjustment of rates as will tend to exert a corrective influence upon 
some of the neglected details of fire-proof buildings. We are glad 
to .see that Mr. Reed agrees with our expert in nearly every particu- 
lar. He differs, however, in his theory of the direct cause of the 
falling of the water tank in the Home Department Store. He gives 
great stress to the fact that the roof beams supporting the X irons 
and book tiles were not fire-proofed, and that the upper ends of the 
Z bar columns of the sixth story passing through the blind attic 
were not covered with tile. This was undoubtedly a case of neglect, 
yet the blind attic was cut off by tile bulkheads around the skylight. 
He thinks that these fell out, and that the weakness of the roof let 
down the tank, the roof falling first. This supposes that the tank 
rested on the roof, which no ordinary constructor would allow. As 
the roof did not fall around the light shaft where the tile bulkhead 
fell out, it must be presumed that the bulkheads of the elevators 
and light shaft were dislodged by the shock of the tank falling through 
the roof. The suspended ceiling proved to be sufficient to stop the 
fire everywhere else and saved three fifths of the roof. Hence it 
would have been a barrier to protect all the uncovered steel under 
the roof if the tank had not fallen. It was undoubtedly the fire 
that rushed out over the elevators and stairway that weakened the 
supports of the tank, whatever they were. 

.Mr. Reed has a higher opinion of the column and girder cover- 
ing u.sed than Mr. Wight. The following sentences from his report 
show its drift : — 

" The skeleton as it stands is not out of line or plumb. ICxcept 
for the fatal omission of protection to roof supports the skeleton 
protection of this building was an unusually good piece of work, 
and it did its task successfully and well, mainly because it was 
good and thorough. It is important to state that such good column 
and girder protection is the exception in the Metropolitan District of 
New York." 

" The question of skeleton protection I consider as settled by 
this fire. With good protection the skeleton may absolutely be re- 
lied upon to stand even a conflagration." 



ILLUSTRATED ADVKKTISEMENTS. 

IN the advertisement of Fiske. Homes & Co., page vii, is illus- 
trated a new design for a fireplace mantel by J. A. Schwein- 
furth, architect. This company has recently had prepared, by several 
well-known architects, a series of designs for fireplace mantels in 
brick and terra-cotta, that are of unusual merit in the matter of 
design and construction, and it is their purpose to show a different 
style in each issue of The Ukickhuilder. 

In the advertisement of R. (iuastavino. page xvi, is shown a 
view of the test recently conducted under the supervision of the 
Kngineering Department, city of Boston, of a section of tiuastavino 
floor in the new building at 270 Congress Street, Boston. 

The terra-cotta entrance to the Union Trust Building, St. Louis, 
Louis H. Sullivan, architect, is shown in the advertisement of the 
Winkle Terra-Cotta Company, page xi. 

.\ very decorative terra-cotta capital, designed by Hoppin & 
Kohen, architects, is illustrated in the advertisement of the New 
Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, page viii. 

In the advertisement of the Bolles Sliding and Revolving Sash 
Company, page xl, is illustrated the new American Baptist Publish- 
ing Building at Philadelphia, Penn., Hales & Ballinger, architects. 

The new public school building at Dobbs ^"erry, .New York, 
C. Powell Karr, architect, is illustrated in the advertisement of 
Charles T. Harris, Lessee, Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, page 
xxviii. 

A residence in brick and terra-cotta, by Green & Wicks, 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



139 



architects, is publislied in connection with the advertisement of the 
Harbison & Walker Company on page xxx. 

On page 160 the I'hiladelpliia & ISoston Face Brick Company 




TEURA-COTTA PANEL. 
Executed by the New \'ork Architectural Terra-Cott.i Company. 

illustrate another of their series of handsomely designed brick 
mantels. 



WE have received the " National Electrical Code," printed by 
the National Board of Fire Underwriters, the preparation 
of which is the result of the united efforts of the various electrical, 
insurance, architectural, and allied interests which have, through a 
national conference composed of delegates from nine of the lead'ng 
architectural, engineering, and insurance societies, pre.sented these 
rules for adoption by the various governing boards throughout the 
country. The effort to systematize and regulate the constantly 
changing practise in regard to electrical wiring is highly commend- 
able, and the results embodied in this code represent the state of the 
science at the present time. Probably no Ijranch of building in- 
dustry has expanded so extensively within the last few years as has 
electrical science, and the rapidity of its growth has repeatedly out- 
distanced the municipal regulations so that it has several times 
happened that what was considered first-class work at one time 
would not be tolerated three years later. The effort to have things 
right which is manifested by this code certainly deserves every en- 
couragement. 

ARCHITECTS' AND BUILDERS' DIRECTORIES. 

WE have had .sent to our table two recently published directo- 
ries of architects and builders, one embracing the State of 
Connecticut, and published by the Record Publishing Company, of 
New Haven, Conn., and the other embracing the .State of Wisconsin, 
and published by the Builders' and Traders' Exchange, of Milwaukee. 
This latter work is made especially interesting by the incorporation 
into its make-up of many pages devoted to the consideration of 
questions which arise in connection with the building business, such 
as Mechanics' Lien Laws, Rules and Conditions for Estimating Work, 
Hints to Contractors, Information for Masons, Laws relating to 
Buildings, Plumbing, Sewerage and Sanitary Laws, and other matter 
of value to architects, builders, and contractors, the whole work hav- 
ing been compiled by W. II. McElroy, Manager of the Exchange. 



Brick versus Wood. I. 

BY R. CLIPSTON STURGIS. 

IN the following articles I propose to treat briefly, first, the advan- 
tages of brick over wood ; second, the adaptability of brick to 
all circumstances of climate and all classes of buildings; and third, 
a consideration of the means for promoting the more general use of 
brick. 

In this article, then, I will consider the diuability, economy, and 
beauty of brick as compared with wood. For one who understands 
the possibilities of brickwork, it is difficult to see why it is so often 
passed over as a building material and wood chosen instead. It can 
be only ignorance which will lead to such a result. There seems to 
be a prevalent idea that brick is very well in the cities, where, indeed, 
one must use it, but that wood is the right and proper material for 
suburban or country houses. 

This is, indeed, a natural position to be taken by a primitive 
people, or a people who are painfully and with labor settling a new 
country. With them the timber which surrounds them, and which 
must be cleared to permit tillage of the soil, does, indeed, present 







r^r^i 






ST. AMiAN S AliliEY. 

itself as the natural material of which to build. Such'a people were 
we when this country was first settled, and as, perforce, we then built 
of wood, gradually we evolved from the new surroundings and the 
necessities of wood construction a style quite essentially our own — 
the classic of the Renaissance reproduced in wood. 

But we were not a primitive people even then, and we do not 
now live in a primitive country ; wood is no longer the natural mate- 
rial which comes first to hand. Neither our spruce nor oiu- pine 
grows now at our door. Even for a country house in Berkshire, or 
Mt. Desert, the material for a wooden house will largely come from 
far. 

The wooden colonial house of New England was beautiful in 
its own way, and was a natural and lovely outgrowth of necessity, 
but the l)rick colonial house is quite as beautiful in itself and much 
more in keeping with our life and civilization. The brick house 



140 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



to-day. as the wood in primitive times, is the fitting and proper 
house. It is more durable: it is — partly because of its durability — 
more economical, and admits of a wider range in things beautiful. 




liROWN & m'KKKLL lil'ILDINO, BOSTON. 
W'inslow Sl Wctlicrcll, Artliilccls. 

because a permanent material has in itself elements of l)eauty which 
a perishable material can never have. 

For the three reasons of durability, economy, and beauty, we 
should certainly think twice when we are planning to build before 
■ we accept wood as the best material for our house. 

F"irst, brick is more durable than wood. It will stand dampness; 
it will stand heat. A brick, although more or less porous, is not 
injured by being expo.sed to damp. Kven the .severe test of alter- 
nate wet and freezing will not disintegrate brick (as it will many kinds 
of stone). 

It is true that dampness must not be allowed to penetrate a wall 
to the inside, but precautions which will prevent this are so simple 
as to make the disadvantages of this hardly worth considering. 

Nor is it subject to destruction by fire. It has come to perfection 
in the heat of the kiln, and is better adapted than any other material 
to stand the test of extreme heat 
and sudden cooling with water. Few 
stones will bear this. And if stone 
hardly bears comparison with brick 
on these two point.s, how much less 
does wood, which rots when exposed 
to damp and burns when exposed to 
fire. Wood will rot from damp ; it 
will rot from lack of air. It will 
burn. It is not as good a non-con- 
ducting partition, even when in per- 
fect preservation, as a vaulted brick 
wall. It has no permanency. Every- 
thing tends to wipe away from re- 
membrance all memorials of an age 
of wood. 

Where are all the fine old 
colonial houses of Boston, which 
once were its glory ? Gone I Some 
to make way for modern buildings : 
more fallen in decay and in the lap 
of devouring flames. What an in- 
describable loss it is to us that so 
many of our buildings, historic now, 
and ever becoming more so, are so 
often mere frame buildings, subject 
to decay, an easy prey to fire. The jiity of it 
it now. 



We may be thankful that the walls of Independence Hall, and 
of the Old .State House of Mas.sachusett.s, and of Faneuil Hall, are of 
brick ; and it would have been well today if the ornament and out- 
side finish of those buildings had also been of 
imperLshable material, instead of wood. 

It is not, however, because men think wood 
especially durable that it is so often advocated. 
The general plea is economy. Now, a material 
which is perishable must be very cheap indeed if 
it is economical in the long run as comiiared with 
its more durable substitute. A suit of clothes 
which with three months' wear is faded and worn 
must be cheap indeed to be as economical as one 
which will wear as many years and yet hold its 
color and its texture. 

In the case in point the wood building is not 
by any means sufficiently cheap to bear compari- 
son with its durable brick counterpart. For the 
saving lies wholly in the outside walls, that is, those 
that are above grade. The foundations for an 
ordinary house, for example, would be the same 
in either case, and the cost of the outside walls is, 
after all, not such a very large portion of the total 
cost. The foundations, the inside carpentry, 
floors, stairs, doors, windows, and finish, the plas- 
tering and plumbing, are not affected by the material of the outside 
walls, and the painting and heating, if affected at all, are in the di- 
rection of a reduction for the brick-walled house. It is on the walls 
only that the cost comes, and on these it might make a difference of 
eighteen or twenty dollars for every hundred square feet of wall. 
One can easily calculate what this would amount to on any given 
house. On one of tolerable size and cost it would probably be not 
more than five per cent, of the total cost. 

And as an offset to this, one has a yearly saving in repairs and 
insurance. — this on the hard cash side; and then the comfort — not 
to be reckoned in dollars and cents, but worth dollars and cents not- 
withstanding — of feeling that one is well housed in a house that will 
endure, that protects you from winter's cold and summer's sun — as 
the wood will not — and that will outlive your day and perchance 
cover your children's children, and yet, again, their children. There 




iKKsics, i:i;dford I'Ark, LONnoN. 

R, N. .Shaw, Architect. 



For we cannot help 



is something in that not to be overlooked and yet difficult to reckon: 
that love for the old homestead which comes only through long years 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



141 



of possession, which, in turn, breeds love for one's own town, for one's 
own State, for one's own country — the best and purest patriotism, 
which has its roots deep down in the home. 

It remains only to show that brick is essentially more beautiful 




I'ALAZZO COMUNALIL, I'lACENZA. 

than wood, and tiien, I think, we shall have a fairly strong case for 
the brick house. 

This is, of course, the hardest point to really prove ; indeed, we 
might call it impossible of proof, for even those most competent to 
judge might differ. 1 will therefore only say why it seems to me that 
brick is a more beautiful building material than wood. 

First, then, because after it has got the stamp from man's hand 
which shows it to be man's handiwork, and therefore fit and suitable 
for his needs, thereafter it is never touched again by aught but 
Nature's hand, which softens its rough or its too fine edges, covers 
it with bloom and beauty, and makes it year by year more lovely, 
until even in its decay and ruin (generally wrought by man) it is 
lovely yet. Look at the ruins of the Roman baths, Tattershall 
Castle, or that grand old tower of St. Albans. There are ruins 
which are beautiful, and good old stalwart brickwork, lovely in 
its age. 

Now you cannot leave woodwork alone and yet have it preserve 
its usefulness. If left to weather and to be treated by Nature's 
hand, it does, indeed, become lovely. What more lovely in color and 
texture than a weather-stained board or shingle, or a water-washed 
or worn plank? But it is no longer fit for work. It is either not 
sound, or not tight, or not strong. No ! we must protect our wood 
from the weather and keep it with oil or white lead, or else be con- 
stantly renewing it. Our house, then, always looks spic and span — • 
nice enough in its way — or else shabby and disreputable. 

It is the old story,;our house is best when new ; it doesn't improve 
with age ; it must be constantly renewed to keep its value. lUit our 
brick house is worst when new, and grows yearly better and better. 
That is the kind of investment that I like, and that is one reason 
why I find it more beautiful. 



The second reason is that it is a material which allows, and 
indeed demands, that its construction shall show. The wooden 
skeleton, the frame, is covered and protected, outside to keep out the 
weather, inside to cover its ugliness; but the brick-builder glories in 
his ijrick, and he finds in the necessary constructional bonding a 
chance for beautifying his wall, in his arches again an opportunity, 
in the vaults again another, and he need not be ashamed to show his 
brick wall inside. On this side of the case the constructional beau- 
ties of brick as a material might go on indefinitely. I trust I have 
said enough to at least set others thinking, even if I have not carried 
conviction. 

As illustrations I would refer to Westover, in Virginia, a famil- 
iar but always lovely example of the best sort of colonial work. 
The tower of St. Albans (a sketch of which is given), dating back to 
1200, now flanked by Gothic nave and nineteenth century additions 
which look almost trivial beside this massive old tower. The town 
hall of Piacenza, in brick and terra-cotta, and the apse of the church 
of the Frari in Venice, which has previously appeared in Tiik 
Brickbuildkr, as examples of the ornate and the simple brickwork 
of Italy; and as similar contrasting examples in modern work, Mc- 
Kim"s elaborate fac^ade of the Century Club and VVetherell's quiet 
warehouse for Brown & Durrell, both excellent examples, and hard 
to beat in their way ; and, finally, some very modest English work. 




CENTURY CLUIi, NEW YORK CITY. 

McKiin, Mead iK: Wliite, Architects. 

the lovely old P^manuel Hospital, at Westminster, now, I believe, 
swept away for modern improvements, and one of Norman Shaw's 
little houses in Bedford Park, a subiul) of London, which owes 
nearly all its interest to what Shaw has done for it. 



It would be difficult to give stronger evidence 6f the intrinsic 
effect of a good colored inaterial than is afforded by the fact that 
designs so really ignorant in their architcctiual detail as most of the 
buildings of the time of William III. and (2ueen .'\nne .should, never- 
theless, have a certain charm for us, solely derived from the beautiful 
color of the bricks with which they are built. — Street. 



142 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Architectural Terra-Cotta. 

BY THOMAS CUSACK. 

{Coitlinued.) 

Tl 1 !•; advantage of jointing terra-cotta into reasonably large 
blocks received passing notice in the concluding paragraph 
of last article ; but what constitutes a block of reasonable size is a 
question that was not, and, indeed, cannot be stated in the abstract. 
Within extreme limits, the size would depend upon its shape, the 
character of the work, and the situation it has to occupy when 
it reaches the building. One block contains, say, 240 cu. ins., 
another over 28 cu. ft., yet in both cases the size has been de- 
termined by the foregoing circumstances, without reference to the 
fact that one is but a two-hundredth part of the other, weighing 10 
and 2,000 lbs. respectively. We have recently seen some excellent 
blocks of the latter size made and burned with complete succe.ss. 
These, we admit, were exceptionally large, but they .served to prove 
what it is possible to do in this direction under favorable conditions 
as to shape, and in situations where large blocks are really necessary. 
Some manufacturers err in their indiscriminate advocacy of small 
blocks, forgetting that there 
are other things besides size 
to be considered. As it is 
always the poor workman 
who {|uarrels with his tools, 
so it is the poor terra-cotta 
maker who resorts to inor- 
dinately small blocks as a 
desperate remedy for ills 
that are otherwise, and at 
times, easily preventable. 
Degenerate types of the 
human family show a ten- 
dency to get back to bar- 
barism, as an escape from 
the duties of advanced civi- 
lization. In a similar way 
do those who get behind in 
the well-contested race of 
architectural clay-working 
fall back upon less exacting 
forms, until they reach their 
level in the primitive sim- 
plicity of a brick. In the 
face of all that may be said 
to the contrary, we repeat 
that to joint work into need- 
lessly small pieces is nol the 
alpha and omega of archi- 
tectural terra-cotta making. 

The actual size of a I'lG. 

block in cubic inches has no 

meaning unless accompanied by the (jualifying conditions that have 
just been referred to. Its relative proportions, and whether it could 
be molded on the widest dimension, as distinguished from the end or 
side, are among the technical things that an experienced terracotta 
maker would want to know before venturing an opinion. There is no 
formula by which even an approximate size may be fixed that would 
hold good in all cases. The nearest approach to one may, perhaps, 
be embodied in the following proposition. Let it be laid down as an 
abiding desideratum : First. That the block shall not crack in dry- 
ing, and, having been burned at a high temperature, that it remains 
sound on all sides. Second. That its lines be practically true 
(they need not be mathematically so), its surfaces free from warping, 
and its shape as correct as the plaster model from which the mold- 
was made. Third. That the maximum variation from exact size re- 
quired shall not exceed one eighth of an inch in a block of, say, 3 ft.. 




the same ratio being maintained in those of smaller dimensions. 
We would then say, let the rule be to make blocks as lars^e as prac- 
ticable, subject to the forei^oiiii^ conditions. 

It will be observed, however, that this rule is somewhat elastic 
for the size of our block, if not altogether an unknown, is, as yet. an 
extremely variable quantity. So it is, and so it must remain. Just 
what would be considered a practicable size might, in a measure, 
depend upon the color that had been selected, clays of different 
colors being more or less stable, and more or less tractable in their 
behavior. Account would likewise have to be taken of the plant 
and appliances to hand for drying and handling the blocks after they 
had been turned out of the mold. Hut these and other things being 
precisely equal, most of all would depend upon the skill, experience, 
forethought, and unceasing watchfulness of the man (or men) under 
whose direction the work is made. In like manner, but in a lesser 
degree, an important item towards success or failure must be charged 
to the account of carey"«/ or care/fjj handling. This would apply to 
every man through whose hands the blocks had to pass, from 
pressers to kiln setters. Thus does the actual result rest directly, 
and almost entirely, on an individual and distinctly personal basis. 
The form, finish, and degree of mechanical excellence in every block 

reflects the personnel of the 
J-l men engaged in its produc- 
tion. 

Let it be understood, 
once and for all, that in this 
department of terra-cotta 
making there is little, if any, 
room for automatic ma- 
chinery. The only mechan- 
ism available for work of 
this kind is the head and 
hands — • perchance the heart 
— of an individual man, or 
number of men. Not only 
does it represent the individ- 
ual effort of mind and body 
acting upon matter, but every 
block of it becomes inten.sely 
human in all the excellencies 
or defects of its manipula- 
tion. As one man differs 
from another in intellect, 
training, and force of will, 
so does his work differ in 
accuracy, finish, and relia- 
bility. What is true of in- 
dividuals is equally true of 
organized bodies ; and the 
(luality of their work in the 
aggregate will carry with it 
>6. the indelible impress of their 

organization, as well as of 
their individuality. This is why the work of particular firms may be 
recognized in most cases by its unerring ear-marks. Whether viewed 
in a spirit of comparison or of contrast, the observant critic finds 
little difficulty in tracing its origin, or in forming a fairly accurate 
estimate of the men entrusted with the making of it. 

Most of these observations apply to the making of terra-cotta 
in general ; but some of them have a significant bearing on the 
matter now in hand, which has to do with the construction of heavy 
cornices. In work of this kind large blocks, though, perhaps, not 
alwavs absolutely necessary, often become of vital importance. The 
extra size required is, in a measure, compensated by the nature of 
the situation; and it in turn makes the conditions of manufacture 
less exacting, therefore more favorable to the production of large 
pieces. The reasons why this is so were given with sufficient detail 
in connection with Figs. 23 and 24. But in Fig. 26, where we have 



«^ iW- 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



H3 



a cornice of much greater weight and projection to deal with, the 
same considerations hold good. The projection in this case is 3 ft. 
6 ins., with i ft. inside the wall line. Tlie modillions are spaced, 
some on 2 ft. 10 in., and some 
on 3 ft. 2 in., centers ; and as 
the spacing determines the 
length of the pieces, their di- 
mensions averaged 4 ft. 6 ins. 
by 3 ft. by i ft. sH ins., which 
is equal to 19 cu. ft., and 
would weigh about 1,200 lbs. 

It may not be out of place 
to mention that these blocks 
were used on the new Astoria 
Hotel, 34th Street and Fifth 
Avenue, New York City (Fig. 
27), where one hundred and fifty 
of them were required for the 
cornice at the twelfth story. 
Not one of these blocks being 
in any way defective when taken 
from the kiln, the original 
number was shipped, and set in 
the building without misadven- 
ture. For one of them s^jj; 
Fig. 28. Several mitres — 
some of them being both in- 
ternal and external — - of still 
greater size were made at the 
same time with equal success. 
Their dimensions were 5 ft. i 
in. by 3 ft. 1 1 ins. by i it S'A 
ins., and the weight close upon 
a ton. Even with these, the 
limit as to size did not appear 
in sight, if we except the door 
into kiln, which was only large 
enough to receive them without 
any room to .spare. These 
blocks, be it observed, conformed 
to the conditions just laid down 
as the governing factor ; 
whether it be in the absence of cracks, true- 
ness of line, or accuracy of shape. 

We now turn to the scheme of construc- 
'tion which, having been approved by the 
architect, and accepted by the engineers, 
was carried out exactly as shown in Fig. 26. 
The chief advantage in the use of two L's in- 
stead of an inverted tee is that it allows the 
hangers by which the modillions are secured 
to pass up between them. This furnishes a 
ready means of adjusting the modillions to 
line, by giving a few turns to the tension 
nut. The cantilevers so formed are thus 
made to act in a dual capacity ; in suspend- 
ing the weight of the work below, and sup- 
porting the much greater weight of that 
which rests on top of them. The strength 
of the modillions is greatly increased by the 
pipe — or, better still, bar of iron — that is 
passed through them before the chambers 
have been filled with concrete. The ends, 
being shaped to fit into the 8 in. continuous 
channel, makes them less dependent upon the 
hangers, which, however, it is well to have in 
case of accidents. This channel is brack- 
eted to the outer end of floor beams,"'and 




acts as a fulcrum to the cantilevers, the ends of which are similarly 
secured to short pieces of channel introduced between the floor beams. 
The whole weight is in this way transmitted to the [6 in. I beam on 

which the floors rest, and it 
is really part of the struc- 
tural framing between the 
columns. 

We would call atten- 
tion to the metal covering on 
the top surface, which we 
consider a wise precaution. 
It is not that a single l)lock 
of this cornice really needs 
protection on its own ac- 
count ; unprotected it would 
certainly outlast the copper. 
The vulnerable point in all 
work of this kind is not 
necessarily inherent in the 
blocks, but in the joints be- 
tween them. The mortar or 
cement is liable to wear out ; 
and the repointing, which 
should be done every five 
years, is usually neglected 
altogether. This allows the 
water to gain access to the 
iron, and when that occurs, 
we fear it is then only a 
question of, — how long be- 
fore it perishes .'' 



I 



FIG. 27. 



ASTORIA HOTEL, 34TH STREET AND FIFTH AVENUE, NEW 
YORK CITY. 
H. J. Hardenljergh, .Architect, 




URICK rORCTiES 
AND FENCES. 

T is remarkable what 
very ornate porches 
may be constructed by a 
judicious selection of brick. 
We have seen entrances to 
mansions built entirely of 
this material that far out- 
weigh in grandeur and cheerfulness the pon- 
derous stone columns that would appear to 
be indispensable to the building of many of 
our country mansions. In fact we have seen 
a red i)rick porch added to an old farmhouse 
built of stone, that, far from looking incon- 
gruous, was a decided attraction. 

For fences there is nothing better than 
bricks. Pretty well any quality of brick can 
be used, and it is the only form of fence that 
age does not wither nor time decay. Where 
wood fences are used there is always the 
rotting of the foundations to contend with, 
and much necessary painting or tarring to be 
done to the superstructure. Architects do 
not sufficiently know what lasting walls can 
be made by cast-off bricks, and what added 
charm is given to a house when lichen and 
creeper have added their finishing touches. — 
///(■ liyillsh Ih-iii;l>iiildcr. 



FIG. 28. 



With tliis issue, the continuation of 
Choi-sy's " The Art of Building among the 
Romans" is resumed. This work will now be 
published in successive numbers initii com- 
pletion, recjuiring probably four. 



144 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Art of Building among the 
Romans. 

Translated from the French of Augustk Choisy by Arthur J. 

Dillon. 



CHAPTER 111. 

CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD. 

GKNERAL REMARKS ON THE METHODS IN USE 

AMONG THE ROMANS. 

( Continued.') 

IN these modern works, the squared timbers are frequently super- 
seded by round ones, and the cleats by withes or cords. This 
elementar)' method of fastening was al.so much u.sed by the Romans; 
or, at least, this may be deduced from the text where V'itruvius de- 
scribes how ceilings imitating vaults should be constructed by means 
of poles firmly bound with slender stalks of flexible wood ; and this 
is also brought out in the description the same author gives of the 
construction of caissons used in laying concrete under water.' 

Of ancient wooden bridges there are really but two examples ; 
the bridge over the Danube, built by Trajan at the time of his expe- 
dition against the Dacians, and the bridge over the Rhine, built by 
Cifsar, to facilitate 
the incursions of the 
Roman armies into 
(Germany. 

The bridge across 
the Rhine has been so 
often reconstructed, 
according to Ciesar's 
description, that to at- 
tempt still another 
restitution of it would be but to add 
one more disputable hypothesis to 
those which so many illustrious ar- 
ehitects have vainly attempted. 
L. B. Alberti, I'alladio, Scammozzi, 
have tried to interpret the text, and 
their efforts have only ser\-ed to 

show the difficulties of the question ; all agree that the platform 
rested on beams whose ends were fastened between two piles : but 
their agreement stops here. As soon as it is a (|uestion of the de- 
tails of the structures, of that method of assemblage which, accord- 
ing to the expression of Ca-sar, was strengthened by the effort of 
the current, one finds as many opinions as there are translators. It 
is sufficient to mention these numerous attempts ; all seem very im- 
perfect, but it is much easier to perceive their imperfections than to 
correct their errors. 

As for the liridge over the Danube, the difficulties of its restora- 
tion are of an entirely different nature; for here it is a question of 
interpreting a strictly conventional view, which is almost as vague as 
the representations of the monuments in the landscapes of Pompeii, 
and which recalls only by a few characteristic traits the aspect of a 
Roman bridge.-' Figure 95 gives the most important details shown 
on the bas-relief of Trajan's Column.-' 

' Caissons of beams fastened with withes ( Vitr., Lib. V., cap. 12. ). 

Imitations of vaults made by means of curved panels of wood with ligatures, keys, 
and plastering (Vitr., Lib. VII., cap. 3. Cf. Pall., de re rust., Lib. I., cap. i.i ; Vitr. 
compend., cap. 21). 

2 Many critics have even thought, through f.iiih in Dion Cassius (Kpit., Lib. LXVI II., 
13), that the bridge shown on Trajan's Column is in no way a representation of that over 
the Danube; the latter, according to them, was entirely of stone. But this is a question of 
no interest to us; it suffices that the bridge shown on the column is a Roman type of bridge. 
Nevertheless, we may note that in representing the Danube bridge to be of wood, the bas- 
relief agrees with an engraving of a medal in the National Library, where are to be seen the 
three distinct arches as well as the ties that bind them together; the medal shows these ties 
vertical, while in the bas-relief they converge, and this is the only noticeable difference be- 
tween the two figures. 

3 The tinted jiarts in Fig. 95 are those [shown in the bas-relief ; the restorations are 
shown in outline only. 




FIG. 95. 



Three concentric arches form the active part of a truss ; these 
arches are bound together by ties that extend up to the level of the 
platform, holding the string pieces and supporting the flooring. 
Above the piers, the platform is carried on trestles. Such is the 
I lidge reduced to its essential parts. As to the accessory pieces, 
cross-braces or others, the maker of the bas-relief has left us in igno- 
rance ; this omission is permissible in a figure meant only to fix 
the place of an event ; but it is to be regretted that it leaves so large 
a field open to conjecture. The arches, in the bas-relief, have no 
abutment, and it is ditilicult to understand the cross-bracing between 
the trestles ; I have prolonged the arches to their meeting with the 
piers, and have considered the cross-brace between the trestles as 
continued to the level of the platform. These were, it seemed to 
me, the least changes that could be made in order to make the bas- 
relief of Trajan's column practicable : and everywhere else 1 have 
conformed to the model. The bas-relief leaves the question of the 
material of the arches entirely unanswered. It is clear, however, 
that these large pieces were built up of small beams ; it can even be 
said that their construction recalls that of the corner posts of the 
towers of attack previously described. It was Apollodorus that 
described them, and it is .Apollodorus who is thought to be the 
architect of the Uridge of Trajan.^ But here positive evidence be- 
gins to become scarce, and to go into a more extended discussion 
would only lead to hypotheses which seem at the best useless. 

These few exam- 
ples, some borrowed 
from modern construc- 
tion, will, I believe, 
help by analogy to a 
conception of the tem- 
porary framing, the 
scaffolding and cen- 
tering whose economi- 
cal construction so greatly preoccupied the Roman builders. 
They economized in material, thanks to their ingenious combina- 
tions of posts, masts and arches built up of small pieces, and they 
saved labor by reducing, as it were, all assembling to that where 
keys, or dowels, and strips of wood, withes and ligatures of rope 
are used for the joints. 

Furthermore, whatever may have been the character of its 
applications, whether temporary or permanent, the art of framing 
was subject, to the same extent as the other branches of architecture, 
to the entirely local influences of resource and of traditions.^ 

Roman Egypt, as well as the Egypt of the Pharaohs, seems to 
have been devoted to the use, for building timber, of long stems, 
interlaced or held together by bonds of rushes (.Strab., ed. Cas., 
p. 76S and 822). 

.\frica, at the time of Sallust, had an entirely distinct type of 
roofing, which recalled in appearance the hull of an overturned 
vessel, and which seemed the result of the effort to avoid the effects 
of the winds of the desert (Sail., Jug., cap. iS). 

In Colchis, and without doubt in Arcadia, it was the use of 
round pieces, such as those used in the cottages in the Alps today, 
that regulated the entire system of framing (Pausan., Arcad., cap. 
10; Vitr., Lib. II,, cap. i ). 

In Lycia the wooden buildings, made of panels interrupted at 
fretpient intervals by strings of strong horizontal pieces, and cov- 
ered by roofs of saplings, seemed to hold a middle place between 
the ordinary buildings and those with solid walls of horizontal trunks 
of Cholchis (see for the sculptures showing these constructions, the 
works of MM. Texier and Fellows). 

In the Orient, at the extreme limits, or even beyond the fron- 
tiers, of the Empire, we find that the chief characteristic was the 
use of forked posts, from which came that type of the bifurcated 
columns that are so numerous in the ruins of Persepolis. 

-♦ Procop., de Adif., Lib, IV,, cap, 6. 

5 I am indebted to M. Viollet-le-Duc for ha\ing called my attention to these local char- 
acteristics of ancient framing. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



145 




THKRMliS DK CARACALLA. 
PLATE XII. THE ART OF BUILDING AMONG THE ROMANS. 



146 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



finally we come, in the midst of the forests that covered the 
soil of Gaul, or the country of the Marcomans or of the Dacians. to 
the masses of tree trunks, piled up in layers, sometimes mixed with 
rough or hewn stone, forming entrenchments, piers of bridges, forti- 
fications on the banks of rivers — all that series of strange structures 
whose spirit is shown us in " C;rsar's Commentaries " and in the bas- 
reliefs on the columns of Trajan and of Antonius. and whose tradi- 
tion has been preserved in Switzerland down even to the present 
time. 1 must limit myself, however, to the mention only of this 
variety of forms and methods, as well as of the double influence of 
local customs and natural resources. which justifies it in our eyes, and 
which made it inevitable among the ancient peoples. 

KKVIICW OK THE MICTHODS Ol' OROANIZ ATION OK liUII-DING 
OPERATIONS. 

We finish here the examination of the methods of Roman con- 
struction ; we have studied them in turn in the monuments built of 
concrete, in those of cut stone, and, as far as possible, in those of 
wood ; we have separated and presented individually each of the 
parts of an ancient edifice; it is now the time to bring the.se ele- 
ments together, to 
show them put 
into practice, and 
to indicate, at least 
by one example, 
the spirit of organ- 
ization that ruled 
the great enter- 
prises of construc- 
tion. The practical 
art of the ancients 
was not, in fact, a 
simple comliination 
of methods united 
by a community 
of princ i p 1 e s : 
along with and 
above individual 
methods, the 
Romans introduced 
certain ideas of sa- 
gacious discipline 
which sta m p e d 
their great architectural enterprises with the mark of that order and 
regularity which their political geaius gave to the whole administra- 
tion of the Empire. In a word, the Roman art of building was a 
matter of organization, and it is under this new aspect that we must 
now consider it. The Coliseum seems the building whose analysis 
will throw the clearest light on the general principles, so we will de- 
scribe it both in relation to the organization of the workyards and 
to the general progress of the work. 

I'late XXII. gives a section along one of the radiating galleries 
of the Coliseum ; the different tints show the different materials ; 
the stones whose surface .shows in a lighter tint against the more 
deeply colored background of the filling are blocks of travertine ; 
the other stones are of a more common material, the compact vol- 
canic tufa which, under the name of " peperin," is (juarried at several 
points of the Roman Campagna. 

The travertine is only employed, as can be seen, for tlie heads 
of the walls and for two intermediate piers— M and N — intended, 
without a doubt, to sustain heavy constructions, of which the idea 
was afterwards abandoned. 

Without stopping to question what role the piers of travertine 
play, or were intended to play, in the edifice, we will note only their 
construction. Their courses bond, course for course, exactly with 
the courses of the filling. Hut this is not at all true for the heads of 
the walls, A and B. The courses of these pilaster-like heads run 
with the courses of the walls they terminate in the most incomplete, 




the most irregular, one might almost say, the most awkward manner. 
I show, in order to make the contrast more evident, the two cases of 
bonding; the first figure, Fig. 97, shows the imperfect bond between 
the heads and the walls : the other, Fig. 98, the regular bonding of 
the walls of tufa with the piers of travertine built in them. 

i\t the first glance one is .shocked by this so apparent incon- 
gruity ; but closer examination finds in it an indication of one of 
those artifices of organization which the Romans introduced so 
happily into their great enterprises in order to simplify the progress 
and make it both surer and more orderly. 

Evidently the disaccordance of the courses of the heads and 
the body of the wall cannot be justified by taking for its exiilana- 
tion only the difference of materials and the difficulty of t|uarrying 
the stone of Tivoli in blocks of the same height as the stone of 
Gabies or of Albano ; the same difficulty would have existed in the 
bonding of the walls with piers such as M and N, which divided 
them. Yet, between the courses of the piers of travertine and of 
the walls of tufa, there can be seen. (as we said above) none of those 
interruptions of continuity, none of those singular breaks: why then 
were they admitted, one might say purposely multiplied, in one case, 

and so carefully 



avoided and en- 
tirely proscribed in 
the other ? The 
courses are not 
more regular in the. 
heads than else- 
where, but their 
4 heights are differ- 
ent ; only a few in- 
significant bond 
stones run into the 
filling of tufa; al- 
most in every case 
these bonds cut the 
courses of the fill- 
ing midway in their 
height, and chance 
only seems to have 
brought about the 
rare cases of ac- 
cordance. .Surely. 
the only hyi)othesis 
reason for these apparent anomalies is this — that 
built first of all ; and afterwards the body of the 
walls, including the piers M and N, which .strengthen it, was built. 

This manner of proceeding is foreign to our cu.stoms, but its 
motives and advantages can be easily conceived. The pila.sters A, 
B, C, once constructed about the entire perimeter, formed a sort 
of general plan in relief of the amphitheater whose utility can 
readily be perceived. We have here, in fact, an edifice whose plan 
is extremely complicated ; the Coliseum comprised innumerable gal- 
leries and a great system of stairways and passages, hardly to be 
traced in the ruins, and much more difficult to distinguish in the 
midst of the di.sorder and confusion of the building ojjerations. 
The builders were continually exposed to mistakes of all kinds when 
fixing the position and arrangement of so many diverse jiarts ; and 
one can comjjrehend that the pilasters surmounted i)y arches, when 
built about the entire circumference, changing in form whenever the 
orientation or the shape of the stairways changed, would be of 
great assistance in limiting the field of errors and, as one might say, 
in rendering all doubt impossible in spite of the intermingling of 
the i)arts of the plan and of the multiplicity of its parts. 

This separation of the work into distinct parts had another re- 
sult not less important ; it allowed it to be distributed among very 
distinct categories of workmen. 

The pilasters A, B, C, and the arcades whose thrust they re- 
ceived, belonged to one class of workmen, to one series of operations; 



that can give a 
the heads were 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



H1 



the body of the walls to another; and in each the same operations 
were repeated without cessation. It was therefore possible to divide 
the workmen into two entirely distinct classes and to employ them 
according to their greater or less skilfulness or aptitude ; it was, it 
may be said, an application of the ideas of modern industry on the 
division of labor. All the details, moreover, emphasize and explain 
this view. 

In the lower story, the piers Aland N bond with the filling; 
this because the piers and the filling differed only in the quality of 
the materials ; the manner of liuilding was the same, the care taken 
in the cutting was the same for both parts, and this entire portion of 
the edifice could be confided to the same workmen, hence a division 
such as that which existed between the walls and the heads had here 
no reason. 

(_)n the other hand, when the first floor level was reached, tlie 
cutting of the filling became less regular than that of the piers M 
and N. The courses of tufa were frequently interrupted ; stones of 
all sizes were used and built in no regular determined order ; here 
there was an occasion for a division of labor; and in fact, the bond 
between piers M and N and the filling was abandoned; the piers, 
up to this point cut with alternating long and short courses, suddenly 
became independent pillars, all of whose faces were vertical and con- 
tinuous ; the filling was butted up against these so that no bond 
whatever was obtained from the shape of the stones, as shown in 
Fig. [)i). 

If the architect thought this independence of parts justifiable 
when both piers and filling were built of cut stone, there was 
still greater justification for 
it when at the level of the 
second story he abandoned 
the use of cut stone in the 
filling and contented him- 
self with rubble work with _ 
brick facing. Hence the 
piers of traverine — M and 
N — had in the entire height 
of the second story no bond 
with the walls; the faces of 
the piers were vertical, and 
the rubble was simply 
butted against them. 

This example, more- 
over, is not the only one ; 
the necessity of juxtapos- 
ing rubble walls and cut 
stone pilasters again arose 
in the parts of the radiat- 
ing walls nearest to the 
arena ; and in both cases 

there was the same solution of the same problem. The body of the 
wall at it slower parts, C-I), was of rubble with brick reveting ; and 
here again all bonding between the walls and the cut stone pilasters 
terminating them wa.-. omitted. Instead of tieing into the rubble 
by alternate projecting and retreating courses, the sides of the pilas- 
ters were straight and smooth, and the different kinds of work 
joined, touched each other, but remained entirely independent. 

These were the principal expedients in the construction of the 
Coliseum. In general, one should notice the great variation in the 
sizes of the stones. Throughout the edifice there is an entire lack 
of uniformity; while, on the other hand, other Roman buildings show, 
in unexpected contrast, a regularity of cutting that is not less syste- 
matic and curious; such, for instance, as in the case of the voussoirs 
of the liridge of Card. In fact, however, there is here no anomaly, 
and the two contradictory systems show less a divergence of method 
than the concession made to the difficulty of quarrying uniform 
blocks from such stone as travertine. Through principle the Romans 
sought uniformity of size in their materials; and they desired to 
obtain it not only in their construction in stone, but also in their 




FIG. 97. 



framing, especially in rapidly constructed works. Thus (as above) 
all the timbers for an attacking tower were of the same scantling, 
and all were cut from pieces either 1 6 or 9 ft. long ; to adopt such 
a system was to accept waste, be it in the forest or the quarry, but at 
the same time it was to become free from one embarrassment by re- 
moving the bond between the lumber yard and c|uarry and the 
carpenter shop and cutting shed. 

This separation which we have just noted between the various 
parts of a building becomes manifest in a still more striking manner 
if we pass from construction to ornament. 

In the buildings of cut stone, the builders nearly always left the 
stones roughed out, and other workmen afterwards cut the ornament 
on them. Sometimes moldings, because of their importance, had to 
be cut in place, and then they were cut on stones independent of the 
body of construction and separately executed. Thus the Romans 
were careful not to cut the very salient molding (Fig. loo), that runs 
like an archivolt about the opening, on the voussoirs themselves ; 
and, following the example of the Etruscans, they gave it its own 
ring of stones and cut it after it was put in place. 

The same independence existed, as we have seen, between the 
wooden framing and the ornaments which decorated it ; these latter 
for the most part being carved or painted pieces nailed on the beams 
of the framing or in the panels of the carpenter work. 

But it was above all in the concrete structures that the separa- 
tion between the construction and the ornament was most manifest. 
The Roman built; others then took up the work and assumed the 
task of embellishing it. They applied stucco, reveled it with marble, 

covered it with ornamen- 
tation, more or less beau- 
tiful, but which was 
exacted by no necessity 
of the construction, nor 
even announced by its 
disposition ; do away 
with this envelope and 
the first conception will 
still exist in its prime in- 
tegrity, so independent is 
the ornament of its back- 
ground, of the structure 
of the edifice it decorates. 
And this is not a theoret- 
ical distinction : the divi- 
sion existed to such a 
marked extent that often 
the applied decoration 
covers and dissimulates 
facings whose elegant 
arranirement bee o m e s 







FIG. 98. 



superfluous when their surfaces cease to be visible. It is not rare to 
see the Romans thus complete their tasks as builders without pre- 
occupying themselves about the final appearance of the edifice, and 
lay the small stones of the rubble or the bricks with an evident care 
on the surface of walls, which the decorator, who came after, was to 
cover with slabs of marble or coatings of precious materials. As 
examples of this I reproduce (Plate XV., Figs. 3 and 4) some wall 
surfaces of arcades taken from monuments where they were to be 
concealed by thick veneering or revetting as soon as they were com- 
pleted. The first example comes from the ancient tower of Autun, 
known as the Temple of Janus; the second from the Mausoleum of 
Augustus. One feels impelled to say, at the sight of these carefully 
built surfaces, in which the Romans themselves had no profit, that 
they feared the proximate ruin of the rich covering, and, desirous of 
leaving a souvenir to posterity, thought, perhaps, of the time when 
their works would appear as they show themselves now, deprived of 
all applied ornament. 

Tkit 1 would prefer to see in this care of the wall surfaces an 
expression of an entirely practical idea, that of allowing the diverse 



148 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



corporations the greatest possible initiative; each thus had its part 
in tlie responsil)ility for the success of their common work, as each 
had its part in the choice of the means adopted. Each class of 
artisans remained, to a certain degree, the judge of the methods to 
be followed, and this privilege was used, as is known, by observing 
in the practice of the art certain traditional rules, which the organi- 
zation of the workmen's corporations, perhaps somewhat narrow, 
made obligatory for all the individual members. The mason was 
not aware of what decoration would be applied to the walls ; he con- 
structed them according to certain admitted methods, and, whether 
they were to be covered by veneering or not, his methods were the 
same, the mass of the wall was built in the same manner, and the 
same care was given to the arrangement of the wall surfaces. Some- 
times useless attention was given to work that was to be concealed 
by future decoration; but, on the whole, the uniformity introduced 
into the methods of work resulted in more rapid construction; and 
this was the main point in the eyes of the Roman architects. 
Under a social regime, when public monuments were often erected 
at the cost and by the orders of temporary magistrates,' rapidity was 
the first condition to be met, and the exigencies of decoration seemed 
hindrances from which it was useful to be free for the time being. 
Attention given to these matters during the preparation of the projects, 
and while carrying them out, would have involved inadmissible delay. 
It is thus explainable why the Romans never accepted the sys- 
tem of construction of the dreeks except for temples, for fagades of 
monuments or for buildings "/A' /live" and of little importance. A 
system of architecture such as that of the Greeks, where the form is 



sance could have taken this practice directly from the ancients; bu 
there was no need of reviving the Roman tradition, for it had been 
followed in Italy, during all the middle ages : and the idea of sepa- 





> 7»^ ^ 


'... 


•'.■- 






• ■ ri-^" .' f 




•"" -.r^ ...,l ■.'■,.; 


















■-•'5^.:^ 


i^-^^:: ■- ••■ ■ 




•■■"•'ikA;;?-; 








- '=i*-;6'=.^--; 








^::~:'>'^^- 






''■ ? ^-'S 



FIG. 99. 

but the construction made visible, would have exacted an expendi- 
ture of time incompatible with the character and needs of the 
Romans. It was by separating the construction from the form, by 
putting aside questions of ornament at first in order to answer them 
later, that the Romans were able to maintain the order and simplic- 
ity necessary for the execution of their colossal enterprises. 

In these days, when we build to meet imperious and pressing 
necessities, have we not some reason to imitate the ancients in this re- 
spect ? And, moreover, we would not be the first to understand and fol- 
low this teaching of the Roman ruins. The architecture of the Italian 
Renaissance shows us continual and remarkable applications of it. 
The Roman idea of separating the decoration from the structure was 
never more in favor than in the sixteenth century in Italy. This can 
be seen, if need be, in the writings of that time (see, among others, 
Serlio, Liv. IV., p. 189, edit, of Venice). Still better, however, is it 
shown by the uncompleted edifices of that epoch, which are, for the 
greater part, rough masses of masonry, with recesses left for placing 
cornices and architraves, accessory ornamentaion which it was the 
custom to put in place afterwards. The architects of the Renais- 

' This is clearly shown in numerous MSS. in the colleciions of Roman law. In partic- 
ular see Cod. Thend.. Lib XV., til. I., 1. 19; Lib. VI , tit. IV., I. 13, 29, 30. Cod. Justin. 
Lib, VIII., tit. XII., 1. 5. 

I will add that a large number of public edifices were built by the magistrates " pro 
liiiiis," that is, in place of the festivals or games they were obliged to give to the people ; thus 
the prodigality that was imposed on those who held public offices was turned to supplying 
useful work. But one can imagine what haste was necessary in erecting these magnificent 
presents when one thinks of the short term of office of the principal magistrates of the 
empirj. 

See Orelli, Inscrip., ^310, 2540 (.^). Cod. Th,, Lib. VI., tit. I\'.. 1. 29. 




FK;. 100. 



rating the decoration from the structure is perhaps the one idea that 
ties the Italian architecture of the middle ages most closely to that 
of antiquity, and which distinguishes it the most clearly from the 
contemporary architecture of France. 

In France, during the middle ages, the structure and the form 
of the edifices were never treated separately; the stones always kept 
in the building, after they were set, the form given them in the 
stone yard ; and it may be said that trimming and recutting in place 
were unknown in France from the twelfth to the fifteenth century. 

On the contrary, in Italy during the same period, ijuildings were 
raised in masses of rude masonry, given, at the most, regular sur- 
faces, where the architects afterwards incrusted the final ornament, 
or even placed entire fat^ades. The facades of tlie cathedrals of 
Sienna, Orvieto, and IJoIogna are veneers thus placed, either over 
former faqades or on walls prepared to receive a decorative revet- 
ment; and. without going to those celebrated edifices, it would per- 
haps l)e difficult to find a (iothic church in Pisa, Lucca, or even in 
the vilLiges of Tuscany, where the decoration as a whole was done 
at the time of building. The enclosing walls of these buildings 
were sometimes built of rubble, with projecting bricks for ties, as 
can still be seen on the uncompleted fa(;ade of Hologna, by which 
were afterwards fastened the more or less richly ornamented outer 
walls. This reproduction of an ancient method in buildings whose 
general physiognomy resembles so little that of the Roman monu- 
ments affords one of the most curious examples of the variety of 
aspects that can be presented by the same idea, and of the apparent 
differences that can be manifested in the application of the same 
principle. 

There are, however, few methods in the art of building that can 
be carried to their last expression with impunity. It is not for 
me to say what were the results produced by this separation on 
the architecture of the Italian Renaissance; but it must be ac- 
knowledged that this separation, so advantageous in rapidity and 
economy, had a regretable infiuence on the forms of ancient archi- 
tecture. Becoming accustomed to consider decoration and structure 
separately, the Romans soon came to regard those things, between 
which they themselves had made the distinction, as being by their 
nature independent of each other ; they then saw in the architecture 
of a building only a decorative dress, variable and in a certain de- 
gree arbitrary ; the separation of the ornament and the construc- 
tion gave too great freedom to fancy and to imitation, and contributed 
in jirecipitating the decadence of art among the Romans. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



149 



Fire-proofing Department. 



ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF HOLLOW TILE FIRE- 
PROOF FLOOR CONSTRUCTION. 

BY PETER K. WIGHT. 

(Concluded.) 

FACTORS OF SAFETY. 

Note. — The following article was written and in type before the Pittsburg fire occurred 
and the article commenting on the same was written, and tlie author sees no reason for 
changing any of the opinions lierein expressed. — P. I^. W. 

THERE may be a difference in opinion as to what factor of 
safety should be used for hollow-tile work when it serves any 
constructive purpose. The manufacturers have not generally taken 
it into consideration, and as there have ne^'er been any accidents in 
completed buildings., due to failure in the hollow-tile Jloor arches, there 
does not seem to be any reason for anxiety about it. In Mr. Hill's 
comments on the tests, published in The Brickbuilder for Feb- 
ruary, 1895, and in the reports of other engineers, it seems to be taken 
for granted that the factor of safety is one tenth. At that rate there 
is not a side-pressure or end-pres.'^ure arch in any building used for 
business or warehouse purposes that is theoretically safe if all the 
tests are correct. The actual tests of side-pressure arches of the best 
make have thus far shown that they break at from 500 to i ,000 lbs. 
per superficial foot, while those for end-pressure arches run up to 
about 1,700 lbs. I maintain that, if in a number of tests on similar 
side-pressure experimental arches it should be shown that none of 
them fail at less than 500 lbs. per foot, it would be perfectly safe to 
use them where the loads do not exceed 40c lbs. per foot. I know 
by experience that the average work set in Iniildings is stronger than 
the average work in experimental arches, for I have made frequent 
tests in buildings after construction to demonstrate this. I made 
not only tests for dead weight on flat arches covered with sand, but 
for rolling loads and smashing weights on the same, after laying the 
floors (the wooden floors bearing on the arches), as long ago as 1884, 
in the Chicago Board of Trade. The rolling load was with a 4,000 
lb. safe, which was not only rolled, but dropped on one side several 
inches. The smashing test was made with cases of dry goods weigh- 
ing 400 lbs. each, some of which were thrown down from a height 
of 6 ft. These were 9 in. arches with a span of about 4>^ 
ft. They were not injured in the least, though the wooden floor was 
badly splintered and broken. In the Natural Cas Company's build- 
ing at Pittsburgh, 9 in. side pressure arches made by the Wight 
Fire-proofing Company, set in the building, were tested by the 
architect up to 1,000 lbs. per superficial foot, and the tests stopped 
there as he was satisfied with the guarantee. It is, therefore, clear 
that no such factor of safety has been considered necessary by the 
makers, as suggested by Mr. Hill. Every contractor knows that the 
severest tests his work is likely to be subjected to are the accidental 
ones that occur during the erection of a building. The first test 
he makes himself when he draws his centering at the earliest possible 
moment, and it is thus that he insures himself against any careless- 
ness of his workmen. He knows that if there are any defects in the 
work they will then be developed, and that if any tiles have not been 
well bedded, they will either fall out or be subjected to the natural 
pressure of the arch, while before the centering is struck they lie like 
inert pieces of material on the boards. He knows that every day 
adds to the strength of the work through the hardening of the mor- 
tar, and that this goes on indefinitely. 

He often finds clauses in the specification saying that the centering 
must remain three days, five days, or a week, before it is struck, and 



his best judgment is often brought in conflict with the architect, 
whose intentions are all right, but for all that he may be mistaken. 
Then, when other mechanics are allowed to run over the work, pile 
up their material or throw down their scaffolding upon it, another 
set of inevitable tests begins and continues until the building is com- 
pleted. I have seen enameled bricks piled up solid 6 ft. high on flat 
arches that did not fail, and no one to protest but the hollow-tile man. 
I have seen 9 in. side-pressure arches without any webs, covered with 
I in. of Portland cement and 2 ins. of planking, used as a runway 
through a building, for teams bringing in material, and with safety. 
These are the tests the contractor is impressed with. Then he has 
a common-sense idea of what an arch should carry, which does not 
seem to have been suggested to the engineers. He examines the 
iron diagram to see what is the strength of the steel floor. It is 
easy for him to ascertain what would be the weight per foot neces- 
sary to deflect the beams to a permanent set, and when he finds that 
his arches will bear this load he knows that his work will be the last 
to break when the floor goes down. Anything stronger than this is 
a superfluity, and when an architect specifies any kind of work 
between the beams that costs more than enough to accomplish this 
he is guilty of wasting his client's money. It is strange that this 
should have been so little considered. And here comes in the ques- 
tion whether or not anything is gained by using end-pressure arches 
where the side-pressure arch will accomplish all that is required, 
unless there is any economy in them. On the latter point it is 
claimed that there is an economy of weight in some sections of tiles 
when used for the deeper arches. Thus far there has been found no 
economy in making the walls of hollow tiles less than ^ in. thick, 
and this is only possible with the best clays. Therefore, the walls 
of end-pressure tiles cannot be made any less in weight or expense 
unless the section is so changed as to reduce the average weight per 
superficial foot. This, I think, has been done with the tile used by 
the Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Company, of Chicago, and Henry 
Maurer & Sons, of New York, for illustrations of which the reader 
can be referred to the advertising columns of The Brickruii-der. 
But no advantage in weight is possible where rectangular tiles are 
used. One of the best end-pressure arches of this kind is that of the 
Terra-cotta Lumber Company, of Chicago, whose illustration is here 
given (Fig. 23). This arch is made entirely of porous terra-cotta. 



Fid 2,3. lUiuoib Terra- CotU LuiiiWr Cos End Pres&ure Arck . 




The skew-backs and the keys are set longitudinal with the beams 
The intermediate tiles are used on the end-pressure system. In such 
an arch the inaterial of the skew-l)acks and key should be thicker 
than the intermediate tiles, to make up, if possible, for the want of 
cross webs. The bearing sides are partially inert. But this system 
shows a better method of setting the skew-backs and putting in the 
key than if all the tiles were set transversely to the beams. It is a 
type of all end-pressure arches in which tiles of rectangular section 
are used, and it is easy to understand from the illustration the varia- 
tion from it when all the tiles used are on the end-pressure system. 

observations on Till-: USE OF IIOLLOW-TII.E ARC HES. 

The end-pressure system has not entirely supplanted tlie older 
side pressure system. It has its advantages when the ultimate 
weight to be carried on the floors is greater than 400 lbs. per super- 
ficial foot. In this I agree with Mr. Hill, and in the main with his 
conclusions in his paper of July, 1896, which I have no occasion here 
to repeat. As long as the ratio of effective height to length of span 
is maintained within one to eight, it is only a question of economy as 
to which to use. I do not think that the superior strength of the 



i^o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



end-pressure arch is conducive to the reduction of the weight of 
floors for arches lo ins. thick or less. Beyond this thickness, the 
weight of the end-pressure arch may be less than an effective side- 
pressure arch of the same depth. The cost of setting end-pressure 
arches is greater than for side-pressure arches. 

The advantages of side-pressure arches are still maintained. 
First, by the greater ease with which they may he constructed, and 
the less chance of being weakened by inferior workmanship or defec- 
tive tiles. Second, by the fact that there is a greater distribution of 
any concentrated load over a greater surface. Under the former 
may be comprised the more perfect bedding of the skew-back, and 
the possibility of driving in the key without losing the mortar, and 
under the latter may be mentioned the breaking of joints. In all 
side-pressure arches there is a considerable amount of inert material, 
but this is inevitable on account of the necessary process of manu- 
facture. 

The main defect in the end-pressure system is that the cour.ses 
do not break joints. This has never yet been overcome, the only 
reliance being on the mortar joints and friction of surfaces, which 
depends upon the quality of mortar used. There is a way, however, 
to overcome this objection. Another is in the difficulty in making 
good joints between the voussoirs, involving always a great waste of 
mortar. The slight warping of the tiles in process of manufacture 
throws their abutting edges out of line, and on thin walled tiles this 
is of serious import. A much better joint can be had with porous 
than with hard tile, because the material is thicker, and for this rea- 
son the porous material is superior for end pressure arches. The 
greatest difficulty in getting a joint is at the key; for if it fits loose, 
the joint may run out before it sets, and if it is tight, the joint may 
be rubbed out in forcing it down. A good bed for a key can only 
be obtained by "slabbing" the ends of the interior voussoirs with 
thin pieces of tile before forcing down the key, having allowed for 
this in ordering the key. Another danger in arches where all the 
tiles are transverse to the beams is in the breaking off of the pro- 
tecting bottom of the skew-back, or its cracking where it hears 
against the bottom flange of the beam ; Mr. Hill's tests demonstrated 
this. 

I agree with Mr. Hill that where the protection of the beam is 
by a projection from the skew-back on each side in any form of flat 
arch, it leads to defective construction and weakening of the arch. 
A separate soffit tile corrects this. My own form of soffit tile, which 
was the first ever used, passed around the flanges of the beam, and 
the skew-backs were bedded on this and the top of the flange and 
against web of the beam by one operation. (.See Fig. iS, May 
Hrickbl'ilder.) The abutting arches on both sides of the beam 
were also thrusting against the soffit tile. For this reason I have 
always maintained that in such constructions the effective depth of 
the arch was the whole depth of the tile, and this has always been 
borne out by comparisons between tests on experimental arches, 
where the soffit tile did not count for anything, and those set in build- 
ings, which have always been in favor of the latter. In such cases 
two adjacent arches thrust against each other at the center of the 
soffit tile, the weight of the arch and floor being suspended from the 
lower flanges of the beam. 1 will therefore commend it to general 
use, as the invention is free for any one to use. Besides this, it has 
a greater advantage in setting. The soffit tiles are set dry on the cen- 
tering, which when screwed up comes to a true line, while if the 
skew-backs run under the beams they are set before the centering is 
screwed up, and if screwed up before the mortar is hard, the bed of 
the tile on the beam flange is disturbed, and the arch is a defective 
one as soon as the centering is loosened. 

A great improvement in the manufacture of hollow tiles was 
made after it became customary to make them in vertical sewer- 
pipe presses. This was first done for the Chicago and Western 
market, and soon after the example was followed by all the manu- 
facturers in the Central States. Before this all the manufacturers in 
New Jersey used horizontal presses. The great advantage of the 
sewer-pipe press is its greater power, which by giving greater pres- 



sure to the wet clay makes it possible to reduce the walls, increase 
the strength, and con.sequently reduce the weight. This weight re- 
duction was one of the first improvements that made it possible to 
erect high buildings on the compressible clay of Chicago, but has 
scarcely been recognized in the many treatises on high buildings that 
have appeared. 

Notwithstanding many other ingenious and meritorious inven- 
tions for fire-resisting floor construction, many of which have the 
only merit of being incombustible, I believe that clay hollow-tile floor 
arches have come to stay for a long time yet, and that good burned 
clay will always be the best fire-proof building material. There will 
continue to be bad work of this kind, however, as long as architects 
are not discriminating in the quality of clay that enters into the 
material. Good concrete, which comes next in value, can only be 
used where bricks formerly were, and where the question of weight 
is not an important factor. There never will be any economy in 
using metal to reinforce tile construction, except to resist lateral 
thrusts, for the tiles can always do their work in compression. The 
only possible improvement 1 can see in floor construction with tiles 
may come when long tiles can be burned as cheaply as short ones, 
and can be used as lintels between beams. This was the dream of 
Mr. Scofield many years ago. I have always believed, and do so 
still, that in mechanics the flat hollow-tile arch with parallel to|) and 
bottom is nothing but a beam with confined ends, and that it makes 
little difference what direction the joints have, provided they are of 
good mortar and well compressed. There are very few scientific 
works that have given formula' for constructions under these con- 
ditions. For the information of those who may be disposed to inves- 
tigate farther, 1 will refer to a book entitled •' Mo.seley"s .Mechanical 
Principles of Engineering and .Architecture," with additions by I). H. 
Mahan, LL. D., published by the old firm of Wiley & Halsted, New 
York, 1856, pages 402 and 403. 

With regard to the direction of the joints, I could never see any 
advantage in radial joints between voussoirs, which are so generally 
specified by architects, and which for that reason most manufacturers 
use. They complicate the work at every point from manufacture to 
.setting, and increase the cost of the latter. In the Denver tests on 
side-pressure flat arches it is not generally known that as between 
two hard tile arches the one that broke at 651 lbs. per ft. had radial 
joints, and that which broke at 1,000 lbs. per ft. had parallel joints 
from skew-back to key. No record is made or comment given in 
Mr. Hill's reports of experiments, or, in fact, in any of the published 
tests, as to whether the arches were of one kind or another, but the 
illustrations show that the side-pressure tiles in Mr. Hill's tests had 
parallel joints. 

An advantage of hollow tiles for floors which no other system 
seems likely to overcome is that at one operation it provides a ceiling 
and a floor, and in the shortest possible space of time. It is all dry 
in a few days, and does not hinder the rapid completion of the 
building and its delivery in good condition. It has another advan- 
tage in the fact that the arches can be made of any de|)th up to about 
15 ins., and thus fill the whole space between the beams, reducing 
the concrete filling on top to a minimum, and thus reducing the 
weight of floors, and in some cases the cost of the work. For fire- 
proof qualities it requires no further commendation, though for 
this, as between good hard and good porous tile, I prefer the 
latter. 

In this review of the condition of the art it is not intended to be 
implied that there are not other and meritorious systems of floor 
construction with burned clay that are of great value. The intention 
has been to confine the treatment of the subject to floor constructions 
in connection with steel beams. Already several systems have been 
in use which have greatly reduced the use of steel in fire-proof 
buildings, and they would be proper subjects for another treatise. 
But the present low price of steel has been such a strong argument 
for its continued use, that there does not seem any prospect of its 
ceasing to be the most favorable material to resist transverse strains 
for a long time to come. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



^Si 



Mortar and Concrete. 



LIME, HYDRAULIC CEMENT, MORTAR, AND CON- 
CRETE. IV. 

BY CLIFFORD RICHARDSON. 



The word from which we have derived our name cement was 
originally applied only to certain additions which were made to lime 
mortar to enable it to harden under water, such as the puzzolana 
used by the Romans and trass. Later this designation was used for 
all the binding materials which furnished a mortar which hardens 
under water and so has extended to our natural and Portland cements. 
To avoid confusion all these materials are now classed as Hydraulic 
Agents, Hydraulic Limes, Slag Cements, Natural Cements, and 
Portland Cements. 

HYDRAULIC AGENTS. 

Hydraulic agents do not possess the property of setting or form- 
ing a mortar by themselves but they offer silica and clay to the lime 
of ordinary mortar in a form which permits combination between the 
two, and a slow hardening. They are of both natural and artificial 
origin. The natural form is from volcanic sources, such as the puz- 
zolana of Italy, and the trass of the Rhine Valley. We have no 
such deposits available in this country e.xcept in the far West. The 
artificial form includes si igs, burnt clay and shale, ashes, silicate of 
soda, and, in fact, any inorganic material which contains clay and 
silica in tha form soluble in acids, that is to say, available for com- 
bination with lime in the presence of water. There is a plenty of 
such material in this country but it is rarely, if ever, used, owing to 
the cheapness of our natural cements. 

HYDRAULIC LI.ME. 

We have already seen that, as the amount of impurities of a 
clayey nature increase in ordinary quicklime, it takes on hydraulic 
properties. As long as this amount is not too large to permit slak- 
ing, although slowly, the lime is known as being hydraulic. 

Hydraulic limes have had extensive use in iCngland early in the 
century but have never been of the same importance here, although 
they were imported from France and England before the days of the 
development of our natural cements. When used they are not dis- 
tinguished from poor quicklimes, and, of course, are never substituted 
for the true cements in hydraulic work. 

Hydraulic limes with but a sm.iU proportion of silicates, 5 to i 5 
per cent., harden under water in from eight to twenty days, but with 
larger amount in from one to four. There is no very sharp line 
between poor cements and hydraulic limes. They usually contain 
less than 20 per cent, of silica and silicates. 

Dolomitic limestones, when burnt at a temperature sufficiently. 
low to expel the carbonic acid from the magnesian carbonate, but 
not from the lime, have hydraulic properties. 

Slag cements will be considered in another chapter. 

NATURAL HYDRAULIC CEMENT. 

Toward the end of the eighteenth century it was discovered in 
England that certain limestones, when burned, gave a lime which 
would not slake, but, when ground and mixed with water, furnished a 
mortar which would harden under water. A similar cement was also 
prepared from the septaria or concretions found in the London clay. 
An examination showed that the limestones and septaria which 
furnished such cements would not dissolve entirely in acids but left 
behind a residue of clay. It was evident, therefore, that to the pres- 
ence of the clay the resulting cement owed its hydraulic properties. 
Such cements were largely prepared and took the place of hydraulic 
agents and hydraulic limes, and from their resemblance, in color and 
results to the mortar prepared with the former, were called Roman 
cements, a name never used in this country where we hear only of 
natural, cements. 



E.KTENT OK THE INDUSTRY. — The importance of natural 
hydraulic cement in the United States is attributable to the wide 
extent of the deposits of hydraulic limestone which are suitable for 
its manufacture. Such stone is found, to a greater or less degree, in 
a majority of the States, especially along the mountains of the 
Atlantic States, and is well scattered through the country lying along 
the Great Lakes and in the West. Cement works are found to-day in 
New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Georgia, 
Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Kansas, 
Texas, Utah, and New Mexico. According to the United States 
Geological Survey there were 6.S plants in 1895 producing 7,741,077 
barrels of natural cement, worth about #3,895,424. More than half 
of this was made in New York; 3,939,727 barrels, and about 1,703,000 
in the Louisville district, the next producers in quantity being Penn- 
sylvania, Wisconsin, Illinois, and the Maryland and Virginia district 
with about 600,000, 476,000, 490,000, and 242,000 barrels. Ulster 
County, N. Y., where the well-known Rosendale brands are burned, 
and where the first natural cement in this country was made, alone 
put over three millions of barrels on the market in 1895, valued at 
half of the entire product of the year. The United States exceeds 
all other countries of the world in the quantity of natural cement 
which it manufactures. 

Hydraulic Limestones. — Natural cements can be made 
from limestones which have a very varied admixture of silica, clay, 
and magnesia, and considerable differences in physical properties. 
For each locality, where cement is manufactured, differences in com- 
position will be found, as appears from the following analyses : — • 

composition of hydkaulic limestones used for well-known 
15rands of natural cements, 
original analyses. 

I 2 3 4 5 " f> 7 S 

New York Penn. Maryland Illinois Kansas 

Rosen- Akron Lehigli Round- Antie- Cumber- Ft. 

dale Valley top tarn land & Scott 

Potomac 

Calcium Oxide CaO 25. So 1993 2994 35-76 2372 25.54 32.85 35.00 
Magnesium Oxide 

MgO .... 10.09 9-'7 "-SS 2-iS 15.64 i.io 8.45 3.50 
Carbonic Acid CO.j 

and water . . 30.93 25.90 26.30 31.74 34.S2 24 40 34.12 33.00 

Silica SiOj . . . 21.41 33-8o 27.77 '9-Si 1597 2S.72 17.01 21.80 

Alumina Al.jO., "l 3 96 7.35 12. 28 3 35 3 70 

y 10.09 14-29 7-59 

Iron Oxide Fe^O^iJ .88 241 572 2.39 3.10 
Sulphuric Acid SO3 .66 .50 .71 1.53 1.81 — ■ 



Total Carbonates . 67.26 54.86 5672 68.44 75-20 46.13 74-15 65.76 

Insoluble in Acid . 29.21 35-oi 40.15 27.25 20.15 47.72 22.06 



Carbonate of 
Lime 



Highest . . . . 63 75 
Lowest 35 59 



23-95 

Carbonate of Total Alumina Silica Insolu- 

Magnesia Carbonates and Iron ble 

Oxides 

.i2-S4 
2.31 



75.20 17.50 33.80 47.72 

54. S6 4. 84 15.73 20.15 



The most distinctive feature in the composition of hydraulic 
limestones, and one which enables them to be at once divided into 
two classes, is a marked difference in the amount of carbonate of 
magnesia which they contain. In the one class it is small, not 
exceeding 3 or 4 per cent; in the other from 15 to 35 per cent, is 
found. We have, therefore, two kinds of natural cements, lime and 
magnesian. With a few exceptions the hydraulic limestones of this 
country, used for making natural cement, are magnesian. In the 
Lehigh Valley the stone is not magnesian, and the same is the case 
in the upper Potomac Valley. Some of the deposits of the West are 
also nearly straight limestone. Considering their source the greater 
portion of natural cements, probably over 90 per cent., appear to be 
made from magnesian limestone. The rock from which the various 
Rosendale and Louisville cements are made, which alone make up a 
large part of our product, contains from 15 to 25 per cent, of mag- 
nesian carbonate. 

The amount of the two carbonates in the limestones is very 
variable, reaching from 54 to 75 per cent. The silicates and silica 
may be present in larger or smaller amount, 20 to 47 per cent., and 
there are similar variations in the relation of silica to the bases, 
alumina and iron. In many cases there is much free silica with but 
a small amount of clay, as in the case of the limestone from Akron, 
N. Y. 



152 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 



The other and minor elements also show their peculiar hut less 
important changes. In spite of these variations in composition 
natural cements are made from all these rocks. 

Of course the jjroperties of the resulting cements are very 
different. 

Variation i\ thf. Comi'Osition or Rock i.\ o.vk Locality. 
— In addition to the variations in the composition of hydraulic lime- 
stone in different parts of the country a striking difference is also 
found in the strata in any one locality, or even in one quarry. There 
is generally no difficulty in distinguishing at a mere glance peculiari- 
ties of color and other physical properties which serve to mark the 
different strata and separate them. A chemical analysis is then 
required to determine the variations in composition or they may be 
tested by burning small amounts of the rock in an ordinary fire, 
crucible, or experimental kiln, or better, by both methods. 

In case a ciiemical analysis is made it should he carried out 
according to the methods given in " Blair"s Analyses of Iron and Steel," 
third edition. 

In two cement rock quarries, one in Maryland and one in the 
West, strata are expo.sed which are typical of the variations in com- 
position which have been mentioned. 

COMPOSITION OF THE STRATA IN A WESTERN CEMICNT QUARRY. 

1 . 4 ins. Limestone. 

2. 6 ins. Limestone. 

3. 20 ins. Bituminous shale. 

4. 36 ins. Clay. 

5. 48 ins. Cement rock. 

6. 30 ins. .Slate or shale. 

7. 14 ins. Coal. 

8. 30 ins. Clay, very hard. 

■ 4 5 ft 8 
Loss on ignition. Car- 
bonic acid, water and 

organic matter . 40.2 43.0 32.90 7.2 33.0 C>.50 6.3 

Lime, CaO . . . 4<S.o 50.1 .30 .5 35.0 6.70 .4 

Magnesia, MgO . ci.o 2.8 2.39 2.0 3.5 2.57 1.08 

Alumina, AijOj . 1.0 i.i 17.00 19.1 3.7 13.00 13.6 

Iron o-fide, Fe^O^ . 1.8 i.o 3.90 4.4 3.1 3.30 2.4 

Silica, SiO„ . . . 6.7 2.6 36.30 61.8 21.8 65.60 72.9 



Insoluble in acid . 7.5 3.5 
Total carbonates . 89.9 93.6 



24-3 
69.9 



CO.MPOSITION OF FIVE STRATA OF CEMENT ROCK IN A MARYLAND 
( EMENT QUARRY. 

No. I. Top. Not in use. below the slates and pure limestones. 
No. 2. Cement rock. 
No. 3. Not in use. 
No. 4. Cement rock. 
No. 5. Not in use. 

■ 2 .^ 4 s 

Loss on ignition. Carlionicacid, 

water, and organic matter . 33.93 31.74 3301 24.55 28.08 

Lime, CaO 28.25 35.76 3S.05 31.02 33.80 

Magnesia, MgO 9.41 2.18 1.84 3.39 1.17 

Alumina, AI/), 5.25 7.33 5.5S 4.17 5.43 

Iron oxide, Fe.,(5^ .... 7.07 2.41 3.88 8.29 2.40 

Silica, SiO„ 15.71 19.81 16.7 26.52 24.62 

Sulphuric acid, SO^ .... .16 .19 

Insoluble in acid 28.13 29.66 26.05 29.10 33.51 

Total carljonates 70.21 68.44 71.63 62.52 54.45 

Magnesian carbonate . . . 19.76 4.58 3.86 7.12 2.46 

It appears that the strata of hydraulic limestone may be associated 
with others of purer limestone, of .slate or shale, and in the West of 
clay and of coal. The presence of strata of slate and the purer forms 
of limestone are common to almost all cement rock quarries, whereas 
the clay and coal are peculiar to the geological formations of the 
West. The Maryland quarry illustrates how great the variations in 



composition may be in five well-defined strata, all of which are of 
hydraulic character. The upper bed in this quarry holds nearly 20 
per cent, of magnesian carbonate, while the rest are com])aratively 
free from it. Tiie total carbonates vary from 54 to 71 per cent, and 
the silica and silicates from 26 to 33 per cent., with corresponding 
variations in the per cent, of lime present. In other quarries an even 
more striking variety of rock is found as will appear later. 

There is also one other variation in the composition of hydraulic 
limestone which must be noticed. In the same stratum, as it is 
worked or quarried over a large area, differences in composition are 
found, due to changes in the material laid down at the time of its 
formation or, to a less degree, by subsequent action of water. Such 
variations must be guarded against, hut they are usually of minor 
importance in a good quarry. 

With deposits of such a diversified nature it is apparent that the 
manufacture of natural cement can l)e based on no absolutely uniform 
jjracti.se. For each quarry and each stratum its own peculiar methods 
of working must be found. 

Character of Li.mestone Suitahle for Natural Ce.ment. 
— The different strata of hydraulic limestones in any quarry are not, 
therefore, equally suited for making natural cement. Their availa- 
bility for this purpose has been determined primarily by experiment. 
I5y comparison of the results so obtained with the chemical composi- 
tion of the rocks it has been shown that this is dependent on the 
amount of silica and silicates which they contain, or their relative 
proportions, and on the per cent, of magnesia, with some regard also 
to that of the sulphur compounds and alkalies present. It is also 
important that the silica should be combined with alumina, that any 
silica present should not be too coarse grained to unite with lime at 
the temperature of l)urning and that the rock should be of great 
density so that the burning and tiie product may both be satisfactory. 

There are, of course, other substances in such limestones which 
are of minor or no importance, such as manganese, phosphoric acid, 
barium, which are present to the extent of but fractions of a per 
cent. The essential constituents, however, whose relations are to be 
considered as involving the suitability of the rock for cement making, 
are silica, silicates, including the alumina and iron oxide, of which 
they are composed, the carbonates of lime and magnesia and at times 
of iron, and the alkalies and sulphur compounds. These substances 
can be divided into those soluble and those insoluble in acids, the 
former including the carbonates and the latter the silica or sand and 
the silicates. In a rough way a determination of the relative propor- 
tion in which these two classes of substances are present is sufficient 
to characterize a hydraulic limestone. 

A more careful inquiry into the effect of the presence of a 
larger or smaller amount of each constitutent is necessary, however, 
in order to understand thoroughly what properties the cement derived 
from different limestones may be expected to have. 

The two great classes of natural cements, distinguished by the 
presence and absence of magnesia, have, to begin with, entirely 
different characteristics. The magnesian cements, of which the 
Rosendale brands are typical representatives, do not heat on mixing 
with water. They set and accjuire strength slowly, but eventually are 
as strong as the lime cements. They do not resist the action of frost 
well when first used, and if not carefully proportioned have a tendency 
to expand a year or more after use. The lime cements, unless care- 
fully made, have a tendency, when made into mortar on the one 
hand, to heat when too rich in lime and on the other to blow when 
too rich in silicates or when overburned. They acquire their 
strength rapidly, having nearly twice as great a tensile strength at 
from one to twenty-eight days as the magnesian cements. They 
resist frost better than the latter, but at the age of a year they are 
often not .superior, in fact are, at times, inferior, more crystalline and 
brittle with a tendency to deteriorate in strength. The perfectly pro- 
portioned and carefully made cements of this class are, however, the 
best natural cements in the world. The Round Top cement of the 
Fotomac Valley is tyjMcal of the highest grade of the lime cements, 
as the numerous Rosendale brands are of the magnesian cla.'ss. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



153 



The Masons' Department. 



STRAINS IN ARCHES. II. 



KY JOSEPH MARSHALL, 



IN all arches of the first class, and in arches of the varieties of 
the second class, shown by Figs. 5 and 7, there are three dis- 
tinct forces in operation, but in all other varieties of the second class 
there are only two. These forces we will, for convenience, nai e 
" The Thrust," " The Counterthrust," and •• The Counterfort," and 
under all circumstances, in all classes and varieties of arches, the 
counterthrust and counterfort, singly or combined, must ec[ual the 
thrust before the arched structure can be in equilibrio. Of course 
all these forces are the result of gravitation on the mass of the arch, 
its load, and its supports. 

The thrust is that force which tends to drive apart the support- 
ing piers ; the counterthrust is that which tends to draw them nearer, 
and the counterfort is that which balances the difference between the 
other two. 

If the thrust and counterthrust were of equal intensity — a rare 
occurrence — then the counterfort were unnecessary. It is then of 
importance to determine quickly and accurately the relations lietween 
the efforts of thrust and counterthrust, and to this purpose we now 
address ourselves. 

If thrust and counterthrust prevail in an arch — one opposing 
the other — at what point in the arch do the forces meet? For this 
must be a neutral point. 

To this we answer: The neutral point will always be at the in- 
tersection of the arc of the arch by a line drawn at an angle of 45 
degs. of elevation from the center, wlience the arc is described, and 
this line and point we shall hereafter designate as the " Neutral " 
line or point. 

It is evident that in a quadrant of a circle (which embraces 90 
degs.) having one side parallel to tiie horizon, and the other perpen- 
dicular to it, the 45th deg. is midway between the vertical and hori- 
zontal, and that all parts below the 45th deg. stand more nearly 
vertical than horizontal, while all aiiove that point are more nearly 
horizontal than vertical ; hence, the weight of all parts below the 
neutral line will be discharged upon the piers with less tendency to 
disturb them than the weight of the parts above the neutral line, and 
moreover, the tendency to disturbance, which the arch below the 
neutral possesses, is e.Kerted in the direction of the extension of that 
part of tiie arch, because in that direction it overhangs tie gravity 
center of its support, thereby tending to draw with it in that direc- 
tion the pier upon which it rests, while all that part of the arch above 
the neutral line, being suspended between the neutral and vertical 
lines, tends to force equally in both directions, but being opposed by 
an equal force on the opposite side of the vertical line (the force of 
the other half of the arch), its whole force is concentrated upon the 
neutral point, and being impelled by gravity, seeks the line of least 
resistance. 

Reternng now to Fig. 9, let us suppose that the vertical line 
from B \.Q I possesses all the elements of a pier of brick 12 by 12 
ins., except rigidity and sectional magnitude. Let the semi-circle 
in dotted lines from a to v represent the intrados boundary of an 
arch, the neutral line, o n from o (the center whence the arc is de- 
scribed), will intersect it at <', wliich is the neutral point. We have 
then the weight of that part of the arch t' to -,', and whatever load 
this may carry, as constituting the thrust and impinging at r'. Hy the 
resistance which the lower part offers, the direction of the force is 
changed to that of least resistance, which would be the horizontal — 
(f to / — as indicated by the arrow T. Then / to />' will become a 
lever which will be acted on at / by the thrust force ; and if this 
thrust force in pounds be multiplied by the length in feet of the 
lever / A', the sum will indicate the pound force at />' if not opposed 
by any other force. This would be the case if we consider c' to v 



as constituting a seg)iu'nt arch, having a half span o a" mounted on 
a pier, the inner line of which coincides with the line c' Y. Hut in 
the example in hand, we have the arch a to c' overhanging its pier 
from a to a'\ and having the mean of its force above the center of 
its overhanging distance, as_^ «', which tends to draw the pier in the 
direction of the arrow /. The pound force at ■,' multii)lied by the 
foot length of the lever /' />' will, in its sum, represent the counter- 
thrust at B. We must here remember that the pound force 21.I g 
will, in its efficiency, be one half the weight of the arch from a to c' 
and the load it bears. The counterthrust force at B will always be 
less than the thrust force for this form of arch and all others, ex- 
cept pointed arches above the equilateral, /. c, pointed arches, the 
radius of which is greaU'r than the span. 

When the counterthrust is less than the thrust, subtract the 
less from the greater, and the difference will be the excess of the 
thrust force at R — -supposed to be the base of the supporting pier. 
This excess must be counterpoised in some way by the counter- 
fort. To do this, we must provide a gravity force conceived to be 
acting upon horizontal arms rigidly attached to the lever / B, so 
that it becomes a bent lever. This gravity force is derived from 
the weight of all of the half arch, the weight of the supporting 
pier, and more weight if necessary. We will then divide the weight 
of the half arch and pier — taken in pounds — -into the excess of 
the thrust force in pounds, and the quotient will be the length in 
feet of the lever B to A' which would be necessary if no more 
weight Afere added to the counterpoise. The lever arm B to x, 




t-J. 



•a', '^..ipri'fff-ir*'. ^ 



aiy'y. 



having the weight concentrated at the end B, then becomes the 
counterfort and balances the thrust — always assuming the pier is 
sulificiently rigid to sustain the load. 

For the counterpoising gravity, then, we have: weight of arch, 
weight of pier, and weight of counterfort. It will be observed that 
it does not matter whether the counterpoising weight be jjlaced on 
the lever />' j- or the lever /c', except that the lever It' is always 
limited by the arc of the arch, while the lever l> .1 is considered un- 
limited as to length ; also, the lever arm 1 1' will wholly disappear in 
arches of the second class, of the varieties shown by Figs. 6 and 
iS. In such arches, counterthrust is also absent. It is also evident 
that a part of the counterpoise maybe applied to eacli of tl'e lever 
arms B .r and / r'. 

To test the foregoing reasonings as well as to better demonstrate 
the procedure, let us suppose Fig. y to be at a scale of '4 in. to the 
foot. It will then repre.sent one half an arch 42 ft. span, mounted on 
piers 30 ft. to the spring. For convenience we will sup])ose the arch 



154 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



and pier i ft. by i ft. sectional area, and weighing i 20 IIi.s. to the cubic 
foot. Not pretending to extreme niceties, we measure the intrados of 
the arch a to v for length, and this we know to be 33 ft.; each lineal 
foot we will call a cubic foot. Now we know that there is 16^ cu. ft. 
above the neutral line, and 16^ cu. ft. below it. Then we have : — • 



Upper part of arch. 
idyi cu. ft. X 120 lbs. = 1,980 lbs. 
X lever /i9 in feet 4454' 



Lower part of arch. 
I (iYz cu. ft. X I 20 lbs. = 1 ,980 lbs. 
-^ 2 (for half ) 990 



Thrust force at /< 

Hence, thrust 
Counterthrust 



88,605 lbs. X lever /' B 

Counterthrust at B 



4054 
40,342 



88,605 lbs. 
40,342 „ 



Excess thrust 48,263 „ 

This e-xcess of thrust must be counterpoised, we will suppose, 
by the weight of the arch and pier, thus : — 
Weight of arch 3,960 lbs. 

„ pier 3,600 „ 

Excess of thrust lbs. 

Total counterpoise w't. lbs. 7,560)48,263(6 ft. 

4Si36o 

2,903 

X 12 for ins. 



34,.S36(4>^ ins. 
30,240 



3,596 

7,560 



about yi in. 



This would indicate that the lever arm from B to x would re- 
quire to be 6 ft. 4>^ ins. to just balance the forces of the arch if no 
more weight was anywhere added — the quality of rigidity in the 
lever arm A' .r being the agency through which the excess of thrust 
force is expended. 

If the arm B x must be 6 ft. 4,'i ins., what length must a similar 
lever be at the springing line of the arch ? We have for that calcu- 
lation the same weights for the two parts of the arch, but these 
weights operate through much shorter leverage. Then we have : — 



Upper part of arch. 
Weight 1,980 lbs. 
X lever \\% ft. 
Thrust 29,205 lbs. 

Excess of thrust 1 8,563 lbs. 
-^ weight of half arch 3,960)15,840(4 ft. 

2,723 
12 



Lower part of arch. 
Weight of arch 1,980 lbs- 
-^ 2 (for half) 990 
X lever io|^ 



10,642 lbs. 



32,676(8^^: ins. 
3 1 ,680 



996 
3,960 



= ^ 



Thus, at the springing line we would require a pier (or lever 
arm) 4 ft. ^% ins. horizontal extension. This would seem to con- 
firm our statement in the first chapter — ^ that an arch could be over- 
turned, even if the piers were absolutely immovable below the spring 
line ; but the arches which may thus be destroyed are those only 
which exert a counterthrust, because it is only in this kind of arch 
that the thrust occurs above the springing line. Arches which have 
their springing line and point of thrust coincident upon their sup- 
porting piers may, indeed, fail, or be destroyed without final rupture 
of their piers, but only in a manner quite different from that pointed 
out above. 



CRACKS IN TERRA-COTTA. 

M.WUFACTUREKS of terra-cotta have a real grievance 
against builders and architects, on the score of the material 
not being properly dealt with by them. It would not be difficult to 
point to several large buildings in terra-cotta, the walls of which, 
especially in ba.sements, are cracked from top to bottom. Speaking 
the other day to an architect who was very fond of terra-cotta, and 
had used it in many important buildings, we asked him why he did 
not now favor the material so much as formerly. His answer was not 
of the stereotyped kind relating to latene.ss of delivery and delays ; 
Init he indicated that he had been disappointed by the cracking of 
the material when subjected to much weight in heavy walls, though 
these cracks did not make their appearance until after the build- 
ing had been up some time. No doubt many of the faults under 
such circumstances arise from settlement of the foundation; but we 
feel i)erfectly convinced that they would be far less prevalent and not 
l)e so noticeable if more attention were paid to setting and filling in 
l)uilding up the walls ^ and that is where the makers' chief grievance 
comes in. It seems to us that many of the large users regard 
terra-cotta for walls as a species of veneer; which does an injustice 
to the material. There are powerful reasons for not using terra- 
cotta in large solid blocks, on account of warping and twisting in 
burning and the like. .And makers certainly have a right to insist 
on the filling being properly done, so as to render the blocks solid in 
the wall ; it is not that the terra-cotta is at fault, but the builders. 
— The II) ilisli Brickhuildt-r. 



FRESH CEMENT, TO PAINT 0\'ER. 

A CONTRIBUTOR to l\iiiitiii>^ triii/ IMi>rii///ix' recommends 
that the walls lie washed with dilute sulphuric acid several 
days before painting. This will change the surplus caustic lime to 
sulphate of lime or gypsum. The acid should be about one half 
chamber acid and one half water, but if quick action is wanted 66 
per cent, acid will answer. This should be repeated before painting, 
and a coat of raw linseed oil flowed on freely should be given for the 
first coat. While this cannot be always guaranteed as effectual for 
making the paint hold, it is the best method our correspondent has 
heard of for the purpose, and is worth trying when it is absolutely 
necessarv to jiaint over fresh cement. — I'lxcltaiii^c. 



• I'OINTINO." 

AT this season of the year house fronts are commonly cleaned 
down, brickwork is -'pointed," and with the assistance of 
paint the external aspect of the dwelling is changed. If people are 
silly enough to paint brickwork, let them do so ; but there is more 
sense in •' pointing it." What we desire to criticize in this " note " 
is the manner in which the pointing is done. The builder takes no 
trouble whatever over the bricks ; he chips away the sharp, clean-cut 
edges, and scratches the mortar out. Then he fills up the holes 
made with mortar, and attempts to " restore " the sharp edges of the 
l)ricks l)y a compromise i)etween a " trowel line " and a black streak. 
The chipped edges of the brick are hopelessly plastered over in the 
process, and never afterwards will the building front look like a good 
piece of brickwork. Whatever may be the excuses for pointing.— 
and they are many in populous, smoky districts, — there can be none 
for ruthlessly destroying the effect of a good piece of work. This 
morning we have just seen a really handsome brick front in process 
of mutilation Jn this fa.shion. The clipping and scraping having 
been duly carried out, a colored mortar — yellow, like the bricks — 
has been thrown in, and the clippings hidden by the leveling of the 
whole by the trowel. Then the inevitable "black streak" is per- 
formed, and the front looks as though it had been ruled into squares 
and irregular oblongs. And the "builder, decorator, and sanitary 
eno-ineer " is so proud of his ghastly work that he has actually had 
the impudence to erect a l)oard in the front garden giving his name 
and address ! If " pointing " is to be done, let it be done carefully 
and reverently, and not as though the building were to form part of 
an ephemeral exhibition or raree-show. — '///<• British Biickhuildei: 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Recent Brick and Terra-Cotta 

Work in American Cities, 

and 



155 



Church to be Ijuilt corner Convent Avenue and 145th Street. Cost, 
)J7S,ooo. 

C. P. H. Gilbert, architect, has planned an hotel, to cost $200,- 



Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — The quiet season has begun in New York as 
well as in most of the large cities, as chronicled in the daily 
press. It seems inevitable, at this time of year, that there should be 
a dearth of large operations in building projects. The rush, not as 
powerful as usual, ceased about May i, and speculators and investors 
are quietly resting now until time to search for " new worlds to con- 
quer." Preliminary sketches are now in progress for several impor- 
tant buildings designed to be ready for occupancy in '98, but most of 

the activity this summer will be in the 
preparation of plans for small build- 
ings and residences. Some of the 
most important items of news follow. 
The disastrous fire on Ellis Is- 
land, which fortunately was confined 
to destruction of property only, will 
necessitate the entire rebuilding of 
the island, which has been used for 
many years as the landing place and 
headquarters for emigrants from for- 
eign countries. The buildings have 
always been considered unsafe and 
unsubstantial, and although frequent 
complaints had been made to the 
authorities at Washington, nothing 
was done, until now some action is 
inevitable. The President has sug- 
gested that an appropriation of $600,- 
Qoo be made, and Col. John L. 
Smithmeyer, of Washington, has been 
appointed Superintendent of Con- 
struction for the erection of the pro- 
posed buildings. The new buildings 
will be fire-proof, of brick or iron, and 
so constructed that the several parts 
can be cut off from each other by fire 
walls and steel doors. 

Clinton & Russell, architects, are 
preparing plans for a fifteen-story 
brick and stone office building, to be 
built at Nos. 35 to 39 Broadway, for 
the Hemenway estate. 

Ernest Flagg, architect, is pre- 
paring plans for a building to be 
erected on the north side of 36th 
Street, near Broadway. 

James B. Baker, architect, is pre- 
paring plans for an office building to 
be erected corner of fifth Avenue 
and 4Sth Street, for T. T. Tower. 

W. J. Dilthey, architect, has completed plans for " The Ren- 
wick " store and loft building, which will cost $100,000. It will be 
located corner of University Place and loth Street, and will be eight 
stories, all fire-proof. 

Harney & Purdy, architects, are making sketches for a Hospital 
and Home for Colored People, to be erected on Concord and Wales 
Avenues, and to cost $100,000. It will be a four-story brick and 
stone building. 

Lamb & Rich, architects, are preparing plans for a Baptist 




TERRA-COTTA FKiUllE, lO 
FT. HIGH, ON GABLE, 
AMERICAN BAPTI'^T PUB- 
LISHING SOCIETY BUILD- 
ING, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Frank Miles Day & Bro., Arclytects. 

Executed by the Conkling-Armstrong 
Terra-Cotta Company. 




TERRA-COTTA BELL TOWER, ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, JOHNSTOWN, PA. 

Beezer Brothers, Architects. 

Terra-cotta made by tlte Standard Terra-Cotta Company. 

000, for the Imperial Realty Company. It will be a nine-story brick 
building. 

CHICAGO. — Building news continues to be depressing. A late 
issue of the Chicago Ecoiioinist gives a column headed 
" Desperation of the Architects," in which the condition of the pro- 
fession is declared to be worse than the general results of business 
stagnation. The evils of cutting prices is alluded to, and particular 
stress is laid on the disastrous competition between architects and 
their own draughtsmen, who work at night and have no office 
expenses. We may hope that some of the evils of the illegitimate 
practise of architecture will be done away with as a result of the 
law passed lately by the Illinois legislature. Under the provisions 
of this statute, any one who desires to practise architecture must 




TERRA-COTTA CAPITAL, STEWART BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

D. H. Burnliam & Co., Architects. 

Executed by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 



156 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




VANDERGRIFT RESIDENCE, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Alden & Harlow, Architects. 
Bricks manufactured by Harbison & Walker. 

pass an e.xamination and pay twenty-five dollars for his license, and 
an annual fee thereafter of five dollars. Established architects are 
not required to take the examination. Every individual member of 
a firm must take out a license. Record must be made in every 
county where an architect practises. The bill seems to have passed 
with little change from the form in which it was recommended by 
the Institute of Architects. A casual reading gives the impression 
that the clause which allows a contractor to be his own architect 
may afford a means of evading the law just where, for the sake of 
good architecture, it ought to be most effective. 

The make-up of the examining board, the conditions for revo- 
cation of licenses, etc., are details of interest to the 
profession, which looks at the bad business, worse 
architecture, and some of the so-called members of i^ 

the profession who bring disgrace upon it, and hopes 
that the new law will accomplish something. 

The most important item this month is a ten-story 
office building, by Holaljird & Roche, which is to be 
erected this summer at Clark and Harrison Streets, 
to cost ij2oo,ooo. This location is at present the 
south side limit of high office buildings. 

N. .S. I'atton, architect for the Hoard of Educa- 
tion, has several schools on hand. 

S. S. Beman is taking bids on a hotel to be built 
in South Bend, Ind. 

Plans have l)een completed by H. L. Otten- 
heimer for a four-story apartment building, to co.st 

$100,000. 

Bishop & Colcord have a $75,000 building of the 
same character under way. 

Robert S. Smith has designed two important 
apartment buildings. 

Among good residences may be named one at 
$75,000, designed by Richard E. Schmidt. Archi- 
tect Fritz Foltz is designing one to cost $25,000. 



the opinion that, with the settlement of the tariff, 
this city will begin, if not to boom, at any rate to be 
very busy. 

There are several large buildings to be started 
very soon, chief among which may be cited the new 
building for the Buffalo Savings Bank. It is to be 
erected on the corner of Main and Huron Streets. 
The site cost $260,000. The building is to be built 
from designs obtained in competition. A week ago 
the following architects were invited to submit 
sketches : C. W. Eidlitz and R. W. Gibson, of New 
York, and (jreen & Wicks, A. Essenwein, Lan.sing 
& Beierl, Geo. Gary, E. A. Kent, Beebe & Son, 
Bethune & Fuchs, and C. K. Porter, of this city. 

The committee announced that $250 would be 
paid to each competitor, and reserves the right to 
reject any and all plans, or adopt any which meets 
with their approval. 

The New York architects have notified the sec- 
retary that they will not enter on such terms, but have 
sent a circular issued by a number of architects 
whereby they agree to prepare plans under conditions 
not approved of by the bank authorities. 

No reply has yet been made, but the prospects 
are that the local architects only will compete. The 
building is to cost $300,000, and is to compare favor- 
ably with any buildings in the neighborhood. The 
directors wish to obtain one of the hand.somest indi- 
vidual banking houses in the county. 
The former owner of the property has bought from the Catholic 
Institute a block on Main Street and intends to build a fine structure 
there. As a consequence of this, the Catholic Institute intends to 
goon with their Institute on the corner of Main and Virginia Streets, 
and Messrs. Metzger & Greenfield have received the order for plans 
for the same. The idea is to have a building about 60 ft. high, three 
stories, with a frontage on Main of yS ft., and to be built in the style 
of Italian Renaissance, with an imposing faqade. Terra-cotta is 
expected to enter largely into the composition of both these build- 
ings. 

A large apartment house is to be built on Franklin Street, near 



BUFF.VLO. — Last month ended with far brighter 
prospects for the building trade than have been 
seen for a long time. On every hand seems to be 




CHAPEL, WASHINGTON STREET, BOSTON. 
Rotchl& Tilden, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

entered competi- 
tive designs for a 
new liljrary liuild- 



157 




TERRA-COTTA WINDOW LINTEL, OSTERWEIS BUILDING, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

Brunner & Tryon, Architects. 

Executed by New Jersey Terr.i-Cotta Company. 



Allen. The plans have been drawn out of town and everything has 
been conducted with great secrecy, but the fact has leaked out. It 
is to be an elaborate structure, and is to far exceed in finish and 
convenience any building of the kind erected so far in this city. 

There has been some little excitement over letting the contract 
for fire-proofing the new school No. 12. One of the fire-proofing com- 
panies using hollow brick complains that the specifications have been 
drawn to suit the Expanded Metal Fire-proofing Company, thereby 
preventing any other class of fire-proofing from having an equal 
chance to bid on the work. Nothing has been done in this case, 
but a proposition has been made to allow all fire-proofing companies 
to submit estimates for the ironwork necessary for their individual 

systems. 




ing to be erected 

by Washington and 

Jefferson College, 

at Washing ton, 

Penn., at a cost of 

$60,000. 

The Fifth 

Avenue Bap t is t 

congregation have 

accepted plans for 

a new $10,000 

church on the site 

of the old chapel. 
Architect J. P. 

Brennan has pre- 
pared plans for an 

industrial school 

for the St. Paul's 
Orphan Asylum, Tanne- 
hill Street, to be three 
stories, of brick, and to 
cost $15,000. 

A new Casino will 
be erected here from 
plans prepared by Arch- 
itect J. D. Allen, of Philadelphia, Penn., of steel construction and 
terra-cotta, to cost $150,000. 



TERRA-COTTA KEY, BUILDING WAVERLY 

PLACE AND GREENE STREET, NEW 

YORK CITY. 

Robert Maynicke, Architect. 
Executed by Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 



R' 










^-:---^Ji-i 



TERRA-COTTA PANEL, BUILDING 
WAVERLY PLACE AND 
GREENE STREET.S, 
NEW YORK 
CITY. 
Robert Maynicke, Arciiitect. 
Executed by Excelsior Terra-Cotla Com- 
pany. 



PITTSBURGH. — Some few 
new buildings are maturing 
on paper, among which is a new 
school building for the third ward, 
Allegheny, for which Architect F. 
C. Sauer is preparing the plans. 
It is to cost about $200,000. 

The North Braddock School 
Board have decided to erect 
a new school building at a 
cost of $20,000. 

Architects Shaw & 
Bailey are preparing plans 
for a three-story l)rick school- 
house for Warren, Penn., to 
cost about $30,000. 

Architects Alden & Har- 
low have been selected to 
prepare plans for the new 
industrial school building for 
the second ward. Home- 
stead, to 1)6 erected by Mr. 
C. M. Schwab, president of 
the Carnegie Steel Company. 
It will be two stories, of 
brick, and contain eight 
rooms, to cost $25,000. 

The same architects 
have prepared plans for a 
four-story brick warehouse 
to be erected on Liberty 
Street, for John Way, Jr. 

Local architects have 



OCHESTER. — Thus far there has been but one important 
building erected this year — the new extension to the whole- 
sale warehouse of Sibley, Lindsay & Curr, which is about 75 by 
150 ft., seven stories high, iron and steel construction, terra-cotta 
partitions, and floor arches, and cost about $75,000. 

The massive foundations for the new Lehigh Valley Railroad 
CoiTipany's new depot are as yet uncompleted. The latter building, 
when finished, will be one of the handsomest structures in the city, 
and is the work of Architect J. Foster Warner, as is also the Sibley 
Building extension. 

Architect George T. Otis is about to let contracts for the erec- 
tion of a four-story building for the Young Women's Christian Asso- 




TERRA-COTTA PIER CAP, 1 5Tn STORY, ,ST, JAMES 

CITY. 

Bruce Price, Architect. 

Executed by the Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 



liUILDING, NEW YORK 



158 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




ciation. Building will he about 60 by 85 ft., with a gymnasium 
wing 30 by 75 ft. ; the latter will he fire-proof. Front will he of 
press-brick, furnished by the New York Hydraulic Press-Brick 
Company, and trimmed with Indiana limestone, or Vermont marble 
and terra-cotta; the building complete will cost about $35,000. 

The Rochester Steam Laundry Company are erecting a new 
press-brick front to their 
four-story building on 
Court Street, from designs 
by Fay & Dryer. New 
York Hydraulic Press- 
Brick Company furnish 
the brick, and Excelsior 
Terra-Cotta Company the 
terra-cotta. 

Architects Kelly & 
Headley are about to let 
contracts for the erection 
of the Wayne County 
(New York) Court House, 

which they recently won in competition. Building will he of press- 
brick trimmed with light-colored stone and terra-cotta. 

Architect Claude F. Bragdon, of this city, has taken in a 
partner, Mr. J. Con Hillman, of Portland, Ore. Messrs. Bragdon 
& Hillman have prepared plans for a number of buildings to be 
erected at Despatch, N. Y., ranging in cost from $1,500 cottages to 
the $30,000 hotel, including a town hall, church, and railway station, 
the latter being completed and the hotel started ; all are of brick and 
in "colonial style." 

BRICK AND TERRA-COTTA FIREPLACE MANTELS. 

THERE are no materials which can he used in interior finish 
about the chimney corner to better effect than brick or terra- 
cotta, which, when skilfully chosen and arranged, produces soft, har- 
monious effects not obtainable in any other way. 

Architects who have had large e.xperience in the use of such 



material have learned, however, that the production of special de- 
signs is attended not only with such great cost as to be often pro- 
hibitive, but that the burning to order of special terra-cotta to the 
uniform color, size, and nicety required for interior decoration, par- 
ticularly in the so-called " fire-flashed " colors, is a difficult undertaking, 
and results in frequent failures, delays, and disappointments. 



TERRA-COTTA FRIKZE, AMERICAN liAPTIST rUBLTSHINO SOCIETY BUILDING, PHILADKLIMIIA. 

Frank Miles Day & Brother, Arcliitecls. 
Executed by c;onkling-.\rmstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

Any concern, therefore, that can offer a line of fireplaces in 
brick or terra-cotta, producing all the artistic effects of special 
designs, with the low cost and certainty of delivery attending stock 
patterns, will certainly make a most valuable contribution to the 
resources of our architects, and will greatly widen their present 
scope in the interior finishing of their buildings. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., of Boston, have undertaken this task, and 
how well they have succeeded will be seen from the accompanying 
cut of one of their smaller designs, by the full-page -advertisement 
.shown elsewhere, and the series of drawings which they propose to 
illustrate in our pages during the coming year. 

In their mantels they have adopted a somewhat novel method 
of handling the ornamentation, which is largely in terra-cotta form 
instead of molded bricks, thereby producing an artistic style not 
otherwise obtainable. 

They have employed competent designers to first lay out the 



I'mm 

Jr 




i-^ 



BRICK AND TERRA-COTTA FIREPLACE MANTEL. 

Designed by J. H. Ritchie. Del. by H. F. Briscoe. Modeled by Tito Conti. 

Manufactured by Fiske, Homes & Co. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



159 



mantels without reference to the detail of the manufacture, giving 
them full scope to proportion and arrange them for the production 
of the finest architectural effects. The modeling has been done 
entirely by hand in the best classical style, while the pressing of stiff- 
tempered clay in smooth metal dies gives a nicety of finish much 
superior to the usual terra-cotta work made in plaster of Paris molds. 

The terra-cotta work is all made in standard-sized interchange- 
able pieces. 

In burning these pieces in the kilns, a variety of shades is 
obtained which are culled with great care, thus enabling an entire 
mantel to be furnished of a uniform color. This result cannot be 
accomplished in any other way, particularly in fire-flashed material. 

A feature of great importance, which we hope will be appre- 
ciated and utilized by architects, is the opportunity afforded them of 
making designs to suit their own individual tastes as regards the 
choice and arrangement of ornamentation, by bringing together in 
any desired combination the standard interchangeable pieces which 
"Fiske, Homes & Co. are now prepared to furnish. This method 
will give practically all the desirable features of special designs, but 
with the moderate cost and certainty of delivery already mentioned. 

We illustrate above one of their low cost yet artistic designs in 
which the facing is made of 8 by i ^ in. bricks with beaded jambs, 
with a delicate bead and reel border, and the cornice of a skilfully 
modeled egg and dart and dentil design ; a wood shelf and back- 
board are used to give a smooth and finished effect. 

This design can be furnished in a variety of colors, and any 
width of opening from 28 to 48 ins. (varying by 4 in. intervals), 
the other dimensions being in proper proportion. By this flexibility 
of dimensions, which can be obtained only by the method adopted 
in these mantels, the requirements of any particular case can be 
suited. 

OF INTEREST TO ARCHITECT AND MANUFACTURER. 

Mr. J. Parker Fiske was admitted to the firm of Fiske, 
Homes & Co., Boston, on July i, 1897. 

Waldo Brothers have received the contract for furnishing 
the ornamental terra-cotta for Highland Spring Brewery, Boston. 

Negotiations have been closed whereby Meeker, Carter, 
Booraem & Co. will, in the future, handle the Brooklyn business of 
O. D. Person, of New York. 

Simpson Brothers, Boston, are using Alsen German Portland 
Cement for platform work at new Newton stations, Ijuying of Waldo 
Brothers, New England agents. 

The F. D. Cummer & Son Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, re- 
ports the sale of one of its celebrated dryers to be shipped to St. 
Petersburgh, Russia, and three to Antwerp, Belgium. 

Waldo Brothers are supplying the Atlas brand of American 
Portland Cement for foundation work for Converse Building, Milk 
Street, and White Building, Boylston Street, Boston, Winslow & 
Wetherell, architects, and L. P. Soule & Son, builders. 

The American Enameled Brick and Tile Company has closed 
contract with the board of trustees of the Ohio State University for 
about fifty thousand enameled brick for use in Townshend Hall 
Building, of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., of New York City, have 
opened a branch office in the Arbuckle Building, Brooklyn. In addi- 
tion to a full line of burnt clay materials of foreign and domestic 
manufacture, they will carry common bricks, lime, cement, etc. One 
of the principal reasons for opening this office is to push the sale of 
paving bricks, manufactured by the Eastern Paving Brick Company. 
This branch of their business will be in charge of Mr. Paul E. 
O'Brien. 

The Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, Chicago, have closed 
the following contracts for their brick : Cataract Construction Com- 
pany Power House, Niagara Falls, McKim, Mead & White, archi- 



tects; Cook County Hospital, Chicago, Warren H. Milner, architect ; 
Hecker Mausoleum, Detroit, McKim, Mead & White, architects; 
schoolhouse. No. 18, Buffalo, Aug. C. Esenwein, architect ; stable for 
Mrs. Nearings, Toledo, Ohio, E. O. Falles, architect ; Vocke Build- 
ing, Napoleon, Ohio, E. O. Falles, architect. 

The New Jersey Terra-cotta Company is making the terra-cotta 
for office building, 115 Wall Street, New York City, Jardine, Kent & 
Jardine, architects ; office building, 830 Broadway, New York City, 
Cleverdon & Putzel, architects; High School, Concord, Mass., Chap- 
man, Frazer & Blinn, architects ; apartment houses, .St. Nicholas 
Avenue, New York City, Henry Anderson, architect; apartment 
houses, 146-150 Eighth Avenue, New York City, Thomas R. Jack- 
son, architect; apartment house, Monroe & Hamilton Streets, New 
York City, Louis F. Heinicke, architect. 

The Grueby Faience Company, 164 Devonshire Street, 15os- 
ton, has been reorganized and incorporated under the laws of Massa- 
chusetts ; W. H. Grueby, W. H. Graves, and Geo. P. Kendrick, 
directors. 

Their reproductions of the old Moorish tiles in the dull, soft 
colors of the originals are attracting a good deal of attention, and 
Moorish designs and colors are already finding a place in modern 
baths and smoking rooms. 

The brilliant effect of the Grueby faience in a plain white 
surface can best be seen in a recently completed station of the 
Boston Subway. This smooth, clean material cannot fail to find 
favor wherever cleanliness and the absence of the germ of disease is 
of prime necessity — in hospitals, laboratories, baths, schools, and 
all public works. 

A pretty booklet has come to our notice illustrating the Pan- 
coast ventilators, made by the Pancoast Ventilator Company, 316 
Bourse Building, Philadelphia, Penn. It is invaluable for use in 
offices, sitting rooms, bedrooms, smoking rooms, railroad cars, street 
cars, churches, court rooms, schoolrooms, public halls, hospitals, etc. 
The advantages of the ventilator are, efficiency, neatness, durability, 
and perfection. This firm guarantees to exhaust as many cubic feet 
of air per minute as any other storm-proof ventilator made. The 
Pancoast building and chimney ventilators are said to be one of the 
best ventilators on the market, and are guaranteed to give entire 
satisfaction. They are made in all sizes of galvanized iron or 
copper. There are several testimonials contained in this book from 
people who have used these ventilators, and who praise them very 
highly. Write the manufacturers for a catalogue. 

The Gale Automatic Safety Sash Lock, herewith illus- 
trated, commends itself at once on inspection as being simple and 
durable (having no springs), and positive in its automatic locking of 

any window 
equipped with it on 
shutting the same, 
as the sash cannot 
be closed without 
the lock fastening 
the window. This 
lock does not inter- 
fere with the free 
movement of eitlier 
sash, and cannot 
cut or mar the 
woodwork, even if 
carelessly u s c d . 
The lock draws 
the sashes together in locking them, and will lock those, the meeting 
rails of which do not close within three eighths of an inch, just as 
securely as where the meeting rails are flush. If the upper or out- 
side sash has dropped or sagged, the lock will force it up to the head 
of the frame, and when locked holds the sashes absolutely rigid, and 




i6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



prevents rattling. A unique feature of the lock is that, in the event 
of one not closing the lower or inside sash entirely, the window is 
locked, as the lock fastens at three distinct points. The lifting of 
the lever or knob releases the lock, and the window unlocks as the 
sash is raised. For further information regarding this device parties 
may correspond with Rufus E. Eggleston, 576 Mutual Life Building, 
Philadelphia, Penn. 

We are in receipt of the following communication from Mr. T. 
W. Carmichael. inventor and manufacturer of the Carmichael Clay 
Steamer : — 

I beg to call your attention to the great success of my clay 
steamer by handing you herewith a copy of a letter received from 
one of my latest customers. This party was in doubt about ever 
being able to make good pressed brick with his clay, but the steamer 
did not run longer tlian five minutes in his presence before he said 
he was satisfied. 

Grfen Hay, Wis., May 22, 1897. 
T. \V. (armic'iiakl, Ksc>.. WKLi.sBrKn, W, Va. 

Afy dear Sir: — I am now satisfied our clay will make excellent IJry Press Brick. 
Voiir steamer has set iis right, and I am now making press brick of the best quality. 
If you wan! a recommendation, write out anything you want and 1 will sign it. 
Respectfully yours, 
THK WM. KINNKGAN BRICK COMPANY, 
VVm. Kinnhc.an. 

Remember, my steamer is sold on a guaranty. It is my 
machine until it does work properly. I make it a point to set or 
start the steamer myself, thus avoiding delay and experimenting. It 
can in most cases be set at night, so no time is lost. 

The following are among my customers for this season : — 

James McNeen, La Junta, Colorado. 

The Washington Brick & Terra-Cotta Company, Washington, 
D, C, 

Chisholm, Boyd & White Company, Chicago, 111, 

yVlumina Shale lirick Company, Bradford, Penn. 

Standard Brick Company, McKeesport, Penn, 

Alumina Shale Brick Company, Bradford, Penn,, second order. 

Wm. Finnegan Brick Company, Green Bay, Wis. 



Nicholls & Mathews, Wellsburg, W. V^-l. 

Empire Press Brick Company, Denton, Texas. 

N. W. Ballentyne, New Cumberland, W. Va. 

Gladding, McBean Company, San Francisco, Cal. 

Camden Clay Company, Spillman, W. Va. 

My claim that " No dry press brick plant is complete without the 
Carmichael Clay Steamer " receives a practical endorsement in the 
above list. 

TREASURY DEPARTMKNT, Office .Super^•ising Architect, Washington, n. C, 
Julys, 1S97. .SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 2 o'clock r. m. 
on the tenth day of .\ugust, 1897, and opened immediately thereafter, for all the labor and 
materials required for the erection and completion (except heating apparatus, vault doors, 
and tower clock), of the United States Post-Office, etc., building at Paterson, N. J., in 
accordance with the drawings and specification, copies of which may be had at this office or 
the office of the superintendent, at Paterson, N. J. Each bid must be accompanied by a 
certified check for a sum not less than two per cent, of the amount of the proposal. The 
right is reserved to reject any or all bids, and to waive any defect or informality in any bid, 
should it be deemed in the interest of the Covernnient to do so, .Ml proposals received after 
the time stated for opening will be returned to the bidders. CHAS. E. KEMPEK, Acting 
Supervising Architect. 



For Sale. 



Brick Plant and Cla}- Farm in Sayrevillc Town- 
ship, Middlesex Co., N.J., on Raritan River, about 
3 miles above South Amboy. 282 acres rich de- 
posit of Terra-Cotta, Fire, Red, Blue, and Buff 
Brick, and Common Cla3's. Facilities for ship- 
ping by Water or Rail. Fully equipped Factory, 
Dwellings, Office, Store, etc., etc. For further 
particulars apply to W. C. Mason, 27 Main St., 
Hartford. 




Make It Better 



make it more attractive and pleasing. Make 
the fireplace something more than a mere 
place to burn fuel in. You can get heat from 
a stove or radiator, but there's nothing decora- 
tive about either. It's cheerful to have an 
open fire, and when it burns in one of our 
Fireplace Mantels made of Ornamental Brick 
the combined effect is extremely pleasing. 

Our mantels are the newest and best. 
They have all those soft, rich effects of har- 
mony and simplicity so much desired. They 
cost no more than other kinds, and any good 
brick-mason can set them. 

Send for Sketch Book of 52 designs of va- 
rious colors costing from %\2 up. 



philadei^phia & boston 
Face Brick Co., 

1 5 Liberty Square, Boston, Mass. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXXVll 



Airliilrrlnrc; EUrhtcily, Mechanies; 
McrlKtiilriil Dr<iii'i)i(i; Uteam Enrrineer- 
iiKi — Shilii'iinrji, Jjir(imiilirf or Murine; 
Ciril Eii'iiiiiTi'iiiq: Kdilruiiil Eiijiiiini- 
iiHi: j:n>l:ir Kii,liiirn-ii,y; Miliiicipnl 
EiHiiiiiiniiii : Jl/iilriiiilic Eiujinijcriiiij ; 
I'/iniihiiHi mill JImliiifi ; Ciiul and McliU 
Mi III III/:' I'nispa'tinij, and the English 
ijianchca. 

Architecture offers splendid op- 
portunities to women ambitious to 
liecome self-supiKirtinfj. Seliolar- 
sliips are not forl'eiteil upon failure 
to Jiay installments jiromptly. Stu- 
ilents make ra|>iil prijLjress in learn- 
iii;; to Drawanil Letter. sp<c- 
ially prepared Instruction and 
(Question Papers, Condensiil, 
Simplilied. Send for Free ('ir- 
eular and Book of Testimoni- 
als, statins the subject you 

wish to study. t<. gjij^g^g 

Tin- Iiitprnallonnl ] 



BY 



The Chemistry of 
Pottery. 

By KARL LANGENBECK. 

Price, ... g»2,00. 

It must be acknowledged that 
the author has carried out the 
work in a clear and systematic 
manner, and in addition to his own 
experiments has made use of the 
German work relating to the sub- 
ject. The descriptions of clay 
masses and glazes are judicious and 
give in a few strokes a character- 
istic outline, so that the entire 
work must be considered very in- 
structive. The reading matter of 
the book, which is free from bom- 
bast and is distinguished by solid 
knowledge of the subject matter, 
may be cordially commended. — 
Chetniker Zeitung. 

Sent Postpaid on Receipt of Price. 

Chemical Publishing Co., 

Easton, Pa. 



LOCATIONS FOR INDOSTRIES. 

The name of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Ilailway has long been identified with jirac- 
tical measures for the general npbnilding of its 
territory and the inomotion of its commerce, 
hence manufacturers have an assurance tliat 
tliey will find themselves at home on the Com- 
p.iny's lines. 

The Company has all its territory districted in 
relation to resources, adaptability and advan- 
tages for manufacturing, and seeks to secure 
manufacturing plants and industries where the 
conunand of raw material, markets and sur- 
roundings will ensure their i>ermanent success. 

Mines of co.al, iron, cop)>er, leail and zinc, 
forests of soft and bard wood, quarries, clays of 
all kinds, tanbark, flax and other raw materials, 
exist in its territory in a<ldition to the vast 
agricultural resources. 

The Cliicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 
Company owns 0,108 miles of Railway, exidusive 
of second track, connecting track or sidings. 
The eight States traversed by the Company, 
Illinois, Wisconsin, Northern Michigan, Iowa, 
Missouri, Minnesota, South Dakota, and North 
Dakota, possess, in addition to the advantages 
of raw material and proximity to markets, that 
which is the prime factor in the industrial suc- 
cess of a territory— a people who form one live 
and thriving comnninity of business men, in 
whose midst it is safe and profitable to settle. 

A number of new factories and industries have 
been induced to locate— largely through the in- 
strumentality of this Company — at points along 
its lines. The central position of the States 
traversed by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Railway makes it possible to command all the 
markets of the United States. The trend of 
manufacturing is westward. Confldenti.al in- 
quiries are treated as such. The information 
furnished a particular industry is reliable. 

Address, 

LUIS JACKSON, 

Industrial Commissioner, C. M. .% St. Paul Rv., 
4:W Old Colony Buildin^'. CHICAGO, ILI.. 



100 



CITIES AND TOWNS 

WANTING INDUSTRIES 

Is the title of a pamphlet issued by the Illinois 
Central R. R.Co. If yon are thinking of making 
a change in location and are not well informed 
as to the advantages of locating either in the 
West or South, write for a copy. If you want 
in a nutshell the 

SALIENT POINTS OF OVER 100 PLACES 

on the line of the Illinois Central and Yazoo & 
Mississippi Valley Railroads, giving the popula- 
tion, city and county debt, death rate, assessed 
valuation of property, tax rate, annual ship- 
ments, raw materials, industries desired, etc., 
apply to the undersigned. Our line is in the 
shape of the figure " 7 " and runs from Sioux 
Falls, S. D., and Sioux City, la., to New Orleans, 
passing through South Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, 
Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, K-entucky, Tennes- 
see, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and has 

NEARLY EVERY KIND OF RAW MATERIAL 

used in m.anufacturing, together with populous 
sections which are large consumers of the man- 
ufactured prodtict. To sound industries which 
will bear investigation, substantial inducements 
will be given by many of our places, and they 
will be welcomed heartily by the different sec- 
tions traversed by the Illinois Central and Yazoo 
& Mississippi Valley Railroads. For all informa- 
tion on the sub.iect, address GEO. C. l'()\VER. 
Industrial Commissioner I. C. R. R., Central Sta- 
tion, Chicago, III. I-l-fl.-j. 



ii 



Standard Clinch System 

PERFORATED STEEL 
WALL TIES. 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FREE. 

HAMBLIN & RUSRF' ' VIANFG. CO., 

WORCESTER, MA^S. 



'ODDnmm'^'^^ 




%% 



in 



r c 



'n^ 



f! 11 ^11 id 



1 

I 




Shuirs 



Overhead 

Noiseless 
Axle Pulleys 



Can be put in after plas- 
ter is dry, avoiding 
liability to sweat 
and rust. 

Applied in less time than 
any other high - grade 
pulley. 

Does away with the use 
of lead weights on wide 
and heavy windows 
such as are in the build- 
ing illustrated. 






GERKIN BUILDING, N. V. CITV, Harding & Gooch, Architects. 

The windows in this building are equipped with 



Shull's 



Overhead j. Folsom Snow Guard Co., 

Noiseless ^ ' 



Axle Pulleys. Ji 



178 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 
....Sole Amenta.... 



The M. & W. 

Direct Electric Elevator 

FOR PASSENGER and FREIGHT SERVICE, 

Contains Patented Improvements 
found in no other apparatus, which 
makes it the most efficient, durable, 
and economical Elevator on the 
market. 

Also Manufacturers of 

STEAM, HYDRAULIC, 

AND BELT ELEVATORS 

For Passenger and 
Freight Service. 

For 
further 
infor- 
mation 
send for 
Circu- 
lar E. 

Moore & Wyman Elevator and Machine Works, 

Office and Works, Granite St., Boston, Mass. 




XXXVlll 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Old=Fashioned Scaffolds. 

Laying brick at an inconvenient height. 




1 






The Qilbreth Scaffold. 



Walls of tall or short stories can be built 
story high without interruption, or delay of 
shifting men to other walls while more scaf= 
fold is built. 

Masons' Platform always at the right 
height to lay brick the fastest. 

Hodcarriers' Platform is always at the most 
convenient height to dump hods easily, with- 
out delay , or stooping, and with less climbing. 

It can be set up to advantage anywhere. 



Address 



Gilbreth Scaffold Co*, 

Principal Office, 85 Water Street, 

BOSTON, MASS. 

Longf Distance Telephone 1902. 



REPRESENTATIVES : 

CHAS. P. BOLAND, Troy, N. Y. 
HERMAN WILDHAGEN, Appleton, Wis. 

Send for our New Catalog. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXXIX 




WATERPROOFING 
BRICKS. 

To those who are tired of applying two 
or three coats of linseed oil to their brick 
walls every two or three years, and to those 
who would like to avoid the expense which 
this triennial application entails, 

CABOT'S BRICK 
PRESERVATIVE 

is recommended as an article that will water- 
proof brickwork thoroughly with one coat 
(or with the most porous bricks, two coats,) 
at a less cost per coat than oil, and which 
the test of time has proved to be permanent ^ 
It is an indestructible, insoluble compound 
which never requires renewal. A preven- 
tive of the white efflorescence. 

SAMUEL CABOT, Sole Manufacturer, 

70 Kilby Street, Boston, Mass. 



Fitted with Mason Safety Tread. 



Without Mason Safety Tread. 



SAFETY. DURABILITY. ECONOMY. 



Mason Safety Tread 



The 

Is recommended to Architects and Builders as the best method of protecting 
Stairways, Entrances, SideTvalk Lights, and Coal-Hole Cdhers. 

SERVICEABLE ON BOTH OUTER AND INNER STAIRS. 
EFFICIENCY NOT AFFECTED BY SNOW OR GREASE. 

Adopted l)y the Boston Subway Commission and used in City Ilall and I'olice Depart- 
ment, as well as in the principal hotels and retail stores. 

See sample stairway at our office, showing its application to wood, marble, and iron, 
with and without illumination. 

Send for illustrated pamphlet, sample, and estimates. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Co., 

40 WATER STREET, BOSTON. 



Tk tosh Malllc Corner Bead. 



As all parts are galvanized, 
this bead can he used with 
artificial plasters as well as 
with lime mortar. 




The corner, when finished, 
presents a smooth, rounded 
surface for paper or decora- 
tion. 




This Bead consists of a rod of Steel held 
rigidly at any required distance from the 
corner to he protected. 

DiflFerent forms of clip enable this bead 
to be used as readily on the corners of brick 
and terra-cotta partition walls and of fire- 
proof construction as on wood studding. 

One hundred clips are sent with each 
hundred feet of rod, although they need not 
be placed in ordinary cases closer than 18 
or 20 ins. With the clip for brick or terra- 
cotta walls, eight-penny wall nails are fur- 
nished. 



Patented June 23, 1896. 

This Bead is kept in stock for ^ and ^ 
in. grounds, in lengths of 6, 7, 8,9, 10, 12, 
and 15 ft. Other lengths furnished to 
order. 

Stale thickness of grounds when order- 
ing. For samples and price-list address 



FOR WOOD. 



'^^ 




,,M^ 



Edward B. Marsh, 



Room 724, 
Tremont Building, 



Boston, Mass. 




FOR BRICK. 




CLIP FOR WOOD. 



CLIP FOR BRICK. 



CLIP FOR STEEL. 



AGENTS.- 



G. McQueen, iSO Nassau St., NEW YORK, N. Y. MERRITT & COMPANY, 1026 Rid^e Ave., PHILADELPHIA, PENN. 

ORGILL BROTHERS & CO., 310 and 312 Front St., MEMPHIS, TENN. THOMAS JONES, 24 South Main St., ASHEVILLE, N. C. 



\" 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



Revolving Sash Company 






American Tract Society 
Building, 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



general Hgcnts: 



EDWARD R. DIGGS & CO., Room 7, Builders' Exchange BIdg., Baltimore, Md. 

RUFUS E. EGGLE5T0N, 575 and 576 Mutual Life Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Write fot[CircuIars, Blue Prints, and Prices. 




Equipped 
with 



AMERICAN BAPTIST PtBLISHING BUILDING, Lombard and Juniper Sts., Philadelphia. Pa. Hales & Balllnger. Architects. 

Dtt ^Ct'J' JTD t* C L Perfect Ventilation. "Wind and Dust Proof. 

DOUeS S OllOing ana KC vol Ving OaSn* can be revolved, reversed, or placed at any desired an?! 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



111 



THE PLANT OF 

The Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Co., 

AT RICHMOND, VA., 



Will in the future be given up 
entirely to the manufacture of 



Cream White Bricks. 



Many leading architects and their buildings will testify that these bricks have no equal. 



Through our sales agency, located at TOWNSEND BUILDING 

25th ST. and BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY, F. H. S. MORRISON, Manager, 

we have arranged to handle the product of the 

Jarden Brick Co., for the dties of new york and Brooklyn. 
O. W. KETCHAM, ZTcna^Cotta, 

Supplies OV' 



OFFICE: 



v»0 )8namclcb 

Builders' Exchange, />^ V H^t^t^^b 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. ©^W ^^ JX^llCK* 

-^^'VV Every Description. 



Telephone, 2163. 



H. F. MAYLAND Sl CO., 

MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS AND 
DEALERS IN 

FRONT AND SHAPE BRICK IN ALL COLORS, 

Telephone, 614 18th St. 287 FOURTH AVENUE, Room 616. 

NEW YORK. 



IV 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R. 




CAPITAL AT SEVENTH STORY. 



PIER PANELS AT EIGHTH STORY. 




FRIEZE OVER THIRD STORY WINDOWS. 



CAPITAL AT SECOND STORY. 




SILL COURSE AT THIRD STORY. 



Illustrations of work, executed in light-gray terra-cotta, for building, Waverly Place and Greene Street, New York City, 

Mr. R. Maynicke, Architect. 



BY 



WORKS: 

Rocky Hill, N. J. 



Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co., 

105 East lid Street, N. Y. 



Boston Representative: CH ARISES BACON, 3 Hamilton Place. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



Conkling, Armstrong 
^ <s Terra-Cotta Co 



// 




Up]?! ?>, 



*h 



Hi 



^^2 



iaia 3j3^^aji 




£aj J a a i i 3 
21 



r 



r^ 




BOWLING GREEN OFFICE BUILDING, NEW YORK, 
CONTAINS A LARGE AMOUNT OF OUR TERRA-COTTA. 



Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior Quality 



WORKS: 

Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., 

PHILADELPHIA. 



PHILA. TELEPHONE CALL 9005. 



OFFICES: 

Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, 
and 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 



VI 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 



Perth Amboy, N. J- 



....Manufacturers.... 



Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

160 Fifth Avenue, 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros*, 1 02 Milk Streets 



STANDARD TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 



PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue. 



BOSTON OFFICE: 

John Hancock Building, 

O. W PETERSON & CO., Agents. 



WASHINGTON OFFICE: 

Builders Exchange, 
WM. C. LEWIS, Agent. 



PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: 

Builders Exchange, 
w. LINCOLN Mcpherson, Agent. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



vn 



Something New 

In Brick and Terra -Cotta Fireplace Mantels. 










Designed by Mr. H. B. BALL. 
Del by Mr. H. F. BRISCOE. 
Modeled by Mr. TITO CONTI. 



We are now prepared to furnish an entirely new and complete line of Fireplace Mantels 
H)CSlC|nCO in classical style to produce rich, yet dignified HSSClllulCO from standard interchangeabi 



architectural effects. 

iIIjOOCICO entirely by hand in the highest perfection 
of the art. 



e pieces in 
any desired combination, thus giving a 
great variety of size and detail with no 
additional cost. 



prCSSCb with great care to give clear-cut outlines and Tftl gCtlCtal producing all the desirable effects of special 



smooth surfaces 
JOUttlCO in a suitable variety of soft, rich colors. 



mantels, made to order, without their 
excessive cost, or their uncertainty of 
manufacture. 



166 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dealers also in Architectural Terra-Cotta and Building Bricks in all colors known to clay working. 

Fire=Proofing and General Building Materials. 



VI 11 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., 




a 'r^ 




Bank Building, Montogue Street 
brooklyn, n. y. 

PHCENIX INSURANCE CO., WM. H. BEERS, 

OWNEKS. Architect. 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural 
Terra-Cotta, 



K. MATHIASEN, President. 



Office: 108 Fulton Street, 



New York City, 



Works : PERTH AMBOY, N.J. 



Wm 



Sales Agents for New England 



, G. R* Twichell & Co*, J 9 Federal Street, Boston. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. xxvii 



WALDO BROTHERS, 

New Address, 

102 /Bbilh Street 

Two doors below Post Office Square. 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

High Grade Building Materials. 

AGENTS FOR 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 

Atwood Faience Co. 

Front Bricks in all colors. 

English Glazed Bricks. 

Baltimore Retort and Fire Brick Co. 

Gartcraig Fire Bricks. 

Welsh Quarry Tiles. 

Alsen Portland Cement. 

Atlas Cement. 

Brooks, Shoobridge & Co. Portland Cement. 

Phoenix, Shield, Wedge, and Cleopatra Portland Cement. 

Hoffman Rosendale Cement. 

Shepherd and Gay Lime. 

Bostwick Metal Lath. 

Morse Wall Ties. 

Akron Sewer Pipe. 

H. H. Meier & Co.'s Puzzolan Portland Cement. 

WHARVES: ^ARD: 



Waldo, 548 Albany Street. W On N. E. R.R, Tracks, near 

Tudor, 1 Charles River Avenue. ^ Congress St., So. Boston. 



TELEPHONES 



1 294 Boston — I I Boston — i i ^ Charlestown. 



XXVIU 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



^be /Hbosaic ^ile Co.. zanesvme, oh 



lO. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Ceramic Mosaic Tile 
Parian Vitreous Tiie 



(^be Stronoest ^ile in the HDarketO 



por Floors and 
Aaral 
Decoration 



^ 



Estimates, 
Samples, and 
Designs on 
Application. 





XJULLlliJUa^J 




Chicago Terra-Cotta Roofing & Siding Tile Company, 

1122 Marquette Building, Chicago. 

Ditrif[c6 IRoofiUG Ziic of all 1Rin5s. 



Write for Catalogue. 





J 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXIX 




CHARLES T. HARRIS, 



Charles T. Harris. 
Will. R. Clarke. 



.. .Lessee of the... 

Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd. 



Manufacturer 
of 



Artistic Roofing Tiles, 



ALFRED, N. Y. 



New York Office, 
1 123 Presbyterian Building, 

156 Fifth Avenue. 



Chicago Office, 
looi Marquette Building, 

204 Dearborn Street. 



8 IN. CONOSERA TILE 

FLATS FOR D. O. MACQUARRIE, 
I960 SHERIDAN ROAD, N. D., CHICAGO. 

A. F. HUSSANDER, AnCHITECT. 



SEND FOR LIST OF BUILDINGS COVERED BY US IN LAST TWO YEARS. 
We Solicit Investigation of our Material and Methods. 



This illustration shows how the front of a small series of Hats (three story) may be made to present the appearance 
of a " cit}' front" on one of the principal boulevards in a large city. The small increase of expense in securing mansard 
and tower of red tile in connection with the buff Bedford stone of the front adds greatl}' to the artistic effect of the 
whole and enhances its rentable value. 

The Columbus***. 

Brick and Terra-Cotta Co*, 



COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

Manufacturers of 



Plain, Molded, 



and Ornamental 



PRESSED BRIOC 



STANDARD AND ROMAN SIZES. 

IN 

Buff^ Gray^ and Terra-Cotta Colors. 

Works at Union Furnace, Ohio, 



'>Ofc;^ 



L. G. KILBOURNE, 

Preiideat and Qeaeral Maoaeer. 



A* B. COIT, 

Secretary aad Treaiurer. 



ELLIS LOVEJOY, E. M. 

SuperiateDdcDt. 



XXX 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





NEW-YORK 

ARCHITKmAL 
TERRA-COTTA 
COMPAN Y. 

THIRTY EIGHT 
- PARK ROW. ' 
NEW YORK CITY 



V4 



1 

PHILADELPHIA 

BOSTON 

CHICAGO 



vr*^ 



^^ 



VOLVME ^R 




Ioc-kIoc. 



:;&'ifai; 



^SbSSSi 



THE 






BRICKBVILDER 



JS OFFICE 55 

Sg WATER K; 
6TREET Wi 
B05T0N^! 




MH^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN MATERIALS OF CLAY. 

PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada $2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union $3-50 per year 

COPYKIGHT, 1893, nv THE BRirKBUII.DKR PUBI.ISHINCi COMPANY. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 

PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT. 
No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 

WHEN the use of terra-cotta was revived in England, some 
thirty years ago, it was then looked upon in the light of an 
innovation, rather than the re-introduction of a very old building 
material. Stone and brick, used separately or in combination, had 
become traditional and time honored in a land of invincible conserva- 
tism, whose people — whatever their views as to the first part of the 
proverb — "meddle not with him that is given to change." Not- 
withstanding this, terra-cotta was able to maintain a foothold, and 
of recent years its use has become general. Its durability is con- 
ceded, its utility no longer seriously questioned, while its suscepti- 
bility to various methods of treatment has been shown to exceed in 
many ways that of any rival material. These are qualities that ap- 
peal strongly to the sentiment, as well as to the business instinct of 
men who build not merely for their own but for succeeding genera- 
tions. This, in a general way, is the secret of its growing demand in 
England, and, to some extent, the reason that underlies its popu- 
larity in America. 

The estimation in which it is held in the two countries, however, 
differs considerably. That difference will, we think, be found to co- 
incide with certain phases of national character (on which it is not at 
this moment necessary to enlarge), as well as with the relative 
climatic conditions. On this latter point, at least, comparison need 
not be odious, and may be made instructive. If, for example, boun- 
tiful nature has given us our full share of sunshine, there is no 
reason why we should not make the most of her gift. If, on the 
other hand, she has given England a moist atmosphere, with abun- 
dant supply of soft coal — ^ therefore a comparatively gloomy outlook 
— its inhabitants do well to accept the situation without murmur 
or querulous complaint. They, however, have done and are doing 



more than this. Taking a leaf out of nature's own book, thay have 
sought to adapt themselves to their inexorable environment. With 
them terra-cotta has, to a great extent, superseded stone, but is not a 
substitute for, nor is it regarded as an imitation of stone. When 
chosen, it is by preference and in its own right; not merely on the 
score of economy, but in view of its greater permanence and, above 
all, because of its smoke-resisting properties. Hence, it is not used 
promiscuously on the cheaper classes of property, but usually on 
work of a very important character. It is almost invariably finished 
smooth, that it may offer less encouragement for soot to lodge on 
the surface. For a similar reason it is fired hard, and has a close, 
vitreous face, so that dirt may not penetrate the pores, causing last- 
ing discoloration. 

With us we fear it must be confessed that terra-cotta is often 
made to change places with stone solely from considerations of cost, 
or as a compromise, perhaps, between stone and cast iron. How 
often have we seen it placed in competition with galvanized iron, in 
which, alas, the cheapness of the latter, acting upon the cupidity of 
a sordid speculator, gained for it a preference otherwise inexplicable. 

In most of the Eastern States, and wherever anthracite coal is 
the ordinary fuel, the smoke nuisance is not so serious. There is no 
telling what the future has reserved for us, even in this particular. 
It may be, as has been remarked metaphorically, that when our 
chimney has smoked as long as theirs the soot will be just as plenti- 
ful. The use of soft coal is certainly on the increase, and the air in 
all large cities is less free from the products of combustion than 
formerly. For the present, however, we can afford to stipple or 
scratch the face of terra-cotta, and sometimes go the length of tool- 
ing it " in imitation of stone." 



A TOOLED surface cannot be claimed as a logical or natural 
treatment for a material of plastic origin, and one which, until 
finished and laid out to dry, is still susceptible to the lightest touch. 
The stiff mechanical regularity of six or eight cut work is in keeping 
with the rigid unyielding nature of stone. These cuts tell the story 
0I its manipulation, from the time a large block leaves the quarry until 
the hewn stones are set in the building. Each cut represents a dis- 
tinct blow of a mason's mallet on the steel tool by which the cut 
has been made. It suggests to the mind how stones have been 
shaped by a persistent use of these tools from time immemorial. 
We are aware that most of this work is now done by automatic ma- 
chinery, producing a monotonous regularity, the imitation of which 
is all the more objectionable. But why attempt to imitate the surface 
texture of a hewn block in one that has been pressed into shape in a 
mold ? In order to do so the mold has to be specially prepared, the 
required corrugations of six or eight to the inch being scratched in 
reverse by means of a steel templet. This, we understand, is the 
usual method ; but whether it is merely the outcome of a convention- 
ality of long standing, or done with deliberate, therefore dishonest, 
intent, the practice is equally anomalous, and should not be en- 
couraged. 

A similar but much more agreeable effect may be produced by 
the use of a toothed scraper, used directly on the face of each block 
.shortly after it is taken from the mold. Tlie toothing of the scraper 
may vary from eight to the inch, for work near the eye, to four to the 
inch on heavy work used on the upper stories of very high buildings. 



l62 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



When the tooling is done in the mold, every block coming from it is 
an exact duplicate, except in the case of blanks and otherwise de- 
fective impressions, which are not easy for the finisher to rectify. 
On the other hand, when done with the scraper no two pieces are 
exactly alike, though from the same mold and finished by the same 
man. These variations, and the slightly undulating movement re- 
sulting from hand finish, are among the things that invest the work 
with a higher degree of artistic merit. At all events, there is much 
to be said in favor of this method as against the one frequently 
adopted. Work that has been treated in that way has an added 
charm which cannot be expected from a series of stereotyped im- 
pressions needlessly deprived of all life and individuality. 



SOCIETY, ASSOCIATION, AND CLUB NEWS. 

The Thirty-first Annual Convention of the American Institute 
of Architects will be held at Detroit, Mich., on Wednesday, Thurs- 
day, and Friday, Sept. 29, 30, and 31, 1S97. 

The full details of the program will be announced in a future 
circular. Papers will be submitted from Prof. C. Francis Osborne, 
F. A. I. A., of Cornell University; Mr. Henry Van IJrunt, F. A. I. A., 
of Kansas City, and Mr. Cass Gilbert, F. A. I. A., of St. Paul, Minn., 
on Architectural Education, and its bearing on membership in the 
Institute. From Mr. Clipston Sturgis, F. A. 1. A., of Boston, on 
Church Architecture, and Mr. H. Rutgers Marshall, F. A. I. A., of 
New York, on Architectural Truth. 

The committee, to which was referred amendments to the Con- 
stitution and By-Laws, will report many and radical changes in the 
hope that they will be adopted, and that they will be so complete and 
harmonious as to preclude the necessity of changes for a long time 
to come. 

Arrangements will probably be made for a reduction of railroad 
rates to one fare and a third for the round trip, but this can only be 
secured by a full attendance at the convention. 

The president has appointed Mr. H. Langford Warren, Frank 
Miles Day, and the secretary of the Institute, committee on the part 
of the Institute, and the Michigan Chapter has appointed Mr. James 
Rogers, Jr., Henry J. Meier, Richard K. Raseman, and Frank C. 
Baldwin, the local committee of arrangements. 

The local committee report that arrangements have been made 
with the Cadillac for headquarters for the Institute. Rooms and 
board may be had at the Cadillac for $3.00 and $3.50 per day. 

Thk Eighth Annual Convention of the National Association of 
Building Inspectors will be held in Detroit, Sept. 14, 15, 16, 17, 1S97. 
The association was formed in June, iSyo, for the express purpose 
of gathering and disseminating practical and useful knowledge, re- 
lating to the safe construction of buildings, introduction, and enforce- 
ment of the best methods obtainable of building laws. 

The suggestions that will come up for consideration are of great 
variety and interest, among them being : — 

Uniformity of safe loads for building floors. Adoption of a sys- 
tem of uniform definitions in building laws. Uniformity of tests of 
steel construction, and best methods of safeguarding the same against 
fire. -Safe means of ingress and egress. Elevator inspection. Boiler 
inspection. Ventilation. Sanitation. Plumbing inspection. Gas fix- 
tures inspection. Appointment of building inspectors. Best methods 
of enforcing building laws. Fllectric wiring in buildings, etc. 

The headquarters of the association will be at the Russell 
House. 

Thk charter applied for by the T Square Club, the leading archi- 
tectural organization of l'enn.sylvania, and one of the foremost in 
the country, has just been granted in the courts of Philadelphia, and 
the club is therefore duly incorporated under the laws of the State 
of Pennsylvania. 

Although but now entering upon its corporate existence, this 
club has been an energetic organization and a moving factor in the 



field of its profession for the past fourteen years, having been organ- 
ized in 1SS3. The following well-known architects were the founders : 
Walter Cope, John Stewardson, Wilson Eyre, Jr., R. G. Kennedy, 
Lindley Johnson, Arthur Truscott, George Paxson, Charles L. Hill- 
man, Clement Remington, Frank Price, Louis C. Baker, and Mr. 
Carlton. 

The purposes of the club, as set forth in the charter and in its 
constitution, are : " To promote the study and practise of architecture 
and the kindred arts, to afford its members opportunities for friendly 
competition in design, and to further the appreciation of architecture 
by the public." The subscribers to the charter, who constitute the 
present officers of the club, all of whom are well-known Philadelphia 
architects or draughtsmen, are : David Knickerbacker Boyd, presi- 
dent ; Edgar V. Seeler, vice-president ; George B. Page, secretary ; 
Horace H. Burrell, treasurer; Walter Cope, Louis C. Hickman, and 
Charles Z. Klauder, executive committee, and .Adin B. Lacey, Percy 
Ash, and Charles E. Oelschlager, house committee. 

The T Square Club has made its influence felt in various munic- 
ipal and national affairs, has passed important resolutions on pro- 
gressive local and_other matters, and last fall conducted the Architec- 
tural Exhibition in connection with the regular exhibition of painting 
and sculpture at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. This 
exhibition was one of the most successful ever held there or else- 
where, being the first in America to contain so many thoroughly rep- 
resentative contributions from foreign architects. 

This fall will again see an architectural exhibition, held by this 
club, which, it is intended, shall surpass any previous one, both in the 
number and the interest of the exhibits. Representatives of the club 
are now in England and France, securing the best drawings, and a 
number of exhibits are promised from other countries. 

The Club has also sent Mr. Albert Kelsey to repre.sent it at the 
International Congress of .Architects, to be held in BrusseLs, Belgium, 
in the latter part of this August. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PLATE 65. A brick residence at Madison, N. J., Clinton & 
Russell, architects. A half-tone illustration made from a 
photograph of the building will be found on another page of this 
number. 

Plate 66. Mr. (ioodhue's splendid drawing of the church of St. 
Andrew by the Sea, Edgartown, Mass., Cram, Wentworth & Good- 
hue, architects. It is constructed entirely of brick, the interior being 
also finished in the same material. The main floor is of concrete, 
and in every respect the construction is of the most durable ([uality. 
The ceiling is of spruce, stained dark brown, and the finish and fur- 
niture of oak, the same color. The windows are filled with cathedral 
glass, in wide, heavy leads. The roof is covered with green slates. 
In spite of the nature of the construction, the cost of the entire build- 
ing, including heating, furniture, pews, etc., will be $15,000, practi- 
cally the sum that the same structure would have cost had it been 
built of wood. This church is the result of an attempt to build a 
small structure for a country parish, solid in construction, and with 
a certain degree of architectural effect, for a very limited amount of 
money. 

Plates 67 and 68. An office building for the Proctor estate, 
Boston, Winslow & Wetherell, architects. The exterior of the build- 
ing, with the exception of granite foundations, is entirely of terra- 
cotta ashlar. The results obtained in the designing and construction 
of this building are particularly successful, and as an example of the 
adaptation of the Spanish Renaissance to a modern building is very 
satisfactory. By the use of terra-cotta, the varied and elaborate 
ornamentation is carried out at a reasonably small cost when com- 
pared with carved stone. 

Plates 69 and 70. Detail drawings of the building for the Proc- 
tor Estate. 

Plates 70 and 72. Public bath houses at Crescent Beach, Mass., 
Stickney & Austin, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



163 



The building is 80 ft. long and 75 ft. deep. On either side of 
the building are large yards containing commodious dressing rooms, 
to be used in connection with sea bathing. Connected with the 
building in the rear are two low, wooden sheds for the storage of 
bicycles. The yards are enclosed by the brick wall and the walls of 
the administration building, and by the bicycle sheds in the rear. 

The monotony of the wall is relieved by the use of red and black 
brick placed alternately. Numerous entrances connect the main 
building with the yards. 

The accommodations for the care of bicycles are beyond criti- 
cism. One may ride to the bathhouse on his machine, and for five 
cents have it cared for. While in the bicycle sheds the machines are 
placed in racks that cannot injure the bicycles. There are enough 
racks provided to care for 1,225 machines at one time. 

A small but complete hospital is connected with the establish- 
ment. A half-drowned bather, or any one suffering from accident, 
or overcome by illness, will receive prompt treatment in this room, 
which is on the lower floor of the building. Stretchers, an operating 
table, splints, a complete set of surgical instruments, and all other 
implements usually found in hospitals are here. 

Near the hospital, and hidden from general observation, is a de- 
tention room, that will be used as a temporary prison for disorderly 
persons. 

The laundry occupies the greater part of the upper story of the 
building. This laundry has a floor space of 80 jjy 70 ft. It is 
floored with asphalt, and the floor is guttered so that the water from 
the machines and condensation of steam is carried off into the 
drains. 

Two gigantic washing machines are capable of washing five hun- 
dred suits at one time. After the suits have been washed they are 
put in two wringers, and all the water taken from them. They then 
go into large drying rooms, where the temperature is 210 degs. Fahr., 
and are dried within ten minutes. The suits then pass through the 
hands of an examiner, whose business it is to find rents in them, if 
there are any to be found. 

Upon entering the building, the visitor finds himself in a large 
rotunda, very high studded, and finished artistically. The floor is of 
the finest asphalt. In this room hard wood railings guide the patrons 
along counters, at which they are to be served with keys, suits, etc. 
The men pass to the right and the women to the left. Behind these 
counters the large room for the storage of bathing suits is located, 
and is so arranged that suits of any size can be taken instantly from 
racks holding more than one thousand garments. 

A person desiring to hire a suit and room first buys a ticket. 

After securing a ticket, the patron passes along the counter to 
where the suits and keys of the rooms are given out. Then he passes 
a registering turnstile and goes into a small room, where he deposits 
his valuables. The system devised for the care of valuables is inter- 
esting and safe. 

The valuables are placed in a large envelope by the patron him- 
self, who then writes his name across the back of the sealed envelope. 
He is given a check that will secure the return of his valuables when 
he leaves his room after his bath. He receives his valuables from a 
room on the lower floor, directly below the apartment where he left 
them. They have been sent down on an elevator, and await him 
there. He is required to write his name on a book kept for that 
purpose, and thus he furnishes a positive identification of his envel- 
ope and a receipt for the goods. 

After the customer has deposited his valuables he passes out 
into the yard containing the dressing rooms. The men's yard is 
much the larger, and contains 602 rooms. The women's yard con- 
tains 400 rooms. The dressing rooms are arranged on two tiers, or 
stories, and are planned so that the corridors on the basement story 
are open to the sky as well as those on the upper tier. The bath- 
houses in these yards are roofed with gravel and tar. They average 
4 ft. by 6 ft. on the lower tier, and 4 ft. by ^%. ft. in the upper story. 
Only one person is allowed in a room, except where small children 
are accompanied by parents or guardians. Each room contains a 



good plate glass mirror, and each bather is furnished with a large 
Turkish towel. 

When prepared to go into the water the bathers reach the beach 
through subways or passages that go under the boulevard and the 
shelter that is in front of the bath-house. This is one of the greatest 
features of the whole establishment, and will be welcomed by those 
who do not care to go through a crowd of loungers while in bathing 
costume. 

The care for the comfort of the bathers continues even after 
they have left the subway, for long runs of asphalt have been con- 
structed so as to reach far toward the water's edge, thus relieving 
the barefooted bather from the pain of walking over the pebbles near 
the crest of the beach. 

After leaving the water, entrance to the bath-house is gained by 
the same subways, and here the bathers find shower and foot-baths 
ready for their use. 



ILLUSTRATED ADVERTISEMENTS. 

IN the advertisement of Plske, Homes & Co., page vii, is illus- 
trated another of their new and handsome designs of brick and 
terra-cotta fireplace mantels. The mantel is designed by H. B. Ball, 
architect, and rendered by H. F. Briscoe. 

The Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company illustrate in their adver- 
tisement, page iv, a series of terra-cotta details used in the new build- 





EXECUTED BY THE NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA 

COMPANY. 

J. E. Sperry, Architect, Baltimore, Md. 

ing, corner Waverly Place and Greene Streets, New York City. 
R. Maynicke, architect. 

The new bank building, Montogue Street, Brooklyn, Wm. H. 
Beers, architect, is shown in the advertisement of the New Jersey 
Terra-Cotta Company, page viii. 

A residence at Alleghany, Penn., Longfellow, Alden & Harlow, 
architects, is shown in the advertisement of Harbison & Walker, 
page XXV. 

Another residence at Chicago, of which A. F. Hussander is the 
architect, is illustrated in the advertisement of Charles T. Harris, 
Lessee Celedon Terra-Cotta Company, page xxix. 

Three views of a half-timbered and stone residence, Uenwick, 
Aspinwall & Owen, architects, are shown in the advertisement of the 
Gilbreth Seam Face Granite Company, page xxxviii. 



164 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Brick versus Wood. II. 

BY R. CLIPSTON STURGIS. 

IN my previous article I have considered the advisability of using 
brick in preference to wood on account of its durability, econ- 
omy, and beauty. I want now to show how wide has been the use of 
brick, and with what admirable results it has been used for all sorts 
of places and for all classes of buildings. 

In the city one naturally expects to find brick ; compared with 
other fire-resisting materials it is cheap, and has, therefore, every 
reason to commend its use. It is, indeed, somewhat curious, under 
these circumstances, to find anything else used for mercantile or busi- 



ings of more importance shows that it is looked upon as a material 
superior to wood. 

The fear of expense, which I tried to show groundless in my 




" m 







WOlM'llINGTd.V 111' II. DING, STATE STREET, ISOSTON. 
Fehmer & Page, .Architects. 

ness buildings, for it is cheap, easily obtained, quickly laid, and, 
above all, the most fire -proof of all materials. 

There seems, however, a general feeling that stone, however 
common, even if it be mere split granite, is finer or 
more imposing than brick ; and one has recently seen 
the incongruity of a fine building, open on four sides, 
faced on the two important sides with plain, dres.sed ' 
granite, without relief or ornament (unless a metal 
cornice may count for such), and red brick on the 
two other sides, equally e.xposed to view, and yet 
deemed less important. 

An harmonious whole of good brick would cer- 
tainly have been better, and probably cheaper. 

The illustration of the Worthington Building, 
State Street, Boston, is a good example of simple 
yet dignified brick in an office Ijuilding. 

That it is not unsuited for a city house, even 
one of some dignity and cost, is, 1 think, fairly well 
shown by the Lyman House, on Beacon Street, and 
the charming houses on the Bay State Road, Boston, 
by Wheelwright, and by Little and Browne. 

As soon as one gets outside of the fire limits, 
however, one finds brick discarded for houses, though 
the fact that even here it is sometimes used for build- 




CHAKLESGATE STAIJLES, RO.STON. 
Peabody & Stearns, .Architects. 

last article, is, doubtless, still the chief cause for our wretched 
wooden suburbs. If only people would realize how inexpensive, how 
neat, and how compact is a suburb nicely laid out with brick houses, 
perhaps they would be led to at least try the experiment of a brick 
house for themselves. I have shown in an illustration of the first 
article a few cottages in Bedford Park, a London suburb. They 
were built by Norman Shaw, and were, I believe, inexpensive houses ; 
and for good cheap cottages I would refer the reader to some of the 
facts and figures about the brick cottages built on some public land 
by the city of Birmingham, and forming a paying investment when 
rented at eight pounds a year. 

I am sorry to say that I cannot illustrate many good examples 
of cheap brick suburban houses in this country, because there are so 
few. The brick blocks which have here and there crept out from 
the city are mere city blocks, generally poor ones at that, misplaced, 
but the one illustration I have (a house in Newton) is a good one, 
and I hope may be productive of more like it. 

If the ordinary householder is prejudiced against a brick house 
in the suburbs, his face is rigidly set against it in the country. Here 
it is not only the argument about expense, but also the plea as to the 
appropriateness of wood in the country. For myself, I can see the 
appropriateness if it is a really wooded country and the timber is at 
hand, just as stone becomes appropriate if one lives by a tjuarry; but 
otherwise 1 see no reason why brick is not far more appropriate, for 
if you anywhere want a permanent, dry, warm house, it is in the 




LOWER SCHOOL AT ST. I'AUL's, CONCORD, N. H. 
Henry Vaughn, Architect^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



165 



country, where you are exposed on all four sides to wind, and rain, 
and sun. If anywhere you want a house wall on which you can grow 
vines witliout tearing them down every few years to paint, it is in 




RESIDENCE, BAY STATE ROAD, BOSTON. 
Little K' Brown, Arcliitects. 

the country. If anywhere you want a wall which requires little care 
or repair, it is in the country, where mechanics are not always con- 
venient or competent. ISrick seems to me, then, appropriate for city, 
for suburb, for country ; and if appropriate for these various local 
ities, it is also appropriate for the various classes of buildings, for 
houses, as we have said, and also for churches, public buildings, 
warehouses, and barns. 

In churches we can point to many l)eautiful examples. There 
are the churches and towers of Rome ; the Frari in Venice. There 
are many interesting massive towers of the Lowlands (Flemish and 
Dutch) which have been illustrated in a previous article in The 
Brickbuilder. Here and there a good bit in England. Some old, 
like St. Albans tower. Some new, like Holy Trinity, .Sloane Square, 
(Sedding's) — and as a modern following of Italian ways, the Judson 
Memorial Church on Washington Square, New York, the work, I 
think, of one of that gifted firm who have done so much for American 
architecture. These are no mean examples to show that brick has 
its place in church architecture. 




To pass from church to public buildings, one might call to mind 
Shaw's Scotland Yard in London, or our own modest little Indepen- 
dence Hall, and one might add innumerable town halls in Holland, 
and the St. James Palace in London. There are not, however, many 
important examples among large public buildings; much yet remains 
for brick to do in that field. 

If schools come under the head of public buildings, we can point 
to numberless examples: Vaughn's Lower School at St. Paul's, and 
Wheelwright's well-known work for the city of Boston, buildings very 
different in their style and yet each charming in its way. \'aughn's 
work has little or no attempt at ornament, very quiet and refined, 
distinctly English in its whole feeling, looking thoroughly suited for 
its purpose, and most naturally English, for to England we must look 
for precedent in such schools; and Wheelwright's work, of ornamental 
brick, Italian in character, yet distinctly scholastic. Red brick is 
not wholly to be commended for interiors, and the halls and large 
rooms of Vaughn's school, which show dark-red walls, — red jointed, 
loo, — are somber and forbidding, hardly a cheerful atmosphere 
for study. There are very many excellent examples of good brick- 
work in this class, but there is plenty of rooin for improvement and 
for a more general use of brick. 

Lfnder warehouses we can include the familiar <rreat Cloth Hall 




HOUSE AT NEWTON, MASS. 
E. H. Benton, Architect. 



RESIDENCES, BAY STATE ROAD, BOSTON. 
Wheelwright & Haven, Architects, 

at Ypres; and the Waag at Amsterdam, and innumerable good 
buildings in our larger cities, of which the storage warehouse is a 
specially apt example, for we here have a building of considerable 
merit, and yet hardly a single opening to give opportunity to the 
architect. And we might in this class include that delightful brick 
and stone stable and carriage storehouse which Mr. Peabody built in 
Boston. And finally, in England we find real barns here and there, 
and plenty of stables of good honest brick, which speaks of certain 
assurance of permanency, and gives us a comfortable feeling that the 
owner expects to work and live long, tilling the soil and garnering 
his hay and corn. These buildings show brick in an attractive light 
from every point of view, — economical for the investor to build, a 
good risk for the insurance companies, and a beautiful building to 
delight the artist. And we see that there is most excellent precedent 
for the use of brick, in city and country, for houses and churches, for 
public and private buildings. 



1 66 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



Architectural Terra-Co tta. 

liV THOMAS CL'SAC K. 

{Continued.) 

Tl I K Chamber of Commerce Building, Rochester, N. Y., de- 
sis^ned by Messrs. Nolan, Nolan & Stern, of that city, affords 
an excellent example of terracotta architecture, in which that mate- 
rial is used consistently, in combination with brick, from sidewalk to 
corona. The first and mezzanine stories are, perforce, an expanse of 
plate glass, atlmitting of nothing save a series of piers, windows and 
doorways, of which, however, the most has been made. On the story 
above, with its rusticated piers and two horizontal courses, entirely of 
terra-cotta, considerable elaboration has been bestowed ; at the same 
time the idea of homogeneity, so much needed at this point, is happily 
preserved. The succeeding eight stories are exact duplicates, and in 
this the exterior proclaims the nature and purpose of the interior 
with admirable candor. In the twelfth story, which is also wholly 
in terra-cotta, the laws of perspective, and the effect of foreshorten- 
ing have been studied to some account. Figs. 29 and 30 will 
show that the embellishments have been carried out on a scale that 
is legible from the street, and not, as too often happens, reserved for 
the delectation of the feathered tribe. 

This building has already Ijecn briefly referred to in connection 
with banded columns, of which it has two very good ones at the i)rin- 
cipal entrance. The business at present in hand is primarily one of 
cornice construction, and of that, too, it affords a typical example 
that may now be described, and made the subject of adequate illus- 
tration. 

This cornice is 8 ft. 9 ins. high, and, having a total projection of 
5 ft. from wall line to nose of lion's head, requires a well-devised 
scheme of structural support. The one that was adopted is shown 
in detail at Fig. 31. To the '/. bar columns that extend up through 
the piers is bracketed, horizontally, a 10 in. I beam. This acts as 
the fulcrum to a series of 6 in. 1 beams that project over each mo- 
dillion, the opposite end of which is attached to roof beams by means 
of a stirrup. These cantilevers, in addition to the weight that rests 
on top of them, are strong enough to support the modillions also. 
This they are made to do by the application of two % in. hangers, 
which, taking hold of a short bar inserted in the modillion. pass up 
through a plate laid across the cantilever, and are then tightened up 
to required tension. The dental course, and the panels between mo- 
dillions have each a hole into which a rod is passed, and from it they 
are anchored back through the wall. 

The modillions are spaced on 3 ft., S in. centers, which, all 



This allows the two side pieces to be fitted into the flanges, and 
bedded down on each side of the cantilever. The center piece, to 
which the coffer panel is attached, is then dropped in as a key, and 
the whole course is thus 
made immovable. A hole 
is provided in blocks form- 
ing cima, into which short 
pieces of round iron are 
inserted, and from those 
they are secured by diag- 
onal braces at intervals, 
riveted to the 6 in. I 
beams, as indicated in sec- 
tion. In view of subse- 
quent criticism and com- 
ment on the deterioration 
of iron and steel, when 
used in a similar way, let 
it be noted that the top 
surface of this cornice like 
the one given in last ex- 
ample, is also covered with 
copper. 

Among recent com- 
munications on the subject 
of cornice construction, 
there is one from Mr. J. E. 
.Sperry, of Baltimore, that 
calls for special notice. In 
it he reaffirms the superi- 
ority of cast iron as dis- 
tinguished from rolled sec- 
tions. As for steel, he 
doubts the propriety of 

using it at all, in situations where it is likely to sufTer from rust, add- 
ing : " I should hesitate to use structural steel, except in the inside 
of a building where it was not liable to be assailed by dampness. In 
cornice work, though the steel is in a measure protected by terra- 
cotta, it would not be entirely free from atmospheric influences, which 
would in the course of time cause disintegration not likely to occur 
in the case of cast iron." 

Mr. Sperry is probably right in discriminating between iron and 
steel .sections, and in giving the preference to the former of these two 
materials. The introduction of steel for structural purposes has been 
so recent that there has not been time for a conclusive test of its 




FIG. 29. CHAMIiiiK OK COMMERCE 
llUILDl.SO, ROCIIESTKK, N. Y. 

Nol.nii, Nolan & Siern, Arcliitccts. 



r?.s 




liMiiHiiMMMMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiOinimiiprijfiPiii 



in Ml Mi. 




FIG. 30. TVVF.I.KTH STORY CHAMBER OF CO.MMEKCE liUILDING, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



things considered, rendered it inadvisable to make the soffit blocks 
in a single piece. They are therefore jointed into three, for greater 
convenience of handling and of .setting, as well as in the making. 



comparative durability. Its flexibility, as well as its stiffness, is allowed 
to be much greater than those of iron, but we think it is generally 
conceded among engineers that it should not be subjected to varying 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



167 



degrees of dampness, from wet to dry, and in situations where it can- 
not be repainted. We have noticed a marked deterioration in the 
case of corrugated roofing plates, even when galvanized, and though 
steel is now the more generally used of the two for that purpose, its 
popularity is probably owing to its relative cheapness, and not to any- 
thing that can be said in favor of its durability. The lamina- in the 
texture of steel is more pronounced than in that of iron, and the scal- 
ing off that follows as a result of, oxidation appears to be correspond- 
ingly rapid and destructive in its action. 

In the case of cast iron, however, it must be remembered that it, 
too, has defects of another and 
far more treacherous kind, which 
it is difficult to detect, and im- 
possible to guard against even 
under the most rigid supervi- 
sion. Sand-holes and blow-holes 
frequently occur in ordinary 
castings, but they are usually 
concealed by a convenient coat 
of paint, for which most foun- 
drymen evince an easily under- 
stood predilection. It is for 
this reason that cast iron has 
been abandoned in bridge build- 
ing, and is now superseded in 
all structural work where the 
load is eccentric and the strain 
as variable as the wind pres- 
sure. 

The foregoing objections 
to the use of rolled iron are 
valid up to a certain point, but 
by no means vital. We have 
already urged, as a sufiicient 
set-off, the advisability of hav- 
ing all hangers, anchors, and 

cantilevers galvanized. This is now being done on several build- 
ings in course of erection, one of which is in Haltimore, and for it 
we are pleased to know that Mr. Sperry is the architect. The new 
Delmonico Building on Fifth Avenue and 44th Street, New York, is 
another, and on it Mr. J. B. Lord has insisted that all special ironwork 
coming into contact with the terracotta be galvanized. When this 
is done there is no room for hesitation in the use of wrought iron, 
and no reason to doubt the permanent security of a properly 
constructed terra-cotta cornice, with it as the chief auxiliary 
support. 

As a further step in the right direction, attention has likewise 




- tSectionat a-b - 



FIG. 3 





-3tCTI0t1 AT X X- 



GROUT HOLES ^ 




5ECTI0rH 
A.T JOinT 



■SCALE OF FEET 



FIG. 32 



been directed to the importance of keeping water from entering the 
joints. This, however, is one of the things so frequently neglected 
that it may be well to reiterate the warning, and at the same time 
to indicate some of the ways in which the desired end may be 
attained. 

A covering of copper, on all surfaces having a wide projection, 
is one very effectual method ; but a fatal error is often made in the 
provision for fastening down the outer edge. Instead of turning the 
metal clear over the nose, as at A (Fig. 32), or providing a roll and 
quirk some distance back, as at B, architects sometimes call for a 

raggle to be sunk into the top 
surface, as at C. This latter plan 
may appear all right on paper ; it 
may also satisfy a draughtsman 
who looks upon his drawing, not 
as a means to ar end, but as an 
end in it.self. In practise, how- 
ever, it is a most objectionable 
method, and is liable to pro- 
mote some of the things it had 
been intended to prevent. 
When the edge of the copper 
has been inserted in this groove, 
the metal worker drives in, at 
intervals, lead plugs to hold it 
down ; if lead is not at hand, he 
contents himself with wedges of 
wood, which serve his turn as 
well. The mason then fills up 



mortar or cement, which re- 
mains until after the job has 
been cleaned down. If well 
done, this may remain for a 
year or two longer, but it can- 
not be regarded as permanent. 
When it wears out — as sooner or later it is bound to do — this 
channel gets filled with water, which soaks into the blocks, and ex- 
pands every time the temperature falls below freezing point. The 
nose, which has been weakened by the groove in the first instance, 
is then liable to break off, and whether it be from the third or from 
the twenty-third story, when it falls the consequences are equally dis- 
quieting. In work of a light color an architect may not want the 
copper to show on top member of cornice. In that case he has the 
alternative method at B, to which there can be no reasonable objec- 
tion, and by adopting it he escapes all risk of a disaster such as he 
invites by making a groove along the wash. 

Where a copper covering is not provided, the joints may be 
rendered perfectly secure in the way shown at D, Fig. 32. A dove- 
tail rebate is molded in the ends of the blocks, as drawn in section 
at X. .\. Vertical channels are likewise made to receive grout, which 
is poured in from the top, after the course has been set to line. The 
dovetail cavity so formed is then filled flush with granolithic; or a 
good brand of cement gauged with an ecpial quantity of clean, sharp 
sand may be used. A filling of this kind cannot work out, and the 
size of the body is a guarantee against its cracking or scaling off. 
Several important cornices, with the particulars of which the writer is 
acquainted, have had the joints protected in this manner, and in 
every instance with good results. 

One of these was set about six years ago, and we can say, from 
a critical inspection made at the date of writing, that the joints are 
still in perfect condition, though nothing whatever in the way of 
pointing has been done during that interval. Let the blocks receive 
a hard metallic glaze (on the wash only), and let them be fired to 
the point of vitrifaction ; no other covering will then be necessary, 
and a cornice so constructed will continue intact as long as the 
building remains in existence. 

Cfliitiinied. 



1 68 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Art of Building among the 
Romans. 

Translated from the French of Auguste Choisv by Arthur J. 

Dillon. 



CHAPTER III. 
PART III. 



HISTORICAL KS.SAY ON THE ART OF BUII.niNG AMONG THE 

ROMANS. 

CHAPTER I. 
FORMATION AND DECLINE OF LOCAL METHODS. 

LOCAL SCHOOLS. 

IT happens that in demonstrating the methods of the Roman art 
the examples cited in support of the same idea have been taken 
from different countries, and even sometimes from different epoch.s. 
It may be asked if the Roman art had such unity that it is possible 
to thus compare monuments of so many different provinces and cen- 
turies ; the question is answered in part by the uniformity of the 
results of such a comparison. Hut let us be careful, however, of ex- 
aggerating this uniformity ; it existed, it was possible, only in the 
principles, and excluded neither the progress that comes from the 
long practise of the same methods, nor those slight variations which 
arise in any system of construction in the process of adaptation to 
different climates. Construction had its local schools; it escaped 
neither the influence of foreign examples nor the vicissitudes of the 
internal condition of Rome. Tuscan when Rome was still one oi 
the cities of Etruria, it took bit by bit the imprint of the Hellenic 
spirit, when brought into contact with Grecian civilization ; and its 
originality lay less in creating new types than in grouping those al- 
ready existing into a new system. We have indicated, in speaking 
of cut-stone construction, some of the ideas taken from Greece and 
Etruria ; in order to mark these more clearly, and to decide the cir- 
cumstances which brought foreign methods into use among the 
Romans, it would be necessary to enter into the field of conjecture, 
and to study the art of building in connection with the political re- 
lations of Rome. We will not attempt this difficult research ; leav- 
ing aside the period when the Romans were satisfied in imitating the 
models of Etruria or of Greece, we will take as a starting point the 
time when they initiated the only methods that are strictly their own, 
those of concrete construction. 

The appearance of concrete vaults in the Roman monuments 
must be placed at the last years before the Christian era. No doubt 
long trials had prepared for this important innovation, but no certain 
trace of them can be found either in ruins or in books. Vitruvius 
himself, writing but a few years before the laying of the founda- 
tion of the Baths of Agrippa, does not seem to suspect the great part 
that concrete vaults are about to play. The art of which he treats was 
at the point of entire transformation, yet notliing authorizes us to 
conclude that Vitruvius foresaw this change : so rapid was the prog- 
ress of concrete construction, so sudden and unexpected was this rev- 
olution of Roman architecture. 

What causes, then, determined this brusque revolution in the 
art under the government of Agrippa .'' Several come so naturally to 
mind that it is sufficient to mention them ; public wealth had in- 
creased suddenly after a period of internal commotion and foreign 
war ; thanks to an interval of calm, the new methods were applied on 
a grand scale for the first time, and had an opportunity of bold de- 
velopment ; .Agrippa saw in the embellishment of Rome a means of 
making its people forget their ancient political life, and put himself 
at the head of the movement; under his administration Rome was 
filled with edifices consecrated to the pleasures and festivals of the 
Romans ; the ancient city was soon too small to contain all of them, 
and it became necessary to infringe even on the Field of Mars. It 
i.s, I think, in this double influence of customs and politics that the 



causes of the sudden advance in the art of building at the com- 
mencement of the imperial rule must be sought. Methods were 
henceforward definitely fixed, and the art of building, once systema- 
tized, remained stationary at its highest point of perfection for a 
period of more than three and one half centuries. 

This fact, remarkable in itself, becomes of great interest when 
it is considered that it was during the decline of all the arts that the 
traditions of good construction were preserved \vithout alteration — 
and also without progress. Even the causes that affected architec- 
ture seem to have had little or no influence on the art of building; 
ornament and construction had become almost entirely independent ; 
and hence their development or decadence was according to dif- 
ferent or even contrary laws. Under the Antonines construction 
was the same as under the Cresars, although architecture was visibly 
modified in the intervening century. At the end of the third century 
architecture was in full decadence, while the art of building, still 
flourishing, produced the Baths of Diocletian. After Diocletian, 
art still degenerated ; and, by a curious coincidence, the architects 
who could do no better than strip a monument of Trajan to ornament 
an arch of Constant! ne were the contemporaries of the daring 
builders who covered the naves of the Basilica of Maxentius with 
those magnificent vaults whose ruins still amaze us by their solidity 
and grandeur.' Never had the art of decoration and the art of build- 
ing offered a stranger and more striking contrast. The discord was 
at its height, but it was also approaching its end ; and under the 
reign of Constantine, the art of building fell to that degree of 
abasement which architecture had long before reached. 

The fall was as brusque as the progress had been rapid ; it was 
but scarcely announced by a few monuments built without due care, 
such as the circus of Maxentius, near the Appian Way; and at the 
side of these mediocre productions, practical architecture did not 
cease to show by its ihefs-iVaiivres that the old traditions were still 
maintained. But suddenly this prodigious fecundity was exhausted, 
and the art of building reverted, as it were, to the point where it had 
started four centuries before. Its progress had been in the develop- 
ment of vaults, its decline was marked by their almost absolute 
abandonment. First the traditional methods were used timidly ; the 
monuments of .St. Constance and of St. Helen, at the gates of Rome, 
show the characteristics of this first period ; and perhaps we must 
put at the same date the curious monument called Minerva Medica, 
where the vacillating and awkward use of the classic methods clearly 
marks the moment of hesitancy that precedes the centuries of deca- 
dence. Vaults — spherical vaults among them — did not cease to 
be used in sepulchral or religious monuments, but they disappeared 
almost completely from the great civil buildings. The Christian 
basilicas of the fourth and fifth century had no vaults, except such 
as are represented by the arches that spring from column to column; 
all the rest was roofed with wooden framing. Two centuries went 
by during which vaults, used only in buildings of little importance, 
ceased to dominate the general system of construction, to rea])pear 
again at the time of the Byzantine Renaissance, but under an entirely 
new form. The old tradition was definitely broken at Rome, ^ and 
the rapidity of the changes that took place seems to indicate a 
cause as violent as it was sudden. 

In fact, between the time of Diocletian and the last years of the 
reign of Constantine, a revolution took place whose influence on the 
history of Roman construction was not less than its influence on 
the history of the Roman empire. Rome ceased to be the capital of 
the Roman world ; and the art was transformed the day that Rome, 
losing its political preponderance, ceded to Byzantium the inheritance 
of its ancient privileges. The immense buildings of the new capital 
immediately absorbed the resources of the empire, and the dateof its 
foundation (330) marks the epoch when the sudden and profound 

' For the actual date of tliis building, called the Basilica of Constantine, see W. A 
Becker, Handbuch der riVmischen Alterthiiiner, Part I., pp. 438 et seq. 

2 In some provinces the rupturi of the old traditions was less sudden; thus, in the 
northern part of Gaul, construction w.is carried nn, under Julian, on a scale that recalls that 
of ancient Rome. The Baths of Paris can with some reason be placed at this date ; and their 
superiority over contemporary edifices in Rome is incontestable. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



169 




PANTHEON D'AGRIPPA. 
PLATE XIIl. THE ART OF P>UILI)1NG AMONG THE ROMANS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 




^^r 



%. 



mi 



M% 





•^?^>.,;y 



,y!.!':v^^-^r ;-,4^ 



i 



I. ViLi.A Hadriana. 2. AouEDUC Pres St. Jean de Latran. 
I'LATK .\I\-. THK ART OF I5UILDING AMONG THE ROMANS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



171 



transformation of Roman construction, whose principal characteris- 
tics we have shown, took place. This explanation must not be 
thought a pure conjecture. We have the proof of its truth in the 
singular demand which Constantine made on the pretorian prefect, 
ruler of both Italy and Africa, to supplement the exhausted resources 
of Italy: " Architectis quam plurimus opus est, sed quia non sunt 
..." such is the beginning of the first constitution of Constantine on 
the immunities of artisans (Cod. Theod., Lib. XIII., it. VI., 1. i). 
This constitution is dated 334, four years after the foundation of 
Constantinople. It was impossible to formulate more clearly, in an 
official act, the causes of the decline of architecture in the fourth 
century. Constantine estalilished schools to save the remains of the 
ancient art ; he founded institutes for the benefit of the young Romans 
who would agree to devote themselves to the study of architecture ; 
but the efforts were fruitless ; new demands had arisen, to meet which 
it was necessary to do no less than to create an entire system of en- 
tirely new methods. Another capital of the world could not be 
planned with that luxury of material and immovable solidity which 
we so admire in ancient Rome, when arms were lacking, when means 
of subjection had to continually be increased in order to obtain sufii- 
cient corvees, when even directors of the works were missing. 
Lighter construction, sacrificing solidity to the demands of endless 
necessities, was sought ; and the venerable practises of the Roman 
art partially disappeared in the course of this change ; the old equi- 
librium of the working classes was overthrown, and the tradition 
that had lasted from Augustus to Constantine was suddenly discon- 
tinued. 

At the same time that the buildings of Constantinople were 
draining the resources of the empire, the magistrates of the provinces 
were, in their turn, endeavoring to transform their own residences ; 
and the taste for building increased everywhere just when the means 
of satisfying it were becoming more and more insufficient. It be- 
came necessary to arrest this fad by the constitutions that are re- 
peated, as one might say, on every page of the Code,' whose number 
is in itself an indication of their failure to accomplish their purpose. 
It was in vain that the emperors prohibited the erection of new 
public buildings before the completion of those already commenced ; 
it was in vain that they tried to limit the number of these useless 
works by depriving the magistrates of the honor of placing their 
names on them ; it was in vain that they imposed the onerous duty 
of assuring their complete achievement on those who commenced 
them : for fashion, stronger than imperial commands, immeasurably 
multiplied these senseless enterprises; and the lack of resources, day 
by day more marked, continually put the builders further from the 
good traditions of the ancient school. A small number of the monu- 
ments of this epoch have lasted until the present time ; they are the 
basilicas, whose duration was prolonged by the pious care of the 
Christians; but the majority of the buildings of Constantinople had 
to be rebuilt by the Byzantine emperors. The historian Zosimus even 
affirms that several collapsed under the reign of Constantine, so 
hastily had they been constructed. This author, a thorough pagan, 
is open to the accusation of partiality when he speaks of Constan- 
tine, his government, or his religion; his animus can be perceived 
even in the expressions he uses in speaking of the monuments built 
by Constantine; - nevertheless, his testimony at least shows that the 
buildings were short lived ; and their anticipated ruin seems due to 

^ Here are some of lliem : — 

ist. Prohibition against undertakini? new ijuildings before finisliing tliose already com- 
menced. 

Code Theod., Lib. XV., tit, f ., I, 3, 11, 15, 16, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37. 

Code Justin., Lib. VIII., tit. XII., 1. 22. 

2d. Prohibition against magistrates wlio liave not themselves assumed llie cost of pub 
lie buildings, inscribing their names lliereon in place of that of the prince. 

Code Theod., Lib. XV., tit. I., 1. 31. 

Code Justin., Lib. VIIL, tit. XII , 1 .0. 

3d. Obligation imposed on magistrates who commence buildings of public utility with- 
out authorization from the prince, to assure the completion at their own expense. 

Code Theod., Lib. XV., tit. L, 1. 28, 31. 

2 Els otKO^OjUta? Sf irAttO'Tas afOt^eAeiv ra Bafitria xpajuara Sanavovf, Ttva KaTtCTKeua^fr, 
a tkiKpav livaTepaf SieAuerw, j3e ^ai5 6ia Tav CTrti^ij^ oy y^voixiva. {Zos. hist.. Lib. //., cap. 
xxxii.). 



that lack of resources of which the memory has been transmitted to 
us by the imperial constitutions. 

Such was, to sum up, the history of concrete construction ; a 
singular history, whose phases do not seem to follow, as do those of 
other histories, a law of general continuity. The great decadence of 
the fourth century was brought about, like the great rise of the last 
century before our era, without a transition whose monuments might 
make it possible to retrace its course. 

It is no part of our program to study the Roman art such as it 
became after this last transformation. We have been compelled to 
limit ourselves to what it was during the long period that commenced 
during the last years of the republic, and ended at the epoch of the 
iiarbarian invasions. Let us now give a glance at the variations that 
were made in the methods in the different parts of the Roman world. 

LOCAL SCHOOLS. 

TIIK ROMAN ART AND THE MUNICIPAL SYSTEM OK THE EMPIRE. 

When the Romans invented the system of concrete construc- 
tion, they certainly created the most suitable instrument for mak- 
ing the methods of the art of building uniform. When they had 
learned how to erect their colossal vaults, with no other workmen 
than unskilled laborers, with no material but shapeless stones and 
mortar, they seemed to have obtained a mode of construction that 
was destined to become universal. By means of their colonies and 
legions they pushed the new methods to the farthest limits of 
the empire. At every point to which the domination of Rome ex- 
tended, they improvised entire cities, recalling by their general traits 
the aspect of the metropolis ; and these cities became in turn so 
many centers whence Roman architecture radiated with Roman 
habits and customs. Thus all tended toward uniformity. Nowhere, 
however, d'd the art succeed in acclimating itself without losing 
some of the characteristics that had marked it at its origin ; it was, on 
the contrary, divided into a series of schools, whose clearly distinct 
methods reflected by their diversity the infinite variety of local re- 
sources and traditions. I could, to show these differences, limit 
myself to instances of construction properly so called alone, but the 
shades of difference are still more clearly manifest when the forms of 
architecture are considered. Compare the monuments of Rome with 
those of Roman Egypt, and on one side will be found the architecture 
that is regarded as the official style of the empire ; on the other, a 
collection of types and proportions so similar to as to be mistakable 
for the art of the time of the Ptolomies ; it is known, for instance, 
that the porticoes of Denderah and Esneh do not date from before the 
Roman epoch. 

In Greece, as well, the Romans conformed to the traditions of the 
ancient national art. The frontispiece, known as the Entrance to the 
Agora, is a curious monument of this Grecian school of the empire; 
a school, without doul)t, degenerate, but still essentially Greek, whose 
works are rude imitations of the ancient Hellenic art, but which 
borrow nothing from the forms of the contemporary art of Rome. 

If other examples of this local architecture which departs from 
the ordinary types of ancient architecture in Italy are desired, they 
can be found in the monuments raised in Central Syria during the 
first centuries of the Christian era. All the edifices of Hauran, in 
wliich an ingenious theory finds the origin of the French architecture 
of the middle ages, are much more like the monuments of France of 
the twelfth century, i)oth in structure and decoration, than like the 
edirices of Rome, Egypt, or .Athens ; a new and striking manifestation 
of the national traditions that divided Roman art at all periods of 
its history. 

The cities of the western coast and of the southern part of 
Italy, Pompeii among others, retained their Grecian physiognomy 
under the empire ; in the territory of ancient Etruria, the national 
tradition gave the edifices, even those of after the conquest, the 
seal of inasculine simplicity so strongly marked in the Roman ruins 
at Perugia. 

We also had our architecture of the period of the lunperors; 



172 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



and the characteristics of that elegant school of Gaul, evident in the 
ruins of St. Remy, of Orange and of St. Chamas, are such true expres- 
sions of the kind of genius that is properly our own, that they are 
rediscovered intact in the edifices of our Renaissance. 

Thus it was that the forms of architecture differed in the 
different provinces. There was the same diversity in the practical 
methods; Vitruvius affirms this when, treating of tht manner of 
building cut-stone walls (Lib. II., cap. 8), he makes a clear distinction 
between the customs of the Grecian and Roman builders. Indepen- 
dently of his testimony, however, sufficient proof of this can be 
found in the monuments themselves. Often, in fact, we have had to 
call attention to certain types of construction, and jsarticularly to 
types of vaults, that were centered about such and such a country, 
where they were in a certain measure limited and perpetuated, with- 
out spreading abroad or ever reaching the character of general 
types; these are so many indications of the distinct traditions, of the 
local variations. 

For example, the vaults of juxtaposed arches seem to have been 
special to a very limited region of which the a(|ueduct of (iardes 
is the center ; in this country the unbonded vaults abound, — their 
use is to a certain degree the rule, — while elsewhere but a few 
isolated and imperfect examples can be found, and that with difficulty. 

The same observation can be made of the system of ribs sup- 
porting horizontal slabs by means of tympanums. The only exatnples 
known to me belong in two provinces, both almost Greeks Southern 
Gaul and Syria; in Syria the imoortance of the system is comparable 
only to that of the pointed arches of the western buildings in the 
middle ages. 

The hypogea of the north and center of France, whose style 
and stonework we have already characterized, .ire also monuments 
of a special form of construction. (Fl. XVMII. and XIX.) At their 
aspect one is struck by the originality of the conception that dis- 
tinguishes them both from the other Roman monuments and from 
the works posterior to the barbaric invasions. The rampant vaults 
of echeloned arches, the barrel vaults centered on temporary walls, 
the use of the keyed groined viults that the other schools sought to 
avoid, the evidently systematic use of stone of small size in a country 
rich in large material, are all unusual circumstances that place these 
monuments in a well defined group, where are announced the tenden- 
cies of our medieval architecture, and whose memory or example had 
influence at the rebirth of French art at the end of the Roman 
period. 

These few examples, all taken from monuments of cut stone, 
indicate, for the present, the nature and importance of the differences 
that separated the contemporary schools ; if, to complete the review 
of ancient methods, we go back to our descriptions of concrete 
vaults, divergences of the same order, or even more strongly marked, 
will be found. 

Even the network of brick, which was used with such skill and 
success in Rome that one is tempted to think it an essential element 
of the art of building, even these never came into general use. It ex- 
pressed the spirit of Roman construction better than any other thing, 
but on the whole it amounted only to a local practice, and becomes 
rarer and rarer as one goes away from Rome. It is only necessary to 
go from Rome to I'ompeii in order to see a notable change in this 
respect ; the armature in the form of a network is replaced by de- 
grees by a continuous thick layer of tufa, covering the centering and 
supporting the vault. 

Toward the north, in Verona, we will find vaults with armatures 
like those of Pompeii, except that rounded pebbles replace the tufa 
used where the soil is entirely formed of volcanic debris. And when 
the .'Vlps are crossed, even the idea of an armature disappears ; or 
else, by a curious reversal of roles, the armature of converging strata 
increases in importance to the point of becoming by itself the vault, 
while the masses of concrete in horizontal layers are no more than a 
covering, a backing, or, in a word, an accessory ; the functions of the 
parts are inverted. 

Such were, in a special division of the art of building, and in a 



restricted portion of the empire, the variety of aspects presented by 
the methods of construction. Looked at from a more general point 
of view, antique art offers this same diversity of aspects in all its 
branches. If the types of sculpture, of Roman ceramics, of provin- 
cial medals, or even of the mosaics found in different parts of the 
empire, are reviewed, everywhere the mark of local schools will be 
found with the same clearness ; everywhere a certain base of common 
principles will show the impulse emanating from Rome. But every 
where, under this apparent uniformity, attentive examination will 
discover shades without number, or even contrasts, in accordance 
with the entirely distinct municipal life of the ancient cities. Kach 
city had its own architectural traditions, as it had its civil institutions, 
its customs, and its cult. Roman art was essentially municipal ; this 
was its first, its principal characteristic. Let us then think of it in 
its innumerable forms, not trying to lend it a fixedness of methods 
incompatible with the incessantly changing conventions and neces- 
sities. Transplanted to diverse .soils, it was subjected to inevitable 
influences : it transformed itself in order to spread over all the 
regions of the empire; its methods were classed by species: its types 
were consecrated by time, and each colony, each municipality, had in 
its corporations of artisans, depositaries of the traditions of local 
practice; and, as we will see, the Roman respect for the customs and 
freedoms of these labor associations contributed to rendering the 
distinctions between the different schools sharper and more durable. 
( Continued.) 



FIRE-I'ROOF BUILDINGS. 

Ai'ROI'OSED change in the building law of Boston which has 
occasioned some discussion is that which requires that apart- 
ment houses of four or more suites shall be of first-class construction 
— that is, shall be built, both in their exterior and interior, of non- 
combustible materials. The objection that has been raised to this is 
that it is pushing the fire-proof theory to an unwarrantable length ; 
but, it may be that those who look upon the question from this stand- 
point do so in ignorance of certain important considerations. In 
the first place, the cost of fire-proof construction has undergone in the 
last few years an enormous contraction. Some of the best builders 
assert that the difference in cost between fire-proof construction and 
ordinary construction is no more than between lo and 20 per cent., and 
with the passage of the tariff bill and the increase that has been 
made in building timber, it is not impossible that the cost of first- 
class construction will be little, if any, greater than that of ordinary 
construction. A fire-proof building thus constructed, when once put 
up, has a durability which is worth, on account of the saving in 
depreciation, all of the added expense. In the matter of insurance, 
a decided reduction in rates can be obtained, and owners and 
occupants can have a sense of security which insurance either 
against fire, life, or accident will not altogether give to them. A still 
further fact is that this form of construction is what is recjuired in 
practically all of the cities and towns of continental Europe, with the 
exception, perhaps, of Russia. Not only is it necessary in these 
places to build apartment houses and other large structures in this 
way, but the ordinary dwelling house is a fire-proof building. The 
result of this general adoption of correct methods of construction is 
seen in the almost entire absence of large losses by fire. Thus, in 
Berlin, which is a city about the size of New York, there are each 
year about the same number of alarms of fire as in the latter 
metropolis, say, between 3,500 and 4,000, or ten alarms a day. But 
although New York has a large and wonderfully well equipped fire 
department, and Berlin a relatively small and seemingly poorly 
equijjped defensive service, the fire losses in Berlin are not much 
larger on the average than those met with in such cities as Lawrence 
or Haverliill, while the losses in New York city, where this thorough 
system of fire-proof construction does not obtain, is each year from 
twenty to thirty times as great as it is in Berlin. The time has come 
to make a step forward in construction, and hence we trust that the 
suggestion of the building commissioner in the matter referred to 
will be favorably considered by the Legislature. — Boston Herald. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



173 



Fire-proofing Department. 



DETAILS OF 



FIRE-PROOF 
BURNED 



CONSTRUCTION 
CLAY. 



WITH 



BY PETER B. WIGHT. 

COLUMN PROTECTION. 

THE work of the fire-proofing experts in connection with columns, 
pillars, or posts is confined to the protection of iron or steel, 
and forms no part of the construction of a building. An exception 
to this can be found in the first tier of seventy-two columns forming 
the arcade of the United States Pension 
Building, at Washington, which are built 
of drums of fire-brick, with a 5 in. hole 
in the center. Wooden posts are sup- 
posed to take care of themselves, which 
is largely the case where hard oak is used. 
When disasters by fire, caused by the 
breaking of iron columns, became fre- 
quent and noticeable, a great cry was 
raised by the underwriters, experts, and 
some professional firemen that nothing 
was safe in any building except a large 
wooden post which would not snap off or 
bend, but would stand as long as enough 
of it remained to carry its load. It was 
long before this time that other investi- 
gators had called attention to the danger 
of iron columns in a fire, and had sug- 
gested the proper remedy. The most 
prominent authority to demand the use 
of wood in superseding cast iron was the 
late Captain .Shaw, of the London Fire 
Brigade, and what he said was taken up 
and echoed all through our own country. 
Yet, years before he published his first 
book, Wm. Stratford Hogg, an English- 
man, had, in 1862, taken out a patent for 
protecting iron columns from fire by 
building circular bricks around them and 
leaving an air space between. But he 
received no encouragement, and there is 
no record of his patent having been used. 

The result of this 

agitation was that in 

many buildings oak 

posts were used 

where it would have 

been better to em- 
ploy iron protected 

by Hogg's method. 




FIG. 3. 




SCAl-E . 



FIG. 2. 



This agitation led the writer 
to invent and patent, in 1873, a method of pro- 
tecting cast iron by making the columns with 
four or more flanges, instead of in a cylindrical 
form, and securing gores of hard oak between 
them, depending upon the slow combustion of 
the surface of the wood, and its non-conducting 
properties when burning; for as a fact oak is 
a nonconductor of heat when one side is in 
combustion. The method was demonstrated by 
a comparative test with two unprotected iron 
columns in 1873. But while it attracted con- 
siderable attention, more on account of its novelty 
than its usefulness, the system was never put into 
use. It was not economical in the section of the 
iron used ; yet no other form of casting could be 



employed that would admit of the application of the oak in a good 
form for protection. F'ig. i shows how it was proposed to use this 
system, and its application to iron girders. 

As porous terra-cotta was demonstrated to be 
a practicable article of manufacture in 1874, it 
was substituted for wood gores, and used for the 
first time with cast-iron cores of cruciform section 
in the Chicago Club, on Monroe Street, opposite 
the Palmer House in Chicago, now the Columbus 
Club. In these columns, of which there are four, 
the terra-cotta blocks project one inch beyond the flanges of the 
iron columns, and they are secured to the iron, not only by the cement, 
but by wrought-iron plates, zyi ins. square countersunk into the tiles 
and screwed down to the edges of the 
flanges. The columns admitted of a 
plaster finish, and the ornamental capitals 
were of terra-cotta. Similar fire-proof 
columns were soon after used in the 
Milwaukee Board of Trade Building, 
some of which had six flanges in the iron 
cores. Five flange Phccnix wrought-iron 
columns were also used in the same build- 
ing, and similarly fire-proofed. 

The next improvement in columns 
that were expected to finish twelve or 
more inches in diameter was to make the 
cast-iron cores in the form of a cylinder, 
with four or more projecting flanges of 
about I Yz ins. projection. This was 
found to require only a slight excess of 
metal over cylindrical castings of the 
same strength. The terra-cotta sections 
were made about 2^ ins. in thickness, 
and were secured to the iron by the same 
method as that used in the club house. 
These columns were vised on a large scale 
in the retail store built by the late D. 
M. Ferry, on Woodward Avenue, Detroit, 
in 1879, "ifd were used from that time up 
to about i8.S,S, in such a large numlier of 
buildings that a computation then made 
showed that there were upwards of 40,000 
lineal feet of columns thus fire-proofed. 
Fig. 2 is an illustration of one of these 
columns, and Fig. 3, a plan of one having 
six flanges as used in the First National 
Bank, Chicago. In 1884, this system 
came into extensive use as an application 
to the Phcunix wrought-iron columns. 
These are the same 
pj(. j_ in practical shape 

as the cast-iron 
cores that had been used. Instead of screwing 
the countersunk plates into the edges of the 
flanges, cast plates were made with two hooks, 
which would fit over the rivet heads in any 
part. As the blocks were built up in place, a 
course of plates was hooked onto the rivet 
heads at about every two feet in height, and 
then built in with the next course of blocks. 
In this way all the Phounix columns of the 
Mutual Life Insurance Building, on Nassau 
Street, in New York, were covered, most of 
them being six-flange columns. Fig. 4 is an 
illustration of the usual method applied to 
Phuinix columns, and Fig. 5 shows a special 
method applied to two columns in the Chicago 
Board of Trade. It was not uncommon, also, fig. 4. 




THt 0AN\P-P^OOF rOOT,CJlL 



METHOD O F c' O IM STRVl 



1 1 

I 



J 




174 



THE BRICKBUII. DER 




FIG. 5. 




where it was desired to give square cast-iron posts a round finish, 
to make the blocks flat on the inside, and curved on the outside 

for this purpose. The countersunk 
plates were secured by screws to 
the outer angles of the castings, 
using them as if they were flanges. 
In the same way square cores were 
covered to finish square with 
chamfered angles (see Fig. 6), and 
even round columns were covered 
with porous terra-cotta blocks, so 
as to make them finish in a square 
form. For this purpose, and for 
the fire-proofing of cylindrical cast- 
iron cores that were not provided 
with vertical flanges, the castings 
were tapped with holes into which small, round studs were screwed, 
and the countersunk plates used to secure the fire-proof blocks were 
screwed into these studs (see Fig. 7). 

This system was based on the idea that no fire-proof material 
can be depended upon to hold itself in position, and that cement is 
only subsidiary to mechanical fastenings. It did not allow any fire- 
proof covering of an iron column to bulge off by vertical expansion, be- 
cause it depended upon the individual fastening of the 
porous terra-cotta blocks to the iron core. This proved 
to be effective in every case in which it was tested. 
When the Grannis Block was burned in Chicago no 
attempt had been made to make it fire-proof in any 
particular, except that the cast-iron col- 
umns were covered as here described. 
But columns that had fallen down in the 
ruins were taken out with all their fire-proofing attached. 
The engineers attached to the office of the supervis- 
ing architect of the Treasury Department decided to 
fire-proof the columns of all buildings between 1880 and 
1890. But they refused to allow them to be cast with 
flanges, and only allowed about i ^ ins. of thickness for 
the terra-cotta fire-proofing. As they would not permit 
the columns to be drilled, the fire-proofing had to be 
secured with bands. To put these on the outside, or to 
wire the blocks on, which the specifications allowed, 
would have exposed these fastenings to fire. Those 
which were done by the Wight Fire-proofing Company 
were covered with blocks having grooved edges. As 
each course was set, a hoop of iron was bent around the 
column, hooked together at the ends, and dropped into 
this groove. Then the next course 
was set with the grooved edge down, 
and thus the iron bands were incorporated with 
the tiles and cement, and protected from heat on 
the exterior. In this way the cast-iron columns of 
at least thirty government buildings were fire- 
proofed. Fig. 8 is an illustration of the method, 
and Fig. 9 a plan of one of these columns. 

This is somewhat like writing up ancient 
history; for every one of the processes above 
mentioned has been out of use for from six to nine 
years. It is perhaps needle.ss to add that they are 
the methods used for a long time by the company 
of which the writer was the originator, and which 
went out of business six years ago. The reasons 
for this are two. They are such as are not called 
for in the specifications, and sometimes more ex- 
pensive than those in present use. It is part of 
its history that the Wight Fire-proofing Company, 
in the later years of its existence, followed in many 
cases the methods of its rivals in covering iron 
columns, for the simple reason that these were all fig. 8. 



FIG. 7. 







that were called for and demanded in architects' specifications, or 
paid for by the owners. This was even the case in some of the 
largest government buildings. What seemed to be- 
come the standard system of fire-proofing columns at 
that time consisted of a flangeless unglazed hard 
drain tile, scored in two places so that it would split 
in two, and then set up around the column so as to 
break joints. In some cases the architect or super- yig. g. 

intendent would demand that they be tied on with 
wires, which was generally done when it was ordered, because it cost 
next to nothing, and it was not worth while to kick. An illustration 
of one of these is here given. (Fig. 10.) In other cases it has been 
customary to cover Z bar, or other kinds of built steel columns, with 
hollow blocks of hard, hollow tile, built as a wall around them and 
without fastenings, a.s was the case in the Home Department Store 
at Pittsburgh, recently burned, and described in the 
June Brickbuilder. A few architects have re- 
quired that the Z bar columns shall have their 
hollows filled in with pieces of tile before the ex- 
terior covering is put on. In other words, they 
think that the hollow tile covering is better when 
it is s/i/ci- Oft as well as built up. .Such are the 
methods now generally used where 
tiles are employed, and hard or por- 
ous tiles are used indifferently ac- 
cording to whether the lowest bidder 
is a " hard " or "porous" manufac- 
turer. KiG. II. 

There is some food for reflec- 
tion after reading the opinions of some of the most 
successful architects of New York and Boston, on 
the general character of our fire-proofing, in The 
Brickhuilder for January and February. In 
the course of all of those interviews, which are 
characterized by very just criticisms of many of 
the shortcomings of the makers and users of clay 
fire-proofing materials, no suggestion was made of 
the necessity of securhig the fire-proofing to the 
iron or steel by mechanical means. Those who 
FIG 10 referred to column fire-proofing only suggested in- 

creasing its thickness, and one said that it should 
be " at least " 4 ins. in thickness. Another suggested filling the 
columns solid with cement on the inside, and putting metal lathing 
and plastering on the outside. Mr. Carrere showed the most perfect 
knowledge of the defects and necessities of the fire proofing art as 
practised in Eastern cities ; but his only suggestions about column 
covering were that they should be heavier, interlocking, or that they 
should be doubled. The building law of Chicago, which was last 
amended so that it should cover also the use of plastic coverings with 
metal lathing, requires that there shall be 
two air spaces around all columns. The 
Brickbuilder has already pointed out that 
the defective method, as in the Home De- 
partment Store at Pittsburgh, which by some 
good chance left the columns intact though 
it fell off promiscuously, is admissible under 
its provisions. 

So we find that in the present state of 
the art neither the laws nor the practise of 
the leading architects, nor the methods ad- 
vertised by manufacturers or contractors,^ 

' The writer lias looked in vain through the published 
catalogues nf the present manufacturers of fire-proofing 
materials of clay for illustrations, or descriptions of meth- 
ods for protecting iron or steel columns from fire, which 
provide for fastening the protection to the column, with 
the earnest hope to be able to do them justice, but has 
found none. Most of the illustrations given in them are 
unauthorized copies of some of the shapes that have been 
described in this paper, without the fastenings. Of those 





THE BRICKBUILDER 



175 




FIG. 13. 



are calculated to insure the safety of this most vulnerable feature of 
modern fire-proof buildings. We have traced a brief outline of the 
art as it has been practised, — necessarily brief, 
for very much more could be said on the sub- 
ject. It does not show that the case is hope- 
less. It only demonstrates that we have much 
to learn that seems to have been forgotten. To 
sum up, it must be recognized that some method 
is better than others, and the best should be 
used. It is an unfortunate fact that the ele- 
ment of cheapness has been the main cause of 
depreciation, no less than the indifference of 
the architects. This is not to say that the effective fire-proofing of 
columns is a very expensive operation. On the contrary, there is 
very little difference in cost between good methods and bad ones, 
and this difference would hardly be noticed in the aggregate cost of 
a large and expensively finished fire-proof building, if attention is 
given to this detail at the proper time. 

The writer was led into the field of fire-proof construction by his 
study of the best methods for protecting iron columns from fire. His 
first and every effort was to avoid any unnecessary additions to the 
diameters of columns. We have now become accustomed to these 
additions, and architects even propose to increase them. He found 
that porous terracotta was the best material for the purpose, because, 
on account of its own non-conducting properties, it did not require a 
hollow space. He also found by experiment and practise that a 
thickness of 2^ ins. of this material was sufficient under any circum- 
stances, and that wherever it could be used it need not project beyond 
any flange more than i in. He became convinced that any fire- 
proofing material was liable to be forced away from the column by 
its own lateral expansion in the direction of the leni^th of the column ^ 
and that it must be fastened directly to the column by mechanical 
means, countersunk for their own protection. 
These are the fundamental conditions of column 
fire-proofing, no matter how applied. They 
make it possible to save much space and yet 
get the best results. They are applicable to 
every form of vertical support now in use, and 
in applying them the best fire-proofing material 
ever made, porous terra-cotta, should always be 
used. The use of porous, and not semi-porous, 
material is recommended for inert or protecting 
material when used solid, while the semi-porous terra-cotta is recom- 
mended when used in the hollow form. 

In making these suggestions much has been said that looks like 
advertising, and it must be added by way of explanation that all 
patents covering these methods have expired, and there is no 
monopoly of these ideas. The Brickbuilder in publishing them is 
only doing missionary work in a cause which it is endeavoring to 
serve. We do not claim to be infallible, nor is the admission that 
there is always room for improvement a confession of the weakness 
of a cause. In this case it shows that the use of clay in the erection 
of fire-proof buildings is always capable of a higher development in 
the hands of those who are seeking for the best results. 



Mortar and Concrete. 




Of all known fire-proofing materials, it has Ijeen unquestionably 
proven that burnt clay is the most effective for the prevention of the 
spread of fire. Where it has shown failure, faulty methods of ap- 
plication have been the cause. This is a matter that we may expect 
to see satisfactorily handled in the near future, as never before has 
it received the intelligent study that is being given it at present. 

that appear to have merit and originality, the illustrations Figs, ii and 12 show a plan and 
general view of one method of the Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Company, of Chicago, 
in which hollow tiles are held together «r()««</ the column with cramps. Fig. 13 shows the 
method of the Illinois Terra-Cotta Lumber Comjiany for protecting tlie Lorimer steel 
columns, and Fig. 14 shows the same method for cast-iron cylindrical columns. There is 
no description of these, but it has been noticed in practise that the blocks are built in courses 
breaking joints. Nearly every maker in the country makes for the Z bar columns either the 
ordinary partition tiles or hollow blocks similar to those used in the Home Department 
Store and illustrated in Brickbuildek for June. 



LIME, HYDRAULIC CEMENT, MORTAR, AND CON- 
CRETE. V. 

I!Y CLIFFORD RICHARDSON. 

THE MANUFACTURE OF NATURAL CEMENT. 

FROM the preceding pages it is apparent that in the establish- 
ment of the natural cement industry at any point, a thorough 
study of the chemical composition and physical properties of the 
available rocks is necessary, in order to determine upon the selection 
of suitable material for the purpose and the rejection of that which 
is unsatisfactory. The proper manner of mixing and burning strata 
of different composition must be decided upon, and the economic 
considerations affecting the quarrying of different strata, depending 
on their dip and overburden, must, of course, not be neglected. 

The following are the most important points to be considered in 
connection with the examination of hydraulic limestones : — 

Character of the Rock. The general appearance and na- 
ture of the various strata in any quarry of cement rock, their color, 
grain, and hardness, are usually somewhat different, and sufficient to 
distinguish and identify them. An examination in the laboratory, 
even with limited facilities, will then reveal definite physical and 
chemical properties which will enable one to determine the avail- 
ability of the stone for the manufacture of cement. 

Physical Properties. It is of the first importance that the 
rock should be dense. A light rock will not burn well or grind to a 
cement of suitable volume, weight, or density. The specific gravity 
determined at 78 degs. Fahr. should not be below 2.70, and should 
preferably be 2.8 or higher. Some hydraulic limestones have a 
specific gravity of only 2.65, and are inferior, while, where weathering 
has taken place, it may be even less. The best rock is always ob- 
tained after a quarry has been so far worked as to have reached be- 
yond all weathered material and alteration products. Where the 
dip is sharp, this condition is soon arrived at ; but when there is little 
dip, all strata must be rejected which are near enough the surface to 
have been weathered or acted upon by water. 

In the Rosendale series of cement rocks the following densities 
at 78 degs. Fahr. were found for stone, all from deep levels, but at 
different depths. 

Nearest Surface. 



Light rock, 


2.830 


Dark rock. 


2.849 


Medium. 




Light rock, 


2.8 1 5 


Dark rock. 


2.841 


Deepest. 




Light rock. 


2.S27 


Dark rock, 


2.84s 



At these depths below ground there is little difference in the 
density of the rocks obtained, all being very heavy and typical of the 
best quality. 

The Fort Scott, Kansas, rock, on the other hand, which is nearer 
the surface, has a density of only 2.730 ; that at Round Top, Mary- 
land, 2.731 ; while that of the hydraulic limestone of Illinois is no 
greater than 2.667, and of course does not produce as dense a 
cement. 

The state of aggregation is as important as the density of a 
cement rock. The mixture of clay, sand, and carbonates should be 



176 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



thorough, and one in which the constituents were deposited in the 
form of an impalpable powder. Where the sand is coarse, the clay 
in lumps, or the carbonates in pockets without admixture of silicates, 
the rock is unsuited for cement burning. Mere inspection will usually 
reveal the uniformity of the rock, while the size of the particles can 
be determined by dissolving a weighed fragment, without pulverizing, 
in acid, and determining the size and amount of the insoluble par- 
ticles of sand remaining undissolved by means of fine sieves. As an 
example may be mentioned a magnesian limestone from a Virginia 
cement quarry, which might have made a fair cement were it not for 
the coar.se nature of the stone. The residue of clay and sand, in- 
soluble in acid, consisted of 9.5 per cent, of particles too large to pass 
an ordinary 100 mesh cement sieve. It was, therefore, necessary to 
reject this stratum in working the quarry. 

In the fiosendale rocks the following residues were found in the 
cement rocks at various levels : — 

Per cent, of Residue on Sieve. 
Nearest Surface. 200 mesh. 100 mesh. 50 mesh. 

Light rock, 2.9 



Dark rock, 0.0 



Light rock. 


0.0 






Dark rock, 


0.0 






Light rock. 


0.6 


0.6 


0.4 


Dark rock. 


1.2 


0.5 


0.3 



Medium. 



Deepest. 



On treatment with acids these rocks retained their original shape, 
but could then be broken down by a rubber pestle or the fingers, re- 
vealino-, in one case, some firm silicious veins which were quite 
resistent. Under the microscope the fine residue has the appearance 
of kaolin. 

Where it is necessary to use a coarse rOck, the burning must be 
slow and prolonged, in order to bring about as much combination 
between the lime and silica as possible ; otherwise, the finished prod- 
uct is merely one of quicklime and but partially combined silicates. 

CHEMIC.VL COM}"OSITIONS. 

Carbonates of Limf. and Magnf.sia. The amount of car- 
bonates in a hydraulic limestone cannot exceed 75 per cent, and pro- 
duce a good cement, and, in most cases, they should preferably be 
less than 70 per cent. Where several strata are taken from one 
quarry it is possible to use a small proportion of rock richer in car- 
bonates, but this is undesirable on account of the difficulty of properly 
burning the richer limestone. The average composition of a mixture 
of rocks under such circumstances cannot exceed 70 per cent, with- 
out the production of an inferior or hot cement. With 75 per cent, 
of carbonate of lime the proportion for Portland cement is reached, 
and a different system of burning is necessary. The material from 
which Portland cement is made will, however, give a rock cement 
when lightly burned, but one that is very quick setting. 

Hydraulic limestones, which are free from magnesia, probably 
make the best cements when properly proportioned. They must, 
however, contain sufficient clay. Such a stone has the composition 
given for the No. 2 rock of the Maryland quarry where the total car- 
bonates are 6S.44 per cent., including only 4.58 percent, of carbonate 
of magnesia, while the silica and clay amount to 29.66 per cent. Rock 
of this description is rarely found. Where the latter constituents are 
deficient cement from such a rock is very quick and hot, especially 
when the rock contains more silicious sand than clay. 

Magnesia. As has been already shown, the majority of the 
hydraulic limestones in use in the United States are magnesian, the 
amount of magnesian carbonate varying from 39 per cent, to little 
enough for the stone to be considered as a straight lime rock. In 



any single rock or mixture the carbonate of magnesia should not ex- 
ceed 30 per cent., and should be preferably not more than 25. 
P'roni a stone with more than the latter, the cement produced has a 
tendency to expand slowly with age, e.specially when deficient in clay. 
This is illustrated by a Western New York rock, having 37.0 per 
cent, of magnesian carbonate, and less than 1 1 per cent, of silica and 
silicates, which yields a cement which expands in concrete to a very 
large degree for many months or even years after use. 

The RosendaJe cements, owing to their density and composi- 
tion, are the highest type of this class of cements. The rock they 
are made from contains only about 20 per cent, of magnesian car- 
bonate, with 30 per cent, of clay. 

Silica and Silicates. The amount of silica and silicates in 
hydraulic limestones is, of course, inversely proportional to that of the 
carbonates they contain. When rich in carbonates they are poor in 
silica and silicates, and the reverse. As it is to the presence of these 
substances that the limestones owe their hydraulic properties, the 
amount which they contain is of the greatest importance. It is also 
of quite as much importance that the silica should be largely, if not 
entirely, in combination with alumina as clay, and not in the free 
state as mere sand. This is determined by the amount of alumina 
and iron in the stone, which serves as an index of the possible clay 
present. For example, in a stone from Akron, N. Y., and one of the 
Rosendale series, the analyses previously given show 35 and 29 per 
cent, of substance insoluble in acid ; but an examination of the amount 
of alumina and iron present reveals the fact that there can be but 
little clay in the Akron stone, while there is an abundance in the 
Rosendale, one having only 4.84 per cent, of alumina and iron while 
the other has 10 per cent. The Rosendale rock, in consequence, 
makes a very superior cement, while the Akron shows the peculiari- 
ties of a cement deficient in clay and too rich in magnesia. In fact, 
a deficiency in clay is more serious in a magnesian than in a lime 
cement, as under such circumstances there is very apt to be serious 
expansion of the cement after use. 

Cement rock deficient in clay yields cements which heat and 
set too quickly. On the other hand, too much clay in a hydraulic 
limestone is as bad as too little. Cement made from such rock will 
blow or expand, when immersed in water, especially when carele.ssly 
burned. Clay may also contain too much iron oxide and insufficient 
alumina, in this case yielding a weak cement. 

Sulphates and .Sulphur. Sulphur occurs in limestone as 
sulphate of lime and as pyrites or iron sulphide. These sub.stances 
are rarely present in sufficient amount to affect the quality of cements. 
Sulphates are sometimes reduced in burning, combining with some 
of the iron oxide to produce the green color now and then seen in 
briquettes of natural cement. Two per cent, of sulphur in its com- 
pounds is a large amount for a cement rock to hold. 

Alkalies. Potash and soda are sometimes found to a con- 
siderable amount, between i and 2 per cent., in the silicates of hy- 
draulic limestones. Unless they are present in more than the usual 
traces they have no effect on the cement. In excess they make the 
rock fusible in the kiln, in consequence of which such material is re- 
jected or must be burned slowly at low temperatures. As far as is 
known, they do not injure the quality of the cement. The amount 
present in various well-known cements is as follows : — 

alkalies in hydraulic cements. 
Milwaukee Cement, 



Ft. Scott 



Akron, Star 



Akron, Obelisk 



K,0 


•S7% 


Na,0 


1.64 


K,0 


.70 


Na,0 


'■33 


K,0 


1-39 


Na,0 


•23 


K,0 


1.60 


Na^O 


•52 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 177 

Buffalo ' Cement. KjO 1.44 7 8 9 g 10 n 

_ Light Dark 

" " ^" "^^ Loss on ignition . . . 28. 55 33.23 37.34 39.64 30.94 38.95 

Rosendale „ K,0 Silica 33.06 20.47 15.01 9.06 19.70 S.oi 

Na. O Alumina and Iron Insol. 3.26 5.09 3.22 4.84 4.84 2.63 

„ „ Sol. . 3.26 2.67 5.22 2.51 5.09 1.59 

Round Top „ K.O Lime 20.33 26.20 25.85 27.8S 20.25 39-77 

" " " Na,0 Magnesia 10.26 11.59 18-84 iS-67 iS-23 7,43 

It will be noticed that in some cases potash is in excess, in others Sulphur as SO^ . . . .82 .58 trace .38 .34 .44 

soda. This is due to the kind of feldspar from whichthe clay in the Calcium carbonate . . 3f'-3t 46-79 46-17 49-79 36-16 7'-o3 

cement rock originated. Magnesium carbonate .21.55 24.34 39-S6 32-91 31.9S rS-^o 

Minor Constituents. All limestones contain small portions, '^°^^' 57-86 71.13 85.73 82.70 68.14 86.63 

fractions of a per cent., of other elements besides those mentioned, Silica, etc., coarser than 

such as barium, strontium, manganese, phosphoric acid, chlorine, and 100 mesi screen . .32 1.31 .32 .00 2.02 .33 

other widely diffused substances, but they have little or no influence The rocks of the different strata in this quarry are distinguished 

on the suitability of the rocks for cement making, and may be in a general way by the rather low percentage of alumina and iron, 

neglected unless their amount is more than a trace. and consequently of clay. The insoluble portion in many cases is 

largely silica, and rather coarse grained, as may be seen from the 

CRUDE TESTS OF ROCK. determinations of its size. 
Where it is impossible to obtain complete chemical analyses and Stratum No. i was recommended for rejection, as it contained 

determinations of the physical properties, such as have been men- 9-S per cent, of sand coarser than would pass the ordinary screen of 

tioned, a fair idea of the peculiarities and deficiencies of any hy- ^°° meshes to the inch. This rock was also too rich in carbonates, 

draulic limestone may be obtained to supplement burning tests in the ^nd would have given, under the best handling, an inferior cement, 

experimental kiln, or muffle, from an estimation of the loss on igni- as magnesian cements deficient in clay are not constant in volume 

tion. This corresponds to the amount of carbonates, and inversely alter use. 

to the per cent, of substances, insoluble in acid, present. From such Stratum No. 2 had an excellent chemical composition but physi- 

a determination; especially when the appearance of the residue is cally was too coarse, and, lying among inferior strata, it would natu- 

examined critically with the object of learning its character, an ap- ''al'y '^^ neglected for economical reasons. 

proximate conclusion can be drawn as to the value of a stone or the Stratum No. 3 was rejected because quite deficient in clay and 

cause of its inferiority. silica. 

In the simplest way an ordinary coal fire, in which pieces of the Stratum No. 4 was characterized as a poor rock which might be 

rock are buried and burned for varying lengths of time, will furnish "sed if necessary, but was not recommended, being deficient in clay, 
much valuable information. Stratum No. 5 was marked as being a slight improvement over 

No. 4 owing to the smaller amount of carbonates it contained, 

APPLICATION OF THE RESULTS OF ANALYSES TO PRACTISE. although deficient in clay. 

Stratum No. 6 was too rich in carljonates and too low in alumina 
As illustrations of the application of the information obtained 1.1 1 r 1 j 1- 

*^' I 1 • or clay to be used for hydraulic cement, 

from the physical and chemical examination of cement rocks to their o^ ,. nt 1 ..i ,. -r • c u • 1,1 1 

' -' . Stratum No. 7 proved the most silicious of the series, although 

selection and use in cement making the following cases in actual . ^ . , ,. ^, , ,,r.^, . , . .^ , , , , 

" ° It contained little clay. With care in burning it could be used, as 

practise will serve. - ., -i- ^ • ^ , c c 1- - - ii • 1 

'^ the silica was present in a state ot fine division. It is, however, not 

QUARRY OF MAGNESIAN HYDRAULIC LIMESTONE. an entirely satisfactory rock. 

Stratum No. 8 proved a good stone for this quarry. 
Some years ago a new quarry of magnesian cement rock was Stratum No. 9, in both its forms, light and dark, was, Ijesides 

opened in Maryland, which contained a large number of distinct strata ^^^^.^^ ^^^^^ ,^^^ ^^ uniformity, too rich in carbonates and deficient 

which were available for making cement. I was requested, with due .^^ insoluble matter. By itself this stratum would prove a poor one. 
consideration for economical working, to select, after a chemical and g^^^^^^^ ^^ ,^ ^^^ ^^ excellent one, and was recommended for 

physical examination, the best strata for use in making a high-grade 
natural cement. Stratum No. 1 1 appeared at a glance to be insufficiently hy- 

The strata which were submitted were eleven in number, mostly draulic, and was excluded, 
of light color, and all, with one exception, quite uniform in character, q^ ^jj ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ f^^ ^^^ ^^ .^^^^^ reasons, only those numbered 

but readily distinguished by their appearance. The results of the ^^ g_ ^^^ j^ ^^^^ considered to be fairly good rock, if burned by 

laboratory examination were as follows : — themselves. The pos.sibility, however, of mixing the cement made 

from the different strata permits the faults of one to correct those of 

ANALYSES OF MAGNESIUM LIMESTONE, MARYLAND CEMENT . ^ 

another to a certain extent. The stratum No. 7 was, therefore, in- 

COMPANY. 

eluded, and such a mixture served very well. Cement so prepared 

^ ^°- . . . ,' ^ ' ■♦„ 5 6 analyzed as follows: — 

Loss on Ignition . . . 36.56 29.50 41.95 34-82 31.09 39.65 ^ 

Silica 14.61 23.99 6.68 15.97 21.45 9.89 Loss on ignition 8.29 

Alumina and Iron Insol. 3.83 5.60 2.03 4.54 4.01 2.77 Uncombined silica 16.30 

... ■:>■:>:> J tjt t // Sihca combined 13.50 

„ „ „ .Sol.. 2.49 4.17 1.S8 3-05 2.86 2.73 Alumina and iron oxide 11.04 

Lime 25.25 20.16 31.59 23.72 23.87 28.63 Lime 33.36 

Magnesia 16.18 13.33 15.81 15.64 12. 98 15.15 Magnesia '5-58 

Sulphur as SO, . . . .78 1.29 trace .71 .22 .34 Sulphuric acid 40 

AIlc3.1lGS I CO 

Calcium carbonate . . 45.09 36.01 56.42 42.36 42.63 51.13 ■* 

Magnesium carbonate . 33.98 27.99 33-20 32.84 27.26 31.82 The proportions of silica, clay, and carbonates are satisfactory 

Total 79-07 64.00 89.62 75.20 69.89 82.05 in this mixture, and gave a good cement which, it would seem, might 

Poor Bad Poor Bad perhaps have been improved by some further slow burning, as too 

Silica, etc., coarser than much of the silica was in the uncombined form. As a matter of fact, 

100 mesh screen . 9.51 6.92 1.29 .04 .00 4.84 however, rock from this quarry in practise had to be burned lightly 



178 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



and with great care to obtain the best results, and for this reason 
considerable silica was left uncombined. The cement has proved, 
after long use, to be a satisfactory and permanent one, although 
probably not one of the best. 

QUARRY OF MAfJNESIAN FREE CEMENT ROCK. 

In another Maryland quarry, where the rock was as nearly free 
from magnesian carbonate as ever happens, an opportunity occurred 
for a study of the variations in composition of a large number of 
strata, and of the suitability of this kind of hydraulic limestone for 
cement making. The strata had a dip of nearly 90 degs., and, 
being e.xposed along the face of a high cliff, were, in con.sequence, 
very accessible. 

The rocks, fifteen in number, had the following composition and 
furnished, when burned by themselves, experimental cements which 
set and tested as given. 

COMPOSITION OK THE .STRATA OF ROCK AND TEST.S OF TillC 

CEMENT liURNED TIIEREFRO.M IN A MARYLAND QUARRY, 

MAY-JUNE, 1892. 



No. . 

Silica 28.0S 

.'Mumina 12.5S 

Iron 5.00 

Calcium carbonate 45-86 

Magnesium carbonate . . . . 2.18 

Total carbonate 46.04 

Total aluminum and iron oxide i 7. 58 

.Sulphur 00 

Total silica and silicates . . . 45.66 
Set initial 30 ft. 

Tensile strength. 

1 day neat 36 

7 •. ., 64 

28 „ , 152 

3 months. 

7 days 2 parts quartz .... 46 

28 „ 110 

6 

Silica 21.94 

.Mumina 7.96 

Iron oxide 3.78 

Calcium carbonate 60.75 

Magnesium carbonate .... 2.01 

Total carbonate 62.76 

Alumina and iron oxide . . .11 .74 

Sulphur 34 

Total silica and silicates . . . 33.68 
Set initial 3: 



20.40 

1 2.42 

4.86 

57-93 
2.98 

60.91 

17.28 
i.iS 

44.68 
10 ft. 

S3 

2 12 

275 

I 22 

250 

7 
9.92 

3-3S 

2 22 

8 1. 5 2 

1.07 

83-49 

5.60 

.1 1 

15.52 



3 

8.72 

2.28 



c 22 

43-82 
2.31 

46.13 
17.50 

••53 
46.22 
65 ft. 

64 
252 

2 C2 



4 
26.36 

10.88 
5.50 

48.75 
2.85 

51.60 

16.38 
1-73 

37-24 
7 ft. 



184 
210 

s 

12.12 
2.36 
3-78 

51.82 

23-39 

75.21 

6.14 

.00 

18.26 



ft. 



Tensile strength. 

I day neat . . . . 

7 „ „ . . . . 

28 „ 

3 months. 

7 days, 2 parts quartz 

28 „ 



61 
218 
210 



. . 152 
„ 240 

No. II 12 13 

Silica 16.82 18.50 35.38 

Alumina 5.46 6.34 13.46 

Iron . 3.66 4.28 4.28 

Calcium carbonate 69.54 43.03 33.61 

Magnesium carbonate .... 2.69 16.00 7.56 

Total carbonate 72.23 59.03 41.17 

Total aluminum and iron oxide. 9.12 10.62 17.74 

Sulphur 80 .35 .82 

Total silica and silicates . . . 25.94 39.12 53.12 

Set initial 4 ft. 14 ft. 



60 
190 
276 

168 
206 

9 
21.78 

5-57 
3.82 

61.40 
3-'5 

64-55 
9-39 
1. 10 

3'-i7 
48 ft. 

48 
220 
262 

187 
239 
■4 

8.78 
2.70 
2.62 

80.39 
4.02 

84.41 
5.32 

-64 
14.10 



16.38 
8.42 
2.86 

62.56 
5-76 

68.32 

11.28 

-67 
27.66 
26 ft. 



64 
21S 

307 

127 
233 

10 

20,22 

I 1. 48 
352 

44-57 
3-86 

48.43 
15.00 
.78 
44.22 
14 ft. 

54 

220 

16s 
26S 

>5 

42.94 

12.62 

5.92 

25.56 

8-35 
33-9' 
18.54 

• 17 
61.48 



Tensile strength. 

I day neat 128 

7 II ,, 250 

28 „ „ 266 

7 days, 2 parts quartz 233 

28 „ 285 



62 

138 

300 

80 

190 



These hydraulic limestones are very typical of cement rock 
which is free from magnesia. They show quite as marked variations 
in composition as those of any quarry that has been examined, hav- 
ing from 84 to 34 per cent, of carbonates containing from 23 to 2 per 
cent, of carbonate of magnesia, with from 61 to 14 per cent, of silica, 
alumina, and iron oxide, and from 1.73 to o per cent, of sulphur as 
sulphates. Physically the rocks were of very fine texture, as only 
one, No. 5, left particles too coarse to pass a sieve of 100 meshes to 
the linear inch on solution in acid, in this respect being very differ- 
ent from those of the magnesian quarry previously described. Of all 
the rocks it is at once evident that Nos. 7, 8, 13, 14, and 15 must be 
rejected, 7, 8, and 14 on account of their excess of carbonates and 
deficiency in clay, and Nos. 13 and 15 for the opposite reason. Stra- 
tum No. 8 would, however, furnish a cement of the Western New 
York class. 

Of the other strata, cements were burned in an experimental 
kiln and tested, with the results given. The remarkable fact that 
good, natural hydraulic cement could be made from rock of such 
very varied composition is very striking. 

The group of strata i, 2, 3, and 4 are all very high in alumina 
and iron, consequently of clay. Nos. 2 and 4 are in addition the 
highest of these in lime, and consequently yield the (juickest setting 
cements. No. 3, having the least lime, is the slowest setting. With 
the high percentage of clay which these limestones hold their burn- 
ing must be conducted carefully, or blowing cement would result. 

Strata 5, 6, and 9 are lower in clay and higher in lime than those 
preceding, and furnish slower and more satisfactory cements. No. 

10 resembles the highly clayed rocks i to 4. No. ii is so rich in 
lime and poor in clay as to make a fiery cement, and No. 13 is, as we 
have mentioned, rejected on account of its magnesia. 

We found, then, in this quarry two particular classes of rock, one 
highly clayed, the other much less so. This fact and the economy 
of working the strata led to the decision to burn the strata 2, 3, and 
4, as one lead in the quarry, in one set of kilns, and numbers 9 and 

1 1 as another lead in another .set of kilns, mixing the burned rock be- 
fore grinding. If an increased output was desired, it was suggested 
that Nos. 5 and 6 be added in the second series, or No. 12 omitted 
and these used in its place. 

With these suggestions as a guide the works were established, 
and a high-grade cement raade after some experimenting as to the 
best manner of burning. 

The physical properties of the cements made from the different 
rocks of this quarry are instructive. The high lime and low-clayed 
rock. No. II, made a cement which gave the greatest immediate re- 
turns, both in quickness of set and in tensile strength, of any of the 
strata. It must be noticed, however, that, having acquired this 
strength cjuickly, there was little or no increase at a later period. 
This is very characteristic of such cement. 

The magnesia rock, No. 12, gained in strength slowly, as all mag- 
nesia cements do, but would in the end have probably exceeded many 
of the others. As it was, it surpassed in neat strength all but one at 
28 days. If used for the manufacture of cement, it would probably 
have to be burned in a different way from the other strata, to obtain 
the best results. 

Strata Nos. i and 4, which are nearly identical in composition, 
yielded cement of quite different quality. No. i being the weakest of 
all that were burned. This can only be attributed to a difference in 
the manner of burning. It is probable that No. i was either under 
or overburned. 

The cements from the other strata were much alike in tensile 
strength. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



179 



The Masons' Department. 

STRAINS IN ARCHES. III. 

BY JOSEPH MARSHALL. 

IF we now apply to the method pointed out in tlie foregoing 
chapters the test of the " resolution of forces," we will have a 
fair comparison, and may judge whether the foregoing methods are 
sufficiently approximate in their results to be considered worthy of 
adoption in practise. 

Referring to Fig. 10, which is drawn to a scale of % in. to the 
foot (reduced one half in reproduction), we have the heavy line b 
to a indicating the pier supporting an arch indicated by the heavy 
lined arc a to ■?', which is intersected at c' by the neutral line o n 
drawn at 45 degs. elevation. 

Assuming that the arch is i ft. by i ft. sectional area, and that 
the weight of that part of the arch above the neutral line is (in even 
hundreds) 2,000 lbs., and that part below the neutral line also 2,000 
lbs., we have the diagonal line c'v indicating a force of 2,000 lbs. in 
the direction towards d . Resolving this into two equivalent forces, — 
one acting horizontally, the other vertically, — we have the parallelo- 
gram (/ H V w, which in their magnitude and direction are equal to 
c' V. li c' w with its indicated force acted from c" towards w, and c' 
H also with its indicated force acted towards h, they would con- 
jointly exactly balance the 2,coo lbs. indicated of c' v. 

Then for the force and direction of the lower part of the arch 
we have the parallelogram d a! a I with the diagonal la' indicating 
a magnitude of 2,000 lbs. force, with its equivalents / a vertically and 
/ d horizontally. The forces indicated by the horizontal lines / d 
and d h act in opposite directions and in the same straight line, 
and, therefore, are to each other as the algebraical differences of 
their magnitudes. If they were of equal magnitude they would ex- 
actly balance each other. But they are not equal in magnitude, 
and hence one must be greater than the other — d H, indicating the 
thrust, is the greater, and / r', indicating the counterthrust, the lesser. 
Beyond establishing the relations and magnitude of the forces in the 
arch the employment of the parallelogram of force is useless, because 
the excess of force, whatever it may be or in whatever direction 
acting, acts upon the pier at / and in manner to convert the pier into 
a lever of the length / B. Having discovered the difference in 
magnitude between the thrust and counterthrust, and knowing the 
length of the lever / D, nothing remains but to proceed with the 
numerical calculation as in Chapter II. The diagonal line d v be- 
ing charged with representing 2,000 lbs. force, and choosing the 
scale of one eighth of an inch for 125 lbs. (convenience dictating), 
we have d to h equal to ^\'/i eighths, and 

from I io d equal to 6]^ eighths. 

Subtracting, we have 8^ eighths thrust 

X 125 lbs. to each eighth 125 

Gives excess of thrust at / 1062^ lbs. 

X by length in feet of lever / B 44^ 
Excess of thrust force at B 47S47 'bs. 
This must be counterpoised by : 
-^ weight of half arch 4000 lbs. 
plus weight of pier, f 

30 ft. by r2i j4' lbs. weight per cubic feet ^ y>37 _ 
Total counterpoise weight in pounds 7637^45822(6 ft. 

1725 

X 1 2 for ins. 



20700 (2 ins. 
15274 



5426 



= }{ nearly. 



It is now expedient that we inquire into the necessary length of 
the lever arm at a, the springing line of the arch. 

We have, of course, the same excess of thrust force indicated 
above, but the counterpoise weight is reduced to the weight of the 
half arch only, and the length of lever is only from / to a, 14^ ft. 

Hence we have : — 



1062% lbs. 
i4.¥ ft. 



7637 

Or 6 ft. 23./ ins., nearly, for the length of the bent arm of the lever 
from B towards x. In our numerical calculation in Chapter II. we 
found the requirement at this point to be 6 ft. 4}^ ins., or \i{ ins. 
more than by the present calculation. 



Excess of thrust at / 
X length of lever / to a in feet 
Thrust force at a (omitting notice of fraction) 15672 lbs. 
-4- weight of half arch in pounds 4000) I 2000(3 ft- 

3672 

X 12 for ins. 
44064 (11 ins. 
44000 

or the bent arm of the lever la extending towards b is shown to be 
required to be 3 ft. 1 1 ins., — the fraction is worthless. 

In numerical calculation in Chapter II., this arm is shown to be 
4 ft. 1% ins.; there is then a difference between the two results of 
1% ins. for the arch when mounted 
on piers 30 ft. high, and 9^ ins. 
when the arch rests on its spring- 
ing. The question will at once 
arise why this difference — even 
small as it is — -why does it appear? 

In answer we will say that in 
the method shown by Chapter II., 
the fixing of the length of the lever 
through which the counterthrust 
force operates is somewhat arbi- 
trary, as is also the counterthrust 
force itself. But, although arbi- 
trary, convenience is served by it 
and the degree of accuracy quite 
sufficient for practical use. Lim- 
ited space herein forbids more ex- 
tensive explanation and observa- 
tions upon this very important sub- 
ject, — conditions which may in the 
future be otherwise removed, — 
but it is necessary here to observe, 
as a cautionary advice, that the di- 
mensions of pier required to sup- 
port a given arch are not safely ascertained by drawing a straight 
from the indicated requirement at the nether base of the pier, as at 
X, to the indicated requirement at the spring line of the arch, as at ^. 
The exterior boundary line of such a pier would be invariably convex 
oufwardly. The manner of ascertaining the proper degree of con- 
vexity in any required pier is to divide the height of the pier into any 
desirable number of parts — equal or unequal — and to consider the 
lines of division as so many different bases, and find the extent of the 
horizontal arm for each base separately, then trace the line of curva- 
ture between the indicated points. It is not necessary that the per- 
manent face of the pier shall remain possessed of this curvature, but 
only that such curve be regarded as a cautionary signal to the de- 
signer, perhaps disappearing when the final dimensions are reduced 
to consonance, with the judgment and intentions of the designer. 

Before closing this communication we beg to be permitted one 
remark concerning something like advice, given to us by so many 
authorities commenting on arches as structural factors. I mean the 
importance which seems to be attached to the " depth of the key- 
stone." From this, some pleasant fictions seem to have been roman- 
ticated as to the size of the voussoirs or archstones. Those authors, 
quoting from arches which, it seems, have been structurally success- 
ful, have laid down quite lengthy tables of the depths of keystones, 
and we are expected to take this advice as a fish might take a bait 
and swallow it. If the structure, based on this advice, is a success, 
we congratulate ourselves ; if it fails, we, in part, excuse ourselves on 




i8o 



THE B R I C K B U I T . D E R . 



the score of precedent, and partly because of the alleged "dishonesty 
of the contractor," the " incapacity of the workmen," " treachery of 
the foundation," or some other ingenious fabrication. 

The relation of keystones to voussoirs, or archstones, is this : 
They must not be of less depth than their next neighbor archstones, 
or such masses as may be employed to serve as archstones. If we 
take this view of it, there still remains importuning us for an answer 
the question. What should be the depth of the arch blocks, and how 
shall we determine this for any required instance ? 

We should approach the reply in this way : — 

1. The weight the arch is to bear (the weight of its own ma.ss 
included) as compared with the resistence to crushing which the 
material of which the arch is built possesses : in the same manner as 
the crushing strength of a vertical pier or wall is considered and deter- 
mined ; for, after all, an arch is only a wall or pier built more or less 
parallel to the horizon, instead of perpendicular to it. 

2. By considering convenience as regards the conventionally 
or accidentally fixed masses of materials of which some arches are, 
and others may be built, such as brick, rough stones from the (juarry, 
building tile, etc., etc., and then allowing reasonaijly for defections in 
materials and workmanship, — and " there are others." 

By far the greatest number of arches are built stronger than the 
demands of their position are ever likely to require, and this because 
we do not care to reduce materials to exact dimensions that we may 
know to be necessary. We take such as we find ready to hand which 
will serve. This is true particularly of all arches of little span and 
bearing little weight. 

It is only when we have the shaping of the material, both as to 
dimension and form, subject to our judgment and order that the Cjues- 
tion seriously presents itself. How much inust we have ? or, How little 
can we with safety employ .' Then the suggestion i above becomes 
pertinent. 

But in any event the slrciii^th of the arch is not ascertainable 
from a made-for-stock " keystone." It is better to make the keystone 
to suit the arch recjuirements; /. e., if a " keystone " is at all permis- 
sible as an especially honored or conspicuous member of the l)rother- 
hood composing the arch. Of course we find the center and highest 
part of an arch a most tempting (because of precedent) place on which 
to hang the conceits we call "ornaments" or "decoration," and for 
this reason we often go a great way around to mask our purpose. 

And when it happens that our purposes are a long time masked, 
superstition, like a spider, weaves many fantastic webs around them, 
so as finally to effectually conceal the underlying motive or render a 
correct interpretation almost impossible. For these reasons we wan- 
der sometimes long amid a labyrinth of uncertainties, making pursuit 
after many will-o'-the-wisps, but not readily finding our way out. 

Another curious quandary we often find uneasily brooding. In 
form of question it is: What kise should an arch havk? The 
popular mind is full of the idea that an arch, to be " strong," must 
have relatively great height above the tops of its piers. But this, like 
many other popular ideas, is a fallacy. But the arch with a great rise 
above its springing is more easily destroyed than a popular fallacy. 

The least rise an arch has, when its supports are competent, the 
stronger the structure will be. Then the question proj)ounded above 
must of necessity change its form and become. What is the least rise 
sufficient for full structural efficiency in an arch 'i 

We would answer that the least rise must not be less than the 
e([uivalent of compression under the greatest weight to be borne. 

Taking it for granted that some curve may be traced through 
component parts of an arch, it follows that the arc is longer than a 
straight from one extremity of the arc to the other. It is self- 
evident that the longer line would not pass through the space occupied 
by the shorter one. Therefore the arch could not drop through the 
void it spans. But if by any means the length of the arc be shortened 
to a length less than the straight line between its extremities, then 
it will readily drop into the void. This, it seems to us, is the whole 
essence of the philosophy involved in the relation between the rise 
and span of an arch. 



Recent Brick and Terra-Cotta 

Work in American Cities, 

and 

Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — A state of midsummer quietness seems to be 
prevalent in this city, but it is no more than should be ex- 
pected, and is not an alarming condition of affairs. On the contrary, 
the outlook for the coming fall and winter is very bright, and even 
the architects, who are not busy now, seem to be sanguine as to the 
future and what it will bring forth. There seems to be no reason 
why this city should not share in the good times which are sure to 
follow, with the tariff law settled and confidence restored. 

The coming election for the first mayor of (Jreater New York 
will undoubtedly cause considerable excitement, and possibly some 
interference with business ; but this will be counteracted by the feel- 
ing everywhere prevalent that the city will be benefited ultimately by 
consolidation. 

Among the items of new work which have been reported are : — 

A five-story brick and stone tenement at Nos. 104 to ro6 Second 
Street, for Mrs. \'an Alen, of Newport, R. I. Clinton & Russell are 
the architects. 

An office building to cost $125,000, designed by C. P. H. C.il- 
bert, architect, will be erected on the northeast corner of Broadway 




TERKA-COTTA DETAIL, nUILDlNG If)R THE EVANS ESTATE, 

BUFFALO, N. Y. 

E. A. Kent, Arcliilect. 

Executed by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 

and Maiden Lane. It is interesting as showing the enormous value 
of real estate in this locality to note that this lot 30 by 50 ft., with 
the old five-story building which is now on it, was sold for f 245,000. 

R. Maynicke, architect, has planned a $250,000 office building 
to be erected on Broadway for Henry Korn. 

McKim, Mead «S: White, architects, are making extensive alter- 
ations to the residence of ex-Secretary of the navy, Wm. C. Whitney. 
It is said that the alterations will cost $150,000. 

Mr. Oliver H. P. Belmont has purchased a lot on the southeast 
corner of Fifth .Avenue and 77th Street, for which he paid $150,000. 
The lot is 27 by 120 ft. Mr. Belmont intends to erect a handsome 
residence, but plans have not yet been prepared. 

A. M. Welch, architect, has filed plans for one three-story and 
three two-story brick and stone stables and dwellings on 77th Street. 
Cost, S6o,ooo. 

H.J. Hardenburgh, architect, has drawn plans for a hotel to be 
erected at 54 and 5S Third Avenue. Cost, $400,000. 

Dehli & Howard, architects, have planned an academy of music 
for the Apollo Club, of Brooklyn, to cost $600,000. The site has 
not yet been selected. 

Buchman & Diesler, architects, have completed plans for a 
twelve-story store and loft building, to be erected on Broadway, be- 
tween Prince and Houston Streets, and to cost $800,000. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i8i 



CHICAGO. — Bids on anything in the building line can be 
obtained at remarkably low figures. Contractors who 
formerly awaited invitations are now soliciting opportunities to 




loading caused serious trouble. The foundations of the new build- 
ing are not to be of the isolated type, but, like those of the public 
library, where the consulting engineer was the same, Mr. Sooy Smith, 
will be piles. They are to be of Norway 
pine, and the contract requires that they be 
driven to bed rock 103 ft. below the street 
level. 

Some two hundred thousand, more or 
less, Chicago bicyclers are beginning to pay 
their $1 each for license tags, in pursuance 
of a recent ordinance. The architects have 
not as yet begun to pay their ^50 apiece for 
their license tags, in accordance with the new 
State law. 

The Pioneer Fire-proof Construction 
Company lately lost one of their factories by 
fire. This may have been a satirical joke on 
the part of the little red devils, but we are 
pleased to know that the company's business 
will not be seriously interfered with. 



B 



RESIDENCE AT MADISON, N. J. 
Clinton & Russell, Architects. 

figure. There is, however, a brighter feeling, and building is on the 
increase, though the increase is slow. As the political economist 
would term it, the improvement is a conservative, healthy one. 

We repeat ourselves, as the facts are doing, when we say that 
the greatest part of the building activity is in small flat buildings, 
which can be seen springing up even in the outlying districts of 
Chicago. The greater number of these cost from #7,000 to #12,000 
or #15,000. One, costing #35,000, may head the column of build- 
ing news, while #75,000 to #100,000 figures often get extended 
description. 

Alterations of stores and commercial buildings have been 
referred to as an important feature of building operations in this 
city this year. The remodeling of one hotel is just being com- 
pleted, and that of three more well-known hostelries will soot be 
under way, under the direction respectively of Jenney & Mundie, 
Wilson & Marshall, and W. W. I3oyington & Co. 

Holabird & Roche have let contracts for a commercial building, 
seven stories high, to be erected near the new public library. 

The one building proj- 
ect which interests the gen- 
eral public in Chicago is the 
Post-Office Building. The 
old one did finally disap- 
pear, and now the site is a 
desert waste — a lonely look- 
ing excavation a block 
square, surrounded by a 
dense business population. 
A contract has just been let, 
however, to McArthur 
Brothers, some #235,000 in 
amount for foundation work, 
and they will begin soon to 
drive piles. 

The old post-office had 
continuous foundations of 
heavy concrete so well built 
that they had to be blasted 
out. They rested on a bog, 
however, and the unequal 



O.STON. — While there is not a great 
deal in sight at the present time in the 
way of new building operations, yet there is 
every reason to believe that Boston is on the 
eve of a very active period in this respect. 
Real estate owners are beginning to feel the 
demand on the part of their tenants for better 
accommodations, and the old-time buildings are fast being vacated 
l)ecause of the decided preference given to modern structures by the 
majority of business men renting ofiices. It is doubtful if any of 
the other large cities have as large a proportion of antiquated build- 
ings located on valuable business sites as has Boston. The commer- 
cial heart of the city is largely made up of just such structures, 
varying in age from forty years upward. It is now becoming evident 
to the owners of such property 
that in order to get proper returns 
upon the valuation of their real 
estate, they must tear down these 
old buildings and rebuild with a 
fire-proof structure, equipped with 
all the appliances that go to make 
a complete and up-to-date office 
building. Within the past year or 
two, these antiquated districts have 
been here and there invaded, and 



Daoor 




FIRST ELOOR PLAN, RESIDENCE AT MADISON, N. J. 
Clinton & Russell, Architects. 



l82 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



modern buildings of attractive appearance have been, or are now 
being erected, which, by force of contrast, make the old structures 




iu:siui;nc1':, woodlawn avi;., columhus, oiiio. 

H. A. Ltnthwaite, Architect. 
I'.uilt of ('iray Roman I'.rick, manufactured by the Columbus lirick S Tcrra-Cotta Company 



less desirable than ever. The effect of this will, we believe, be soon 
evinced by a general rebuilding of these localities, especially now 
that the improvement in business conditions warrants investors in 
going ahead with enterprises of this nature. 

The erection of the South Union Terminal -Station along the 
lines of Summer and Federal Streets greatly increases the valuation 
of property in that section, and, to some extent at least, will alter the 
character of business on the streets mentioned, and also in the imme- 
diate neighborhood of the station. Owners of real estate on the line 
of Summer Street anticipate that their properties will become valu- 
able sites for retail establishments, and should this prove true, 
it will cause, within the next few years, a general rebuilding of 
that street. 

Work on the station itself is rapidly progressing, and not- 
withstanding the many unforeseen obstacles encountered, the 
contractors are already ahead of their contract. Superinten- 
dent Clark states that they will doubtless begin to lay front 
brick on the main building at the Summer Street corner by 
the middle of September. Unless something unforeseen 
occurs, there is little doubt but that the station will be ready 
for occupancy by the fall of 1898. 

Among the new buildings, either now under process of 
construction, or on which work will be shortly begun, may be 
mentioned the following : — 

The Jeweller's E.\change (office and retail store building) 
situated at the corner of I5romfield and Washington Streets, 
Winslow & Wetherell, architects; Fuller Construction Com- 
pany, of Chicago, contractors ; to be constructed of brick 
and terra-cotta. The Russia Uuilding (mercantile), Atlantic 
Avenue and Congress Streets, Peabody & Stearns, archi- 
tects; C. Everett Clark, contractor; to be constructed of 
brick. Converse liuilding (office building). Pearl and Milk 
Streets, Winslow & Wetherell, architects; L. P. Soule & 
Son, contractors; to be constructed of brick and terra- 
cotta. Paul Revere School Building, Peabody & Stearns, 
architects; W. S. Sampson & Son, contractors; to be con- 
structed of mottled brick and gray terra-cotta. 15ath-house 



for the city of Boston, Peabody & Stearns, architects, James Pagan, 
contractor ; to be constructed of mottled brick and gray terra-cotta. 
Brookline Real Estate Trust Building (a 
$250,000 fire-proof apartment hotel) at Brook- 
line, Winslow & Wetherell, architects; T. S. 
Robbins, Worcester, Mass., contractor; to be 
constructed of brick and terra-cotta. St. John 
Parish Church, East Boston, Martin & Hall, 
architects. Providence, R. I.; W. L. Clark & 
Co., contractors; to be constructed of brick 
and terracotta. Cambridge Savings Bank 
Building, Cambridge, Mass., C. H. Blackall, 
architect ; Norcross & Cleveland, contractors ; 
to be constructed of brick and terra-cotta. 
Puffer Building (mercantile), Harrison Ave- 
nue and Essex Street, Rand & Taylor, Kend- 
all & Stevens, architects; to be constructed of 
terra-cotta and limestone. Solid terra-cotta 
front above the second story. .Masonic 
Temple, Boylston and Tremont .Streets, Lor- 
ing & Phipps, architects. Fire-proof build- 
ing; to be constructed of brick. ^200,000 
apartment hotel, Brookline, Mass., E. D. 
Ryerson, architect; to be constructed of brick 
and stone. 5630,000 apartment block. Back 
Bay, Henry K. C.rieger and John Addison, 
architects, Chicago; to be constructed of 
brick and terra-cotta. Residence for Earnest 
W. Bowditch, at Milton, Mass., architects, 
McKim, Mead & White; C. Everett Clark, 
contractor; to be constructed of brick. 
$150,000 dormitory, Cambridge, Mass., Coolidge & Wright, archi- 
tects; to be constructed of brick; fire-proof building. $120,000 
apartment hotel, Back Bay, Charles E. Park, architect; to be con- 
structed of brick. $60,000 schoolhouse, Somerville, Mass., Aaron H. 
Gould, architect; to be constructed of brick. $130,000 apartment 
hotel. Back Bay, H. B. Ball, architect; to be constructed of brick. 
$500,000 office building, corner Somerset and Beacon Streets, Boston; 
Congregational Publishing Club, owners; Shepley, Rutan& Coolidge, 
architects; to be constructed of stone. New brewery for the Puritan 
Brewing Company, Charlestown, Mass., Hettinger & Hartnian, archi- 




BKICK AND TKKKA-COTTA KKSIDK.NCi;, I'lTTSIUKG. PA. 
r.eezer Bros., Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



183 



tects; Mack brothers, of Salem, contractors; to be constructed of red 
brick. $1 50,000 addition to the Insane Hospital, at Worcester, Mass., 
Fuller, Delano & Frost, architects, Worcester; to be constructed of 




CARTOUCHE PANEL, NEW YOKK AND NEW JERSEY TELEPHONE 

BUILDING, HKOOKLYN, NEW YORK. 

R. L. Daus, Arcliitect. 

Executed by the Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 

brick and stone. $30,000 church, Exeter, N. H., Cram, Wentworth 
& Goodhue, architects. Revere town hall. Revere, Mass., (Ireenleaf 
& Colib, architects ; W. L. Clark & Co., contractors ; to be con- 
structed of red brick and gray terra-cotta. 



ST. LOUI.S. — The report of tlie Commissioner of Public lUiiid- 
ings for the last month shows an increase in the number of 
permits issued, and also for a better class of buildings. This, for 
one of the dullest months in the year, affords considerable encourage- 
ment, and the feeling seems quite general that there will be a steady 
improvement in business throughout the year. 

The most important happening in this part of the architectural 
world of late, perhaps, has been the competition for the St. Louis 
Club. A short time ago the club, becoming dissatisfied with their 
present location at 29th and Locust Streets, which is a most inter- 
esting piece of Romanesque work, by Peabody & Stearns, selected a 
site on Lindell Boulevard, which extends through to Olive Street. 

Architects Fames & Young, M. P. McArdle, and Shepley, Rutan 
& Coolidge, of this city, and Arthur J. Dillon, of New York, were in- 
vited to submit plans, and Mr. Dillon's plans were selected. The 
design is in the f>ench Renaissance, two story and attic high. On 
Olive Street an entrance and gate lodge will add to the attractive- 



ness of the surroundings. Some comment has been made concern- 
ing the action of the committee in selecting Mr. Dillon's plans, as 
'tis said the instructions were that the building should be designed 
in the Italian Renaissance, but it seems by the employment of the 
French style, and the placing of the banquet hall in the high roof, 
the architect was enabled to get the required amount of space with 
a very much reduced cubic area, which, doubtless, influenced the 
committee very materially in their decision. The building is ex- 
pected to cost between $125,000 and #150,000. 

During the past three years quite a number of schemes have 
been in contemplation for the improvement of the Jiortheast corner 
of Olive and Sixth Streets, which have taken more or less definite 
form, but eventually fell through, and the last proposition, which was 
to build a sixteen-story office building, and for which a permit was 
taken out before the ordinance, limiting the height of buildings, went 
into effect, seems to have shared the fate of all others after the old 
buildings had been partially wrecked. 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge are preparing plans for a nine-story 
fire-proof building, to be built on the southeast corner of St. Charles 




TERRA-COTTA PANEL, RESIDEN'CE, RKOAD STREET, PHILADEL- 
PHIA, PA. 
Hazelhurst & Huckel, Architects. 
Executed by the Coiikling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

and Tenth Streets, for the Imperial Lighting Company. The lower 
floors are to be used for the machinery, and the upper floors for 
offices. 




TERRA-COTTA DETAIL, OFFICE liUILDING, WALL STREET, 
Jardine, Kent & Jardine, Architects. 
Executed by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company. 



Ni;w VOUK CITY 



PITTSBURG. — Activity in the Ijuilding line has l)een very 
brisk the past month, and much more work is looked for in 
the near future. Most of the new work is in the East IDnd, consist- 
ing mainly of first-class residences and several good churches. 
Architect W. A. Thomas is preparing plans for a fifteen-room buff 
brick colonial residence on Fifth and Shady Avenues, also a twelve- 
room brick dwelling on Rebecca Street, for Mrs. R. Davis. 

Architect E. B. Milligan is preparing plans for 
two brick dwellings in the East End for Reed B. 
Coyle, Esq., one a fifteen and the other an eleven- 
room building; also two brick dwellings for Dr. Con- 
nell, at Oakland. 

Architect E. M. Butz is preparing plans for a 
$20,000 colonial dwelling on Wightman Street, for 
Colonel Robinson. 

Architect T. D. Evans has prepared plans for 
four brick dwellings, to be erected on Elgin near 
Highland Avenue, for Jno. Fite, Esq. 

Architects Alden & Harlow have closed the 
contract for the erection of a two-story brick resi- 



1 84 



TPIE BRICKBUILDER. 



dence for J. C. Jennings, Esq., Fifth Avenue and Lilac Street, to cost 

it20,0OO. 

Architects Struthers & Hannah are preparing plans for a brick 
military drill hall for (irove City College. 

Architects Rutan & Russell have prepared plans for a ware- 
house for the Hayes estate, to be 
erected on Liberty Street. '^■■■■■■■■■■HaBnBHiH 

Architect Charles liickel is 5SSSESSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS 
preparing plans for a five-story 
apartment building. 

Architect L. H. Raisig is pre- 
paring plans for a row of store and 
apartment buildings, to be erected 
at Homestead, for Dr. McCaslin, 
of that place. 



p Mff:^wf:>rwf:*w^:iimf7*^t^m€:^m<n>^ 



^„ie»#;if#;ffip;ii#jnf#;tf#/tf#/nt|r9 



T. W. C.AK.MICHAKI,, Wellsburg, W. Va., has shipped the four- 
teenth clay steamer for this season. The last shipment was to 
Christiania, Norway, in response to an order by cablegram. 

RUFUS E. Egglksto.n, Philadelphia, has just closed a contract 

for the furnishing of the Clale 

i^^ig^_ggg____^^^^^_^ Automatic Sash Locks and the 

"'~'"~"^"~~'~"*'~~~'~~"'~'" liolles Revolving Windows in the 

new building for the Hell Tele- 
phone Company of that city, i ith 
and Filbert Streets; Charles Mc- 
Caul, builder. 



7 



>iimm»*in*^iim\**>^m i<mt-\»-t\» 



(ty. 



A NEW SIDEWALK LIGHT- 



A 




walk vault light has been 



'^\ ft ^^^aM^fil|fe3- 



IMPOST CA! 



gotten out by the American Mason 
Safety Tread Company, whose 
non-slipping specialty has now be- 
come so well known among archi- 
tects. The new light, of which a cut is given in the advertising col- 
umns of The Brickhuilder, page xxxvi, this month, .seems to lie, 
in many of its features, an advance over any now in use. In the first 
place, its surface is protected by strips of lead under the Mason 
patent against the possiljility of becoming slippery, a very distinct 
improvement, when the cost and annoyance of the iron pegs usually 
used is considered, and that in a busy place they wear so rapidly 
that they require to be renewed frequently. The lead strips are 
sufficiently near together to furnish absolute security against slipping, 
and experience has shown that even rain or light snow does not neu- 
tralize this advantage. The largest lighting area consistent with 
strength is given, and to secure the glasses against breakage by the 
action of frost, they are set with a special lead cement. It is the 
purpose of the company to furnish the best and safest light possible 
to be made, and the en- 
terprise will surely enlist 
the interest of architects, 
who have long been con- 
scious of the imperfec- 
tions of the light now 
used. The company will 
send a full-size blue print 
on application. 



', ENTRANCE BOHEMIAN CLUB, NEW YORK CITY. 

Julius Franke, Architect. 
Executed by the [Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 



Celadon Roofing Tile.s, 
Charles T. Harris, lessee, have 
been specified for the following: — 

Residence for T. B. Crary, 
Binghamton, N. Y. Residence for 
(".. W. Griswold, Horncllsville, N. 
Y. Home for the I. O. O. F., 
Springfield, O., Yost & Packard, 
architects. 



WITH THE BUSY. 

T. W. Cakmichakl 
claims to have invented 
a clay screen which has 
two or three times the 
capacity of any screen on 
the market. 




Best Brothers' Keene's ce- 
ment (for which Fiske, Homes & Co., Boston, are exclusive agents) 
has been specified for over fifty apartment houses, business blocks, 
and residences now being erected, and about one hundred having 
been plastered either wholly or partially with it during the past 
eighteen months. 

The new Houghton «S: Dutton building on Tremont Street and 
Pemberton Scjuare, Boston, is being supplied with white mottled 
brick, manufactured at Fiske, Homes & Co.'s factory. South Boston. 
The architectural terra-cotta and the fire-proofing, and the lime and 
cement are also being furnished by them. 

Contracts have been closed for placing the Bolles Sliding and 
Revolving Sash in Dr. Kelly's Hospital, and an office Iniilding, corner 

Lexington and Davis 
Streets, Baltimore, also 
in a large residence in 
Hagerstown. The ware- 
house of George Blome 
& Son will be fully 
equipped with these im- 
proved sashes within the 
next month. 



'<^'\ 

iJ^ 



terra-cotta detail, bank building, doylestown 

Baker & Dallett, Architects. 
Executed by the Conkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 



O. W. Peterson & 
Co., Boston, Mass., are furnishing the brick on the Robinson Street 
School, Dorchester, Mass., A. Warren Gould, architect ; also on the 
Registry of Deeds Building, Cambridge, Mass., Olin W. Cutter, 
architect. 

Chambers Brothers Company, Philadelphia, report a very 
gratifying interest in their exhibit of brick-making machinery on the 
part of visitors to the Tennessee Centennial, at .Nashville, and state 
that they have already pocketed some orders as an indirect result of 
this exhibit. 



The Zanesville 
Mosaic Tile Company, 
of Zanesville, Ohio, are 
furnishing, through their 
Boston agents, O. W. 
Peterson & Co., the tiles 
for the apartment house 
of A. Bilafsky,on Beacon 
Street. The tiles will be 
used in twenty-four bath- 
rooms, seventy-two fire-places, and in the main halls and vesti- 
bules. 

The Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company have recently 
closed the following contracts for architectural terra-cotta : — 

Church and Clergy House, cS8th Street, between First and 
Second Avenues, New York, N. Y., Messrs. Barney & Chapman, of 
New York City, architects. New York Telephone Building, 30, 32, 
and 34 (iold Street, New York, N. Y., Mr. Cyrus L. W. Eidlitz, of 
New York City, architect. Addition to Crotona Park Public Build- 



II 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



i8s 



ing, Crotona Park, N. Y., Mr. George B. Post, of New Yoik City, 
architect. 

The New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, of New York, 
have secured through G. R. Twichell & Co., Boston, their New Eng- 
land agents, the contract to supply the terra-cotta on the Brewer 
Building, Worcester, Mass. George H. Clemence, architect, Worces- 
ter. Norcross & Cleveland, contractors, Boston. Terra-cotta to be 
of a salmon shade. 

The Cummings Cement Company, with works of enormous 
capacity at Akron, N. Y., are running one quarter overtime, in an 
endeavor to keep pace with the rapidly increasing demand for its 
rock and Portland cements, the larger share of which is being used 
for street paving in Buffalo and other large cities in New York and 
Pennsylvania. 

The Hydraulic Press Brick Company, .St. Louis, have 
just secured a contract for over three hundred thousand enameled 
bricks for the interior of the Burlington depot at Omaha, Neb. They 
are also putting on the market a white face brick with a .surface that 
is impervious, and when soiled can be cleaned with soap and water. 
The surface is not glazed. 

The Excelsior TerraCotta Company, through their Boston 
representative, Charles Beacon, have closed the following contracts 
for architectural terra-cotta : Converse Building, Boston ; Winslow 
& Wetherell, architects ; L. P. Soule & Son, builders. Cambridge 
Savings Bank, Cambridge, Mass; C. H. Blackall, architect; Nor- 
cross & Cleveland, builders. 

Messrs. Frank Sears, of New York, and Charles B. Sears, 
of Chicago, formerly managers of the business of the late James 
Brand, in association with Mr. Wm. S. Humbert, of Buffalo, N. Y., 
will continue in that long-established business, under the style of 
Sears, Humbert & Co., with offices in New York City, Buffalo, and 
Chicago. The new firm will continue the importation of the La 
Farge, Josson, and Burham Portland cements, and will, besides, repre 
sent the American Cement Company in the West. 

The Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company's bricks are 
now being used in the store and loft building at 39th Street and 
Fifth Avenue, business building at Forsyth and Hester Streets, fiats 
at 143d Street and Seventh Avenue, interior of laundry of St. 
Joseph's Orphan Asylum, 401 E. 89th Street, all of New York City. 

They have recently closed the contracts for the kindergarten at 
Rivington and Cannon Streets, flats on 117th Street, near Lenox 
Avenue, and the business building at 590 Broadway, New York 
City. 

In all of the above the brick is their cream white. 

The Eastern Hydraulic Press-Brick Company have re- 
cently furnished their iron-spot bricks for lining the interior of one 
of the handsomest churches in Rochester, N. Y., — St. Paul's Epis- 
copal. They are also just completing a contract for furnishing their 
gold-colored bricks for lining the interior of the St. Stephen's Epis- 
copal Church, at Wilkesbarre, Penn. Those who have seen the 
effect pronounce it beautiful, and, as it is somewhat of a departure, 
it will be of interest to our readers, and should lead to an increased 
use of light-colored bricks for the interior of churches and other 
large public buildings. 

Conkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, through 
their New England agent, Charles E. Willard, have secured the con- 
tract to supply the terra-cotta for Times Building, Hartford, Conn., 
George B. Rogers, architect ; the St. Anne Church, Somerville, 
Mass., Keeley & Houghton, architects, Brooklyn, N. Y., S. Brennan 



& Co., contractors; the A. D. Puffer Building, 1651 Washington 
Street, Boston, A. H. Nelson, architect ; the Paul Revere School, 
Boston, Peabody & Stearns, architects ; the Revere Town Hall, 
Greenleaf «S: Cobb, architects; and the new building for the Puritan 
Brewing Company, Charlestown, Mass., Hettinger & Hartmann, 
architects. 

Chicago Tekra-Cotta Roofing and Siding Tile Com- 
pany report the following buildings completed last month, on which 
their goods were used for roofing: — 

Residence, Buffalo, N. Y., Swan & P'aulkner, architects, French 
tile. Residence, Titusville, Pa., C. W. Terry, architect, Oil City, Pa., 
small Spanish. Residence, Calumet Avenue, Chicago, S. B. Eisen- 
drath, architect, French tile. Apartment Building, Wright Street, 
Chicago, Anderson & Gelin, architects, French tile. Residence, 
Douglas Boulevard, Chicago, Burtar & Gassman, architects, small 
.Spanish. Memorial Church, Wheeling, W. Va., Franzheim, Giesey & 
Faris, architects, Spanish. Residence, Key West, Fla., large .Spanish 
tile. Residence, St. Louis, A. M. Baker, architect. 

Mr. I^oss F. Tucker, the Manager of the Manhattan Con- 
crete Company, has been awarded the contract for completing the 
several splendid buildings at the University of Virginia, of which 
Messrs. McKim, Mead & White are the architects. The Manhat- 
tan Concrete Company has a large contract for elaborate ornamental 
concrete on these buildings. The Manhattan Concrete Company 
has just finished a large contract on the Mills Houses, Bleeker, 
Sullivan, and Thompson Streets, New York, Ernest Flagg, architect. 
The work covered under this contract consisted of all floors and 
roof, 149,000 sq. ft. These floors were built for the most part 
in cold weather last winter, without the loss of a single foot. All 
floors throughout were finished with "Granitoid" similar to that be- 
ing put down by this company on Boston Common, but of finer tex- 
ture. The basement areas are lighted by the Manhattan Vault 
Light, a very superior and excellent construction. The i)uilding as a 
whole is a fine example of what can be done with concrete when 
[jroperly used. 

Savre & Fisher Company, through their Boston representa- 
tive, Charles Bacon, have closed the following contracts for supply- 
ing bricks. 

Revere Beach Bathing Establishment, Revere, Mass.; pink brick 
and enamel; Stickney & Austin, architects, W. T. Eaton, contractor. 

Real Estate & Trust Company Building, Atlantic Ave., Boston, 
mottled brick (gray); Peabody & Stearns, architects, C. E. Clark & 
Whitney, contractors. 

West End Power House, Cambridge, Mass., white enameled 
brick ; W. E. Whidden & Co., contractors. 

Converse Building, Milk Street, pink brick ; Winslow & Wether- 
ell, architects, L. P. Soule & Son, contractors. 

Cambridge Savings Bank, Cambridge, gray brick ; C. H. Black- 
all, architect, Norcross & Cleveland, contractors. 

Apartment house, Brookline, mottled brick; C. E. I3ark, archi- 
tect, E. F. Staples, contractor. 

White ]5uilding, Boylston Street, white enameled ; Winslow & 
Wetherell, architects, L. P. Soule & Son, contractors. 

Massachusetts Historical Society, Fenway, Boston; Wheelright 
& Haven, architects, L. D. Wolcutt & Son, contractors. 



Messrs. Fiske, Homes & Co., Boston, report a satisfactory 
business in their brick specialties. The following schoolhouse 
buildings are being supplied : — 

Springfield, Mass., high school, Hartwell, Richardson & Driver, 
architects. Melrose, Mass., high school, Tristram Griffin, architect. 
Cambridge, Mass., normal school, Hartwell, Richardson & Driver, 
architects. Marlboro, Mass., high school, C. E. Barnes & Co., archi- 



1 86 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



tects. Hartford, Conn., grammar school, C. W. Brocklesby, archi- 
tect. Gardner, Mass., grammar school, Barker & Nourse, architects. 
North Adams, Mass., grammar school. Newton, Mass., high school, 
Hartwell, Richardson & Driver, architects. All taking approxi- 
mately 1,500,000 bricks. 

Among the smaller orders booked are : — 

Block of apartment houses, Blackwood Street, Boston ; 40,000 
bricks. Large apartment houses, Mountford Street, Boston ; 75,000 
bricks. Large apartment houses, Copeland and Warren Streets, 
Koxbury; 75,000 bricks. Apartment house. Forest Street and Mt. 
Pleasant Avenue, Roxbury; 25,000 bricks. Apartment house, Rug- 
gles Street, Roxbury; 75,000 bricks. Block of apartment houses, 
Batavia Street, Boston ; 60,000 bricks. Block of apartment houses, 
St. (jermain Street, lioston; 55,000 bricks. Two business blocks, 
Haverhill, Mass., 25,000. 

Till': Cleveland, O., Leader^ says: — 

" Vitrified shale clay glazed is being successfully used as cattle 
guards on the Cleveland, Canton & Southern Railroad. The new 
material being stable, durable, and inexpensive will likely be adopted 
universally, not immediately, but gradually. Railroad officials have 
found cattle guards made of wood or metal unsatisfactory, it is said, 
for several reasons. It has been found necessary to replace the old- 
fashioned protectors freciuently, and careful watching is required to 
keep them in repair and in position. 

" About a year ago the Cleveland, Canton & Southern Company 
experimented with the vitrified shale clay guards, and the success 
that has attended their use has induced the management to adopt 
them on all parts of the line. Railroad officers state that the new 
invention promises to supersede the systems now in use, many advan- 
tages being claimed for the glazed vitrified shale clay. It is said to 
be less expensive than wood, and to cost about a fifth what iron 
guards cost, a feature which is advantageous in these days of eco- 
nomical railroading. The guard is composed of short sections fast- 
ened together with iron rods if desirable, but this is not considered 
necessary. Being glazed they do not need painting, and rains and 



winds keep them clean. The manufacturers of the guards have 
decided not to build a factory, but to send dies to a brickyard near 
where the order goes, thus saving transportation charges. It is 
claimed that almost any brickyard can make them when furnished 
the dies. The manufacturers are Cleveland and Canton men." 

These guards are made on the machines of The American Clay- 
Working Machinery Company, of Bucyrus. 



TRKASURY DEPARTMKN P, Office Supervising Architect. Wasliington, D. C, 
July 8, 1S97. SKAT. ED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 2 o'clock i-. m. 
on the tenth day of .August, 1897, and opened immediately thereafter, for all the labor and 
materials required for the erection and completion (except heating apparatus, vault doors, 
and tower clock), of the United .States Post-Office, etc., building at Palerson, N. J . in 
accordance with the drawings and specification, copies of which may be had at this office or 
the office of the superintendent, at Paterson, N. J. Each bid must be accompanied by a 
certified check for a sum not less than two percent, of the amount of the proposal. The 
right is reserved to reject any or all bids, and to waive any defect or infurinality in any bid, 
should it be deemed in the interest of the ( "FOvernmcnt to do so. All proposals received after 
the time stated for opening will be returned to the bidders. CH.'XS. 1',. KEMPER, Acting 
Supervising Architect. 



For Sale. 



Brick Plant and CIa\- Farm in Sayrcvillc Town- 
ship, Middlesex Co., N.J., on Raritan River, about 
3 miles above South Amboy, 282 acres rich de- 
posit of Terra-Cotta, Fire, Red, Blue, and Burt' 
Brick, and Common Clays. Facilities for ship- 
ping by Water or Rail. Full}- etpiipped Factory, 
Dwellings, Office, Store, etc., etc. For furtlier 
particulars apply to W. C. Mason, 27 Main St., 
Hartford. 






FIREPLACE MANTELS. 

The best kind are those we furnish in Ornamental Brick of such colors as Red, Cream, Buff, Pink, Brown, and Gray. 
No other kind will give such soft, rich effects of harmony and simplicity, or such general good satisfaction. 

OURS ARE THE BEST 

and yet they are not too expensive. Don't buy a 
mantel before you have learned all about ours. 

Send for Sketch Book of 52 designs costing from 
$12 upwards. 




Phila. & Boston Face Brick Co. 

15 LIBERTY SQUARE, BOSTON, MASS. 








THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXXI 



INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS. 



ADDRESS. 

ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

New Vork Agents, Pfotenhaaer & Nesbit, Metropolitan Building, New York City. 
The Grueby Faience Company, 164 Devonshire Street, Boston .... 
Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, 24 So. 7th St. 
New York Agent, 287 Fourth Ave. 
Chicago Agent, C. T. Harris & Co., Marquette Bldg. 

ARCHITECTURAL INSTRUCTION. 

Correspondence School of Architecture, Scranton, Pa. 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111 
Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Co., Burlington, N. J. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelph 
Donnelly Brick and Terra-Cotta Co., Berlin, Conn. .... 

Boston Office, 40 Water St., J. Mair Staveley, Agent. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 105 East 22d St., New York City 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston .... 

New York Office, Charities Building, 289 4th Ave. PhiladelphiaOffice, 24 South 7th St. 
Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Co., Indianapolis, Ind. ..... 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 38 Park Row, New York City 

New Kngland Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

Philadelphia Office, 1341 Arch St. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, 108 Fulton St., New York City 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo liros., 102 Milk St. 

Standard Terra-Cotta Company, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City 
Boston Agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., John Hancock Building. 
Philadelpliia Agent, W. L. McPherson, Building Exchange. 

The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Room 11 18, The Rookery, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 1 56 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Winkle Terra Cotta Co., Telephone liuilding, St. Louis, Mo 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Pressed and Ornamental). (See Clay Manfrs.' Agent 

lirush c^ Schmidt, Office, 2 Builders' Exchange, Buffalo, N. Y. . 
Clearfield Clay Working Co., Clearfield, Pa. ...... 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 

Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio 

Day Brick Company, Belleville, 111. ........ 

Donnelly Brick and Terra-Cotta Co., Berlin, Conn 

Boston Office, 72 Water St., J. Mair Staveley, Agent. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. 
Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 

Harbison & Walker Co., The. Office, 22d and Railroad Sts., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Hydraulic-Press Brick Co., The ........ 

Home Office, Odd I'ellows Building, St. Louis, Mo. 
Ittner, Anthony, Telephone Building, St. Louis, Mo. ..... 

La Salle Pressed Brick Company, La .Salle, 111. ...... 

National Brick Co., Bradford, Pa. ........ 

New York and New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York Ci 

Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co.: Office, 41 Wall St., N. Y.; Works, Shaw 

nee, Ohio ............ 

Oliphant, Pope & Co., Trenton, N. J. 

Parry Bros. & Co., 10 Broad St., Boston ....... 

Pennsylvania Buff Brick and Tile Co., Prudential P.uikling, Newark, N. J. 
Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townscnd Building, New York City 

Philadeljjhia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, Builders' Exchange. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 88 Water Street. 

Philadelphia Office, 1044 Drexel Building. 
Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick Co., 4 Liberty Sq., Boston . 
Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. .... 

Ralston Brick Co., Ralston, Lycoming Co., Pa. ..... 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 
Ravenscrof t, W. S., & Co., Office, Ridgway, Pa. : Works, Daguscahonda, Pa. 
Ridgway Press-Brick Co., Ridgway, Pa. ....... 

New England Agents, G. R. Twichell & Co., 19 Federal St., Boston. 

New York Agent, O. D. Person, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New F^ngland Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Shawmut Brick Co., Cartwright, Pa. 

General Sales Agent, C. E. Willard, 171 Devonshire St., Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 

Eastern Agent, James L. Kankine, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Williamsport Brick Co., Williamsport, Pa. ....... 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Enameled). (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 14 East 23d St., New York. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Cc.in. ....... 

Clearfield Clay Working Co., Clearfield, Pa 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

New York Office, 2S9 Fourth Ave. Pliiladelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Grueby Faience Co., 164 Devonshire -St., Boston ...... 

Hydraulic Press Brick Co., The 

Home Office, Odd Fellows Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mt. Savage Enameled Brick Co., Mt. Savage, Md 

Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Tovvnsend Building, New York City 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Cliarles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 

Eastern Agent, James L. Rankine, is^ Fifth Ave., New York. 

BRICK PRESERVATIVE AND WATER-PROOFING. 

Cabot, Samuel, 70 Kilby St., Boston 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York 

CEMENTS. 

Alpha Cement Company, General Agents, Wm. J. Donaldson & Co., Bourse 
Building, Philadelphia .....•••••• 

New England Agents, James A. Davis & Co., 92 State St., Boston. 

Alsen's Portland Cement, 143 Liberty St., New York City 

Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston . . . . . • . 

Commercial Wood and Cement Company, Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Office, 156 Fifth Avenue. 

Cummings Cement Co., Ellicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y 

Ebert Morris, 302 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Office, 253 Broadway. 
French, Samuel H., & Co., York Avenue, Philadelphia. Pa 



'y- 



XI 
XXX 



vm 
vi 



xxu 
xxiii 



IX 

vii 



XXV 

xlii 



xxni 

XV 
XXV 

ii 
xxii 
xxiii 
xviii 

vi 

160 

iii 

ii 

xvii 

xxiv 

xxiv 



xix 
xxi 

xviii 
ix 



XXlll 

vii 

ix 

xlii 

XX 

xviii 
xvii 
xix 

xviii 



XXXV 

xxxiv 



xxxii 

xxxii 

xxxiv 
xxxiii 

xxxiii 
xxxii 



ADDRESS. 
CBMhmS.—Coniinued. 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York 

Lawrence Cement Company, No. i Broadway, New York City .... 

Lesley & Trinkle, 22 and 24 So. isth St., Philadelphia 

Manhattan Cement Company, 15 to 25 Whitehall St., New York City 

New England Agents, Berry & Ferguson, 102 Stale St., Boston. 
Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York ..... 

New York & Rosendale Cement Company, 280 Broadway, New York City 

New England Agents, I. W. Pinkham & Co., 1S8 Devonshire St., Boston. 

James C. GofE, 31-49 Point St., Providence, R. L 

J. ,S. Noble, 67-69 Lyman St., Springfield, Mass. 

Lord Bros. & Co., Portland, Me. 
Thiele, E., 78 William St., New York City ....... 

Union Akron Cement Company, 141 Erie St., Buffalo, N. Y. . 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston ........ 

CLAY MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS. Brick (Front Enameled and Ornamental), 
Terra-Cotta, Architectural Faience, Fire-proofingf, and Roofing Tiles. 

Black, John H., 33 Erie Co. Savings Bk. Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. . 

Ketcham, O. W., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia ..... 

Lippincott, E. P., & Co., 24 Builders' Exchange Baltimore, Md., and 808 F St., 
N. W., Washington, I). C 

Mayland, H. F., 287 Fourth Ave,. New York City 

Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co, 14 E. 23d .St., New York City . . 

Peterson, O. W., & Co., John Hancock Building, Boston ..... 

Staveley, J. Mair, 40 Water St., Boston ........ 

Thomas, E. H., 24 So. 7th St., Phila., Pa., 874 Broadway, New York 

Twitchell, G. R. & Co., i66 Devonshire .St., Boston ...... 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 

Willard, C. E., 171 Devonshire St., Boston ....... 

CLAYWORKERS' CHEMICALS AND MINERALS. 

F. W. Silkman, 231 Pearl St., New York 

CLAYWORKING MACHINERY. 

American Clay Working Machinery Co., Bucyrus, Ohio ..... 

Carmichael Clay Steamer, Wellsburg, W. Va. ....... 

Chambers Bros. Company, Philadelphia, Pa. ....... 

Chisholm, Boyd & White Company, 57th and Wallace Sts., Chicago 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... 

Simpson Brick Press Co., 41 5 Chamber of Commerce, Chica.go, 111. 

Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

The F. D. Cummer & Sons Co., Cleveland, Ohio ...... 

The Wallace Manufacturing Co., Frankfort, Ind. ...... 

ELEVATORS. 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... 

Moore & Wyinan, Elevator and Machine Works, Granite St., Boston 

ENGINEER? AND CONTRACTORS. 

Manhattan Concrete Co., i 56 Fifth Ave., New York 

FIRE-PROOFING MATERIAL MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
Boston F'ire-proofing Co., 166 Devonshire .Street, Boston ..... 

Central Fireproofing Co., 874 Broadway, New York 

Empire Fireproofing Co., 1301 Monadnock Block, Chicago .... 

Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Co., 104 South 12th St., Philadelphia 

Boston Agent, James D. Lazell, 443 Tremont Bldg. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire .St., Boston ...... 

Guastavino, R., 9 East 59th St., New York 

Boston Office, 444 Albany Street. 
Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., 14 E. 23d St., New York City 

Maurer, Henry, & Son, 420 E. 23d St., New York City 

New York & New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Co., 1545 So. Clark St., Chicago 
Pittsburg Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, Carnegie Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 

New York Office, Metropolitan Building. 

Western Office, 5 Parker Block, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va 

Standard Fireproofing Co., in Fifth Ave., New York 

GRANITE (Weymouth Seam-Face Granite, Ashler & Quoins). 

Gilbreth, Frank B., 85 Water St., Boston ; 

KILNS. 

Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

MAIL CHUTES. 

Cutler Manufacturing Co., Rochester, N. Y 

MASONS' SUPPLIES. 

Gilbreth Scaffold Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

Ilamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk -St., Boston 

MORTAR COLORS. 

Clinton Metallic Paint Company, Clinton, N. Y xxxv 

French, Samuel H., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa xxxiii 

MOSAIC WORK. 

The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio xxviii 

ROOFING TILES MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 

Chicago Terra-Cotta Roofing and Siding Tile Co., 1122 Marquette liuilding, 

Chicago, 111 

Harris, Charles T., lessee of The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Limited. 
Main Office and Factory, Alfred, N. Y. 
Cliicago Office, Marquette Building. 
New York Office, 1120 Presbyterian lUiilding, New York City. 

SAFETY TREAD. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Co., 40 Water St., lioston .... 
SASH LOCKS. 

(lale Sash Lock, Rufus E. Eggleston Manfr., 575-576 Mutual Life l!l(ig., Phila., Pa. 
SNOW GUARDS. 

Folsom Patent Snow Guard, 178 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 
TILES, 

The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio ........ 

VENTILATORS. 

Pancoast Ventilator Co., The. 316 Bourse Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
WALL TIES. 

Ilamblin &. Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass 

WINDOW SASH. 

ISolles' Sliding and Revolving Sash 

General Agents: Edward R. Diggs, Builders' Exchange, Baltimore, Md.; Rufus K. Eggleston, 
575 Mutual Life Building, Phila., Pa. 



xxxiv 
xxxiii 
xxxiv 
xxxiv 

xxxiv 
xxxiii 



xxxu 

xxxii 
xxvii 



xvii 
iii 



xxvi 

xxii 

ix 

xxiii 

ii 

xxvii 

xxi 



xl 
xxxix 

xl 

xl 

xli 

xli 

xxxix 

xxxix 

xxxix 

xli 
xxxvii 



xiv 

xiii 

xvii 

xli 

vii 

xvi 



XV 
XV 

xvi 



XXXVlll 

xxxvii 
xxvii 



xxviu 
xxix 



xxxn 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



DYGKERHOFF PORTLAND CEMENT 

Is superior to any other Portland cement made. It is very finely ground, always uniform and 
reliable, and of such extraordinary strength that it will permit the addition of 25 per cent, more 
sand, etc., than other well-known Portland cements, and produce the most durable work. It 
is unalterable in volume and not liable to crack. 

The Dyckerhoff Portland Cement has been used in the Metropolitan Sewerage Construc- 
tion, Boston, and is now being employed in the construction of the Hoston Subway, Howard 
A. Carson, Chief Engineer. 

Pamphlet with direct ions /or its em/>hymeHt^ testimonials, and tests, sent on af^plication. 

HAM & CARTKR, E. THIELE, 

560 Alpanv Street. BOSTON 7S Wii i.iam .Street. NEW YORK 

Sole A'.-.-m. Unit,-<1 Sl.ites. 




Mannheirner Portland Cement. 



UNEXCELLED IN QUALITY. 



"The results of testa with standard quartz are far above the 
average of most cements." 

CLIFFORD RICHARDSON, 

Inspector of Asphalt and Cements, 
Engineer Dept., Washington, D. C. 



"This brand of Portland Cement was found especially qualified 
for the purpose of concrete casting on accountot its perfect uniformity, 
intensive linencss, iirogresslve induration after the first setting, and 
of Its great tensile and crushing strength." 

Vide Report of CAUL A. TRIK, 

Superintendent of Bridges, Philadelphia, 
On Concrete Arch Highway Bridge over Penuypack Creek 



IMPORTER AND SOLE AGENT FOR UNITED STATES, CANADA AND CUBA. 



NEW YORK OFFICE, 

Po«tjJ Telegraph Building, 253 Broadway. 



GENERAL OFFICE, 

302 Walnut Street, PHILADELPHIA. 




" With a true sense ot economy «-e would buy notbin/S in Europe 
hut of necessity. The Hold reserves of our Hovernment and individ- 
uals would then increase without even the intervention of tariffs." 

Alpha Portland Cement 

is the most economical. It is the finest ground cement on the market. For that 
reason it will take more sand and broken stone than any other cement in existence. 
To-day our best contractors and engineers consider it superior to any imported 
cement on the market. We guarantee every barrel of the " Alpha " to be uniform 
in quality, and to pass any requirement yet demanded of a Portland Cement. 



WM. J. DONALDSON, 

General Agent, 
Betz Building:, Philadelphia, Pa. 



JAMES A. DAVIS & CO., 

Sole N. E. Agents, 
92 State Street, Boston. 



SOLE MANUFACTURERS 
OF THE 



Union Akron Cement Company, 

Akron Cement, 



The Strongest Natural Hydraulic Cement Manufactured 

in America. In Successful Use for the 

past Fifty Years. 

CAPACITY OF WORKS 2,000 BARRELS DAILY. 



OFFICE, 141 FRIE ST., 



BUFFALO, N. Y. 



ALSEN'S PORTLAND CEMENT. 



143 LIBERTY STREET 

WALDO BROS., 



AGENTS FOR NEW ENGLAND. 



The strongest, Gnest ground, and most uniform Cement 
in the world. Permits the admixture of more sand than 
any other, and is the best for mortar or stuccoing. 
- - - - NEW YORK. 

102 Milk St., Boston. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXXVll 




ARCHITECTURE 

Arrliiliitiirnl DriiiriiHi ami Jirxiipiiim . 
Ma-liaiws; Mnliniiind Jiriuvnifi . klir- 
triciljl ; SIcaiii Jiiiiiiiin'riiin—Sliiliuiiiirii, 
JjicoiiKilireor Muriiif; ( icil hiHjiiii'cr- 
in<i ; Ruilroad Enijiiii^iriini , t^tKittfipnl 
KiiiiiiifrriiHi ; Jinil(/e Jiiii/iiarriii;/ , Jli/- 
Orniilir. Eiiijiiinriiiir, Coal mid Mn.il 
Miiiiiiir, Friixpei-li'iifi; I'liinihiiiii and 
lltaluKj, and the Kiiylish Bruiiclics. 

Architecture olTcrs splcnrtid op- 
portunities to women ambitious to 
bw^ome sclf-sui)|iortiiig. Scliolar- 
ships are not forfeited upon failure 
to 1 lay installiiients promptly. Stu- 
dents make rajiid progress in learn- 
ing to liraw and Letter. Spec- 
ially prepared Instniution and 
Question Pajiers, Condensed, 
Siniplilied. Send for Free Cir- 
cular and Boiik of Testimoni- 
als, stating the sunject you 
wish to study, to 

The Inlrrnatlonal | Boxm. 



m 

BY 



LOCATIONS FOR INDUSTRIES. 

The name of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
I'aul Railway has long been identitied with i>rac- 
tical measures for the general npliuilding of its 
territory and the promotion of its commerce, 
hence manufacturers have an assurance that 
they will find themselves at home on the Com- 
pany's lines. 

The Company has all its territory districted in 
relation to resources, adaptability and advan- 
tages for manufacturing, and seeks to secure 
manufacturing plants and industries where the 
command of raw material, markets and sur- 
roundings will ensure their permanent success. 

Mines of coal, iron, cop])er, lead and zinc 
forests of soft and hard wood, quarries, clays of 
all kinds, tanhark, flax and other raw materials, 
exi.st in its territory in addition to the vast 
agricultural resources. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 
Company owns 6,1(18 miles of Railway, exclusive 
of second track, connecting track or sidings 
The eight States traversed l)y the Coini)any, 
Illinois, Wisconsin, Northern Michigan, Iowa, 
Missouri, Minnesota, South Dakota, and North 
Dakota, possess, in addition to the advantages 
of raw material and proximity to markets, that 
which is the prime factor in the industrial suc- 
cess of a territory— a people who form one live 
anil thriving community of business men, in 
whose midst it is safe anil i)rofitable to settle. 

A number of new factories and industries have 
been induced to locate— largely through the in- 
strumentality of this Comjiany — at points along 
its lines. The central position of the States 
traversed by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Railway makes it possible to command all the 
markets of the United States. The trend of 
manufacturing is westward. Cimfidential in- 
quiries are treated as such. The information 
furnished a particular industry is reliable. 

Address, 

LUIS JACKSON, 

Indufltnal Commissioner, C. M. & St. Paul Ry., 
4.1.5 Old Colony Building, CHICAGO, ILL. 



The Chemistry of 
Pottery. 

By KARL LANQENBECK. 

Price, ... $2.00. 

It must be acknowledged that 
the author has carried out the 
work in a clear and systematic 
manner, and in addition to his own 
experiments has made use of the 
German work relating to the sub- 
ject. The descriptions of clay 
masses and glazes are judicious and 
give in a few strokes a character- 
istic outline, so that the entire 
work must be considered very in- 
structive. The reading matter of 
the book, which is free from bom- 
bast and is distinguished by solid 
knowledge of the subject matter, 
may be cordially commended. — 
Chemiker Zeitung. 

Sent Postpaid on Receipt of Price. 

Chemical Publishing Co., 

Easton, Pa. 



100 



CITIES AND TOWNS 

WANTING INDUSTRIES 

Is the title of a pamphlet issued by the Illinois 
Central R. R.Co, If yon are thinking of making 
a change in location and are not well informed 
as to the advantages of locating either in the 
West or South, write for a copy. If you want 
in a nutshell the 

SALIENT POINTS OF OVER 100 PLACES 

on the line of the Illinois Central an<l Yazoo & 
Mississippi Valley Railroads, giving the popula- 
tion, city and county debt, death rate, assessed 
valuation of property, tax rate, annual shiji- 
ments, raw materials, industries desired, etc., 
apply to the undersigned. Our line is in the 
shape of the figure " 7 " and runs from Sioux 
Kails, S. D., and Sioux City, la., to New Orleans, 
passing through South Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, 
Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennes- 
see, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and has 

NEARLY EVERY KIND OF RAW MATERIAL 

used in manufacturing, together with populous 
sections which are large consumers of the man- 
ufactured product. To sound industries which 
will bear investigation, substantial inducements 
will be given by many of our )ilaces, and they 
will be welcomed heartily by the different sec- 
tions traversed by the Illinois Central and Yazoo 
& Mississippi Valley Railroads, For all informa- 
tion on the subject, address GEO. C. POWER. 
Industrial Commissioner I C. R. R., Central Sta- 
tion, Chicago, 111. I-l-9.'i. 



Standard Clinch System 

PERFORATED STEEL 
WALL TIES. 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FREE. 

HAMBLIN & RUSSELL MANFC. CO., 

WORCESTER, MASS. 



'GDGomm'^'^^ 




The ShuU 
Overhead 
Window 
Pulley 



is the right thing in the right place. No sticking of the sash, no 
dismounting of the cord when sash is thrown up quickh*. 6 to 8 
inches more pocket room means a saving in lead weights on short 
windows. Frame looks better because pulley is invisible. 

SHULL'S MULLION PULLEYS 

for double and triple windows requires no pocket between the 
frames, made for tape onh'. It will pay you to investigate. 



Folsom Snow Guard Co., 



178 Devonshire Street, 
BOSTON. 



100 Park Place, 
NEW YORK. 



The M. & W. 

Direct Electric Elevator 

FOR PASSENGER and FREIGHT SERVICE, 



Contains Patented Improvements 
found in no other apparatus, which 
makes it the most efficient, durable, 
and economical Elevator on the 
market. 

Also Manufacturers of 

STEAM, HYDRAULIC, 

AND BELT ELEVATORS 

For Passenger and 
Freight Service. 




■UUBJJtlllUJaJ 111 i/IUilllll 



Moore & Wyman Elevator and Machine Works, 



Office and Worlts, Granite St., Boston, Mass. 



XXXVlll 



1^ H E B R I C K B U I L D E R . 




RENWICK, ASPINWALL & OWEN, 

ARCHITECTS. 




SEAM-FACE GRANITE 

FURNISHED BY 

GILBRETH SEAM-FACE GRANITE CO 




I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Conkling, Armstrong 
^ ^ Terra-Cotta Co 




i|Sl« 



tJ?^'! 31 31 ail 



h 




% 1 1' 



„! _i 



, , .3|aia._ 

L giji J a j 3 ii J 



Mi 



ij 




BOWLING GREEN OFFICE BUILDING, NEW YORK, 
CONTAINS A LARGE AMOUNT OF OUR TERRA-COTTA. 



Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior Qi^^lity 



WORKS: OFFICES: 

Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, 

PHILADELPHIA. PHILA. TELEPHONE CALL 9005. and 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 



vi THEBRICKBUILDER. 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co^ 



Perth Amboy, N. ]. 

....Manufacturers.... 



Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

J 60 Fifth Avenue, 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros*, 1 02 Milk Street* 



STANDARD TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

Architectural Terra-Cotta, 

PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue. 



BOSTON OFFICE: WASHINGTON OFFICE: PHILADELPHIA OFFICE : 

John Hancock Building, Builders Excliange, Builders Exchange, 

O. W PETERSON & CO., AjenU. WM. C. LEWIS, Agent. W. LINCOLN MCPHERSON, Agent. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VI 1 



Something; New 

In Brick and Terra -Cotta Fireplace Mantels. 









til 



:MiL^":<iri '^ 




r 



Del. by H. F. BRISCOE. Modeled by TITO CONTI 



We are now prepared to furnish an entirely new and complete line of Fireplace Mantels 

H)C8iOnCb in classical style to produce rich, yet dignified HSSClTlblCb from standard interchangeable pieces in 



architectural effects. 

illjOOClCO entirely by hand in the highest perfection 
of the art. 



any desired combination, thus giving a 
great variety of size and detail with no 
additional cost. 



iPreSSeb with great care to give clear-cut outlines and Till gCnCtal producing all the desirable effects of special 



smooth surfaces 



JOUtnCb in a suitable variety of soft, rich colors. 



mantels, made to order, without their 
excessive cost, or their uncertainty of 
manufacture. 



166 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dealers also in Architectural Terra-Cotta and Building Bricks in all colors known to clay working. 

Fire=Proofing and General Building Materials. 



Vlll 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 



K. MATHIASEN, President. 




NEW ZEALAND BUILDING, COR. BROADWAY AND 37th STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

HOPPIN & KOEN, Architects. 
Architectural Terra-Cotta furnished by the New Jersey TerraCotta Co 



Office: 108 Fulton Street, 



New York Gty. 



Works: PERTH AMBOY, N.J. 



Sales Agents for New England, G* JR* 1 Wichcll & CO*, J 9 Federal Street, Boston. 



THEBRICKBUILDER. iii 



THE PLANT OF 

The Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Co., 

AT RICHMOND, VA., 

Will in the future be given up /^ f^i^kO t^Y^ WlVt t^d^ P^t« J /^l^^ 
entirely to the manufacture of Wl Cdi 11 Y T 1 1 1 LC U I IL/lVOt 

Many leading architects and their buildings will testify that these bricks have no equal. 



Through our sales agency, located at TOWNSEND BUILDING 

25th ST. and BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY, F. H. S. MORRISON, Manager, 

we have arranged to handle the product of the 

Jarden Brick Co., for the dties of new york and Brooklyn. 
O. W. KETCHAM, ZLcna^Cotta, 

Supplies r\V 



OFFICE: 



v*0 £namele6 

Builders' Exchange, />^ V 1Rt*!^b 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. ^ 4^ W ^^ Jt^t ICK* 



«<t 



Every Description. 

Telephone, 2163. 



H. F. MAYLAND &. CO., 

MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS AND 
DEALERS IN 

FRONT AND SHAPE BRICK IN ALL COLORS, 

Telephone, 614 I8th St. 287 FOURTH AVENUE, Room 616. 

NEW YORK. 



IV 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 




The Mechanics' Bank Building, Court St., coiner Montague St., Jkookl\ n, X. Y. Mr. George L. Morse, Architect. 

Light Gray Terra-Cotta furnished by 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co., 

WORKS: Rocky Hill, N. J. 105 East 22cl Street, N. Y. 

Boston Representative: CHARLES BACON, 3 Hamilton Place. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XI 




THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra- Cotta 



IN ALL COLORS. 



WORKS: 

Cheltenham, St. Louis. 



OFFICE: 

502-503 Century Building:. 



AN ENTRANCE IN TERRA-COTTA, UNION TRUST BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

LOUIS H. SULLIVAN, AnCHlTECT. 

Tehra-Ootta Executed by THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA GO. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



INDIANAPOLIS TERRA-COTTA CO., 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA 



IN ALL COLORS. 



Makes 27,000,000 
Fine Bricks 
Annually. 



ANTHONY ITTNER, 



Established 1859. 



Manufacturer of. 



Pressed and Ornamental 



Brick. 



These bricks are perfectly homogeneous, therefore cut easily, exactly ,"and with inappreciable waste. Owing to details^ 

manufacture the output does not vary in quality. 



YARD AT 

Belleville, 111. 



OFFICE: 

Telephone Building, St. Louis. 



YARD AT 

St. Louis, Mo. 



xn 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



THE FAWCETT VENTILATED FIREPROOF BUILDING COMPANY, L't'd. 

Patented in England, Belgiuna, France, United States. 




■^^^^^^ LONGITUDINAL SECTION Showing the Tubular Terra-Cotta Lintel encasing the Beam; 

THE Air Passage under Beam, and the Admission of Cold Air into the End of Tubular Lintel, 



lintels with concrete 
Removed. 




TRANSVERSE SECTION Showing the 

Passage under the Beams and the Admission of TRANSVERSE SECTION Showing the Con- 
Cold Air into the Side of the Lintel. NOTE.- crete Bearing on the Bottom Flange of the 
Only two Air Bricks are absolutely necessary Beam A. NOTE.- There is no Room for the 
IN Each Room to obtain a Thorough Draught Concrete to work under the Beams at A. other- 

UNDER THE BeaMS, AND THEY MAY BOTH BE IN THE WISE THE AIR PASSAGE WOULD BE STOPPED. 

SAME Wall. 



LINTELS FIXED READY FOR 
CONCRETING. 



'h=xl 



c 

I I I [ 



34=C 



Scale IN Feet, 



Table showing the Weight of Materials used in Constructing the 
Fawcett Ventilated Fireproofing System. 



Materia us 

USED 

I.N Floor. 



Steel Beams 
Lintels 
Concrete 
Wood Floor 
Plastering 



Total Dead 1 
Weight j 



Wt. of floor material per sq. ft. of surface 


, for various size 


beams. 


DEPTH IN INCHES. 


4 in. 


5 in. 


6 in. 


7 in. 


8ia^ 


9 in. 


10 in. 


12 in. 


3.7 lbs 


5.1 lbs 


6.9 lbs 


8.9 lbs 


10.5 lb» 


12.2 lbs 


15.5 lbs 


19.1 lbs 


15.0 „ 


15.0 „ 


15.0 „ 


15.0 „ 


15.0 „ 


15.0 „ 


15.0 „ 


15.0 „ 


2fi.O „ 


32.5 „ 


39.0 „ 


45.5 „ 


52.0 „ 


58.5 „ 


05.0 „ 


-8.0 „ 


3.5 „ 


3.5 „ 


3.5 „ 


3.5 „ 


3.5 „ 


3.5 „ 


3.5 „ 


3.5 „ 


7.0 „ 


T.O „ 


7.0 „ 


7.0 „ 


7.0 „ 


7.0 „ 


7.0 „ 


7.0 „ 
122.6 „ 


52.2 „ 


63.1 „ 


71.4 „ 


79.9 „ 


88.0 „ 


96.2 „ 


106.0 ,, 



Materials 

USI£D 

IN Floor. 




NOTE. — The Dead Weight per sq. ft. of surface is calculated for Concrete 
2 inches above top of Beams. 



Table showing Size of Steel Beams used in the Construction of the 


Fawcett Ventilated Fireproofing System. 




SPANS IN FEET. 




Live 

Load 

per 

Sq. Ft. 


10 Feet. 


12 Feet. 14 Feet. | 16 Feet. 


18 Feet. 


20 Feet. 


22 Feet. 


24 Feet. 1 26 Feet. 


Live 

Load 

per 

Sq. Ft. 


H. 

Q 




a 
Q 


.if- 


D. 






c. 


.5?"" 


J3 

o. 

a 




4 

a. 




JZ 
0. 

Q 




H. 
Q 




H. \-fZ 


100 lbs. 


41 


6.2 


41 


7.5 


61 


9.2 


51 


10.3 


6l'll.9 


61 


13.9 


71 


15.5 


81 


17 2 


91 20 3 


IOOIbs. 


1.50 lbs. 


41 


7 5 


51 


9.2 


61 


11.9 


61 


13.9 


71 14 4 


71 


17 8 


81 


18 


91 


20 3 


9124 4 


LWlbs. 


2 in lbs. 


51 


9 2 


51 


10 3 


CI 


13.0 7 1 


14 4 


71 17.8 


81 


18 


91 


20 3 


101 


25 5 


10 I .-iO 


200 lbs. 


•J.Wlbs. 


5 1 


10 .-! 


CI 


11.9 


71 


14.4 7 1 


i.'-i r, 


81 17.2 


01 


■.'0 3 


91 


24 4' 10 1 


.'■0 n 


10 1 :« 1 


2r,0 lbs. 


.■iOOIbs. 


51 


11.9 


CI 


13.0,7 1 


15.5 81 


17.2 9 1 20 3 

1 1 


91 


2.J.1 101 


.•)0 0| 12 I 30 0] 12 I. 32.0 


300 lbs. 


NOTE.— The above sizes of beams are for the finished floor including concrete 2 inches 


above top of beams, yellow pine flooring, and plastered ceiling. 



WE ALSO FURNISH TERRA-COTTA PARTITIONS, ROOF BLOCKS, FURRING, GIRDER, COLUMN, AND PIPE COVERING. 



ADVANTAGES OF OUR SYSTEM, 

The Only System that provides an Absolutely Scientific Safeguard against Fire. 

Adopted by Architects and Hngineers on Account of 

1. Fireproof Qti'ility. 4. Strength. 

2. Sanitary Value. 5. Ease and Quickness of 

3. Lightness. Construction. 

6. Cheapness. 

In these 6 Main Advantages The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Floor 

Excels all Other. 



MAIN OFFICE, 

448, 449, 450, and 451 

Philadelphia Bourse, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



Sales Agent for the New England states, JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 TreiTiont Bullding, Boston, Mass. 
sales Agent for New York, A. J. COFFIN, 412 Prcsbytcrian Building, Fifth Ave., New York. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. xiii 



(^ entral Fireproofing 
Company, 



HENRY M. KEASBEY, 

President 



Manufacturers 
and 

Contractors 
for 
the 

Erection 
of 

Hollow 



Tile 

and 

Porous 

Terra- 

Cotta 



Fireproofing. 



874 Broadway t New York* 



XIV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



....Established 1856 



HENRY MAURER & SON, 



Manufacturers of 



Fire=Proof Building Materials. 



Floor Arches, 



Partitions, 



Furring, 



Roofing, Etc. 




Porous Terra-Cotta 
of all Sizes, 



Flue Linings, 



Etc., Etc. 



"EXCELSIOR" END CONSTRUCTION FLAT ARCH (Patented). 

25 per cent. Stronger and Lighter than any other method. 



Office and Depot, 

420 EAST 23d STREET, 



-New York. 



4 



Factories,- 



MAURER, N. J. 

On C. R. R. of N. J. 



Philadelphia Office, 18 South 7th Street. 




Boston Fire-Proofing Company, 



D. McINTOSH, Proprietor. 



i66 DEVONSHIRE STREET, 



BOSTON, MASS. 



Fire-Proof 



Building 



Material. 



" Porous Terra-Cotta stands lire and water." 



UNITED STATESlHOTEL EXTENSION. 
WiNSLOW & Wbtherhll, Architects. Fire-Proofed by Boston Fikk-Pkoofing Co, 
Whidden & Co., Builders. Plastered by'D. McIntosh. 

SBND FORI CATALOGUE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XV 



Pioneer Fire- Proof Construction Company^ 

1545 So. Clark Street, Chicago. 



The Only System 
of 
Fire-Proofing 
Awarded a 
Medal 
and Diploma 




i-LAsrtRma^ DETAIL OF I5"ARCH. a 



SECTION OF ARCH. 



Onr Palenlel TraDS?erse System of Floor Arcli Constrnction, Made Id 9, 10, 12 and 15 iDCli flepttis. 



At the 
WORLD'S 
COLUMBIAN 
EXPOSITION. 



Manufacturers and Contractors for every Description of 

Hollow, Solid and Porous Terra-Cotta 



FOR FIRE-PROOFING BUILDINGS. 




R. C. PENHELD, Pres't. R. W. LYLE, Sec'y and Mgr. J. A. GREEN, Treas. 

Standard 

Fire-Proofing 

Company. 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Fire-Proofing, Flue Linings, 
Fire Brick, Sewer Pipe, 

Porous Terra-Cotta, 

ORNAMENTAL Building Brick, 

And other Clay Products. 

New York Office, 39 & 41 CORTLANDT ST. 



NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY 

FIRE-PROOFING CO, 

FORMERLY LORILLARD BRICK WORKS CO. 

Fire=Proof Building 
Material, Hard= 
Burned Clay and 
Porous Terra=Cotta. 



'It 



HOLLOW BLOCKS, --^>^^.™'->.-^««^-'- 



tal Arches of every Description. 



Hollow Clay Ceiling, Hollow Blocks for Partitions, 

Hollow Brick, Fire-Proof Covering for Iron Girders 

and Columns, Hard-Burned and Porous Furring 

Blocks, Hard and Porous RooSng. 

SPECIAL SHAPES AND DESIGNS IN ANY OF THE 
ABOVE MADE TO ORDER AT SHORT NOTICE. 



A LARGE STOCK CONSTANTLY CARRIED. ORDERS FILLED 

PROMPTLY. SHIPMENTS BY RAIL OR WATER. 

PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING, XTCTir VADF- 
156 FIFTH AVE., JNtW lUKlV. 

Worlu, LORILLARD (Keyport p. O.), N. J. 



XVI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



R. GU AST A VI NO CO., 

Firc=Proofing. 




ELLIS BUILDINC,l270'CONCRESS'STREET,!!BOSTON. 
RAND & TAYLOR, KENDALL & STEPHENS ARCHITECTS. BOSTON REAL ESTATE TRUST - OWNERS. 

View, showing test made by City of Boston, Building Department, of Three Course Barrel Arch Construction with bracing ribs. 
Arch, 16 ft. span. Testing Bay, 16 by 19 ft. with load of 125,600 lbs. 



Boston Office: 

444 ALBANY STREET. 



New York Office: 

11 EAST 59TH STREET. 



Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, 

Manufacturers and Ointractors for the Erection 
•^ of Porous and Dense Hollow Terra-Cotta . . . 

FIRE-PROOFING. 

Also, Manufacturers of Plain and (under 
the Durant Patents) Ornamental .... 

Hollow Architectural Terra-Cotta Building Blocks* 

Hollow^ Porous, Front, and Paving Brick. 



WORKS at PITTSBURGH, PA., and at WASHINGTON, N. J. 



General Offices : CARNEGIE BUILDING, PITTSBURGH, PA. 
Western Office : Chamber of Commerce Building, Chicago. Eastern Office : Metropolitan Building, New York City. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XV 11 



ARTISTIC FRONT BRICK 

.....AND..... 

MANTEL TILE. 



We manufacture tempered clay 
or Mud Brick in a great variety 
of colors and shades, including 
Mottled Fire-Flashed and Gray, 
also Old Gold and Mottled Tile 
for Fireplaces. 



TRADE 



RARITAN 



MARK. 



We make Glazed Brick (Faience 
Glazes) in any color and design 
desired. They are very effective 
for Mantels and interior decora- 
tion, and are especially adapted 
to the interiors of Churches, Hos- 
pitals, and Public Buildings. 



Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co^^ 



874 Broadway, New York. 

Cor. J 8th Street. 



HENRY M. KEASBEY. 

Vice-President. 



ROWLAND P. KEASBEY, 

Secretary and Treasurer. 



Empire Fire-Proofing Co., 



Manufacturers and Contractors 
For All Kinds of 



FIRE-PROOF WORK IN 



Hoflow Tile & 

Porous Terra-Cotta 



FOR FIRE-PROOFING BUILDINGS. 



Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 



Room 827 Monadnock Block, Chicago, UL 



NEW YORK OFHCE, 

874 BROADWAY. 



JOHN H. BLACK, 

33 Erie County Savings Banlc Building:, Buffalo, N. Y. 

TELEPHONE, SENECA 710. 
Agfent for State of N. Y. (except New York City and Brooklyn) for 

The Kittanning.... 
Brick & Fire Clay Co/s 

IMPERVIOUS BUFF, GRAY, PINK, AND 
MOTTLED FRONT BRICKS, IN STANDARD, 
ROMAN, NORMAN, AND ORNAMENTAL SHAPES. 

Also Agent in Western and Central N. Y. State for 

The Akron Hydraulic-Pressed Brick Co. 
The Phila. & Boston Face Brick Co. 
The Pennsylvania Enamel Brick Co. 
The Mosaic Tile Co. 
The Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co. 

Artistic Roofing Tiles (Manufd by CHAS. T. HARRIS, Lessee), 



.and. 



The Bostwick Steel Lath Co. 



xvin 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



. 3ttZ^ svta^ 3Ufe/& svt^iy 3^>tzzf s^*tz> JMfe/a- -<efcgv m!t^> 3m^> jmbo j>Mfe/>- ma/tv wfci^ -^^yr. - it^vTv w».<tv 

i3P^ 3?K 3?K 3?ff aPf^ 3?^ ^m ^^ 

Pennsylvania ! 

Enameled Brick ^ 



nanufacturers of a Superior Quality of 

ENAHELED BRICK, 
„PURE WHITE FRONT BRICK, 
^CREAM=WH1TE FRONT BRICK. 



Company. 



Used in over 300 of the best Buildings in New York and other large cities. 



Works : 

P. O. Address, 

Oaks, Pa. 



Address all Correspondence 
to Main Office. 



Main Office: 

25tii Street and Broadway, 

TownsendJBuilding, 

New York City. 



^ , VJP .y up Af fy a .v{ g ,v ^ .y ^ .y ^ a#^ hu^ .y ^ ,V jp .y jp .yg^ ^ Jte f^ .y ^ .^jp Aff p s 

•^!/llU -sl/fU -ti/lU -^i/AU -sl/Ak -tS/XU -slf^U -(S/JEU a!/4IU •«^'JLU -sf/JkU a!/AU -v'/Jlk a!/4U <Lf4U -ti/AU -*lf4U 

S$« 5I« 5|« 5:^* Vi VA Jf f J*? J*^ J** V^ 5*? 5*f S*'! Yt \^l Vl Yt Vi J^ \*t Yl VI Vt Vt Yt Vi VI Vt Vl Vi Vi Vi VI Vt VI V!t Vl Vi Vt Vi V^ Vi Vt 5*? Vi Vi Vi Vi Vt Vi VI VI VI Vi 
}IS Vi^ }fi\ U\ i*\ r*S i*^ ^.i i*\ }*< i*\ }.{ ^*{ ^.i tt,\ ii\ tf *{ }•{ }*; r*i i*l ^.i >«C r«$ r*i r*i r*i r*{ }*i ^i }•{ }*{ }*{ }«< «*\ i*\ U\ iA «*\ l,\ $*i »«< }»i ^< ^{ }.< ^«{ ^< ^^C ^^< ^^ ^i r.^ r*i tf *{ 






CHICAGO, ILL. 
mifi Marquette Diiilding, 
^^ Atwood Building, 

M HolahirI) & RocHK, Architects. 

JJJ Crreat Northern Theater, 
^ Stewart Building, 

^ I). H. liuRNliAM & Co., Architects. 

^J Trude Building, 
^ I'air Building, 

JJjJ Ji'.NNEY & MuNDiE, Architects. 

Jjj Journal Building, 

J^ Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 

V^ 111. Cent. K. R. Van liuren Street Station, 
^M Francis T. Bacon, Architect. 



^J Garfield Park Power House, 
^ Garfield Park 15and Stand, 



#1% 

S|{ Jas. L. Silsbf.e, Architect. 

^^ E. Snieeth ICstate (Front), 

S^ D. E. & O. H. PosTLK, Architects. 

Franz Kov, Architect. 
^* Cook County Hospital, 
^ Warrkn II. Miln»:r, Architect. 

^ NEW YORK CITY. 

•Ml .Sherry Hotel, 

^ Stable, Elbridge T. Gerry, 

^ McKi.M, Mead & White, Architects. 

Mg PITTSBURG, PA. 

^ Park Building, 

^ Geo. B. Post, Architect. 

515 Zoological Building, 



^1% 



Jas. L. Sii.sbke, Architect. 
MONTROSE. PA. 
^»^ Allegheny Water Works, 
^ Procior & Bii.i.QuisT, Architects. 

Y^ PRINCETON, N. J. 

in^ I'.rokaw Memorial, 

^ C. F. Rose, Architect. 

^ SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

«M Onondaga Co. Savings Bank, 

«* R. W. GinsoN, Architect. 

^ BUFFALO, N. Y. 

^S Guaranty I'luilding, 

^ ;\hi,KK & Sui.i.iVAN, Architects. 

SIS 



VVRITK KOK CATALOQUK. 







General Offices : 

204 DEARBORN STREET, 

MARQUETTE BUILDING, 

LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE EXPRESS 579. 



Police Station, 




tml 

NIAGARA FALLS, N. Y. m 

Power House, Electric, j5 

McKiM, Mkai)& White, Architects, l/f^ 

COLUMBUS, OHIO. J^ 

Union Depot, ■pj 

1). H. Burnham & Co., Architects. JK 

Roster Brewery, 3tf 

F. W. Wolf & -Co., Architects. S 

DETROIT, MICH. g 

Majestic Building, •*■ 

D. H. BuRNiiAM & Co., Architects. 9^ 

Post Ofiice, M 

Wm. Martin .Vikkn, Sup. Architect. XS 

Meeker Mausoleum, 3|( 

McKim, Mkai) & White, Architects, itf 

CLEVELAND, OHIO. S 

Wm. W. Saiiin, Architect. 916 

Morgue, Itf 

Lehman & Schmitt, Architects. ^ 

TOLEDO, OHIO. g 

T. & A. R. R. Depot, fji 

W. T. Cooi'KR, Architect. 9tf 

D. L. Stein, Architect. j|g 

Luce Estate (Front), MS 

Cami'HELI. & Nechter, Architects. Q 

Mrs. Nearing's Stable, JK 

E. O. Fallis, Architect. Itf 

ANN ARP.OR, MICH. S 

John Scott & Co., Architects. 9|( 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 3K 

Liggett & Myers Tobacco Factory, MS 

Isaac S. Taylor, Architect. Bj 

James L. Rankine, || 

Eastern Agent, ^ 

2eoo7ii 626. J56 Fifth Avenue, 3^ 



City Power House, 



Women's Gymnasium, 






^^^^s:s^^^^SiS2ic^^^^^^^s^sii^2^^siisiSM^^^^2is^^^^^^^si^^^^^^^^^^5:2K2^2^^ns:s2:s 



THE BRICKBUILDER. xxvii 



WALDO BROTHERS, 

New Address, 

102 /llbilh Street 

Two doors below Post Office Square. 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

High Grade Building Materials. 

AGENTS FOR 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 

Atwood Faience Co. 

Front Bricks in all colors. 

English Glazed Bricks. 

Baltimore Retort and Fire Brick Co. 

Gartcraig Fire Bricks. 

Welsh Quarry Tiles. 

Alsen Portland Cement. 

Atlas Cement. 

Brooks, Shoobridge & Co. Portland Cement. 

Phoenix, Shield, Wedge, and Cleopatra Portland Cement. 

Hoffman Rosendale Cement. 

Shepherd and Gay Lime, 

Bostwick Metal Lath. 

Morse Wall Ties. 

Akron Sewer Pipe. 

H. H. Meier & Co.'s Puzzolan Portland Cement. 

WHARVES: YARD: 



Waldo, 548 Albany Street. W On N. E. R.R, Tracks, near 

Tudor, 1 Charles River Avenue. ^ Congress St., So. Boston. 



TELEPHONES 



1294 Boston — II Boston — i i^ Charlestown. 



XXVlll 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



^be /Hbosaic ^ile Co.. zanesviue, ohio. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Ceramic Mosaic Tile 
"Parian Vitreous Tile 



E For Floors and 
Aarat 
Decoration. 



(Ube Stronoest Zilc in tbc fIDavhctO 



"ki 



Estimates, 
Samples, and 
Designs on 
Application. 





t±msiJJ,2J!JJ. 




Chicago Terra-Cotta Roofing & Siding Tile Company, 

J 122 Marquette Building, Chicago. 

t)itrific6 IRoofiuG TLiic ot all Ikin^e. 



i\ 



Write for Catalogue. 



L i f 




'I 

/ 



? 



iJBtjf 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXIX 




Charges T. Harris. 
Will. R. Clarke. 



CHARLES T. HARRIS, 

Celadon Terra-Cotta Co. Ltd. 



L,essee 
of the 



...Manufacturer of... 



Artistic Roofing Tiles, 



ALFRED, N. Y. 



CLOSED SHINGLE TILF. 

HULL MEMORIAL CHAPEL, WOODLAWN. CHICAGO. 

W. A. OTIS. Architect. 



New York Office, 
1 1 23 Presbyterian Building, 

156 Fifth Avenue. 



Chicago Office, 
looi Marquette Building, 

204 Dearborn Street. 



The building illustrated herewith, in the early English 
Gothic style of architecture, is not only a very fine reproduction 
of the style used, but shows to especial advantage the mechan- 
ical accuracy and artistic effect of the tile used thereon. The 
great advantage which this tile possesses over the common flat 
shingle tile is that by its construction of locking it is absolutely 
tight, without any use of cement ; it is lighter on the roof; it 
is absolutely true in shape. In appearance, because of its 
construction, it has a better defined alignment on the roof, 
and has given every architect that has ttsed it the most perfect 
satisfaction. 




HULL MEMORIAL CHAPEL, WOODLAWN, CHICAGO. 



W. A. OTIS, Architect. 



The Columbus,... 

Brick and Terra-Cotta Co., 



COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

Manufacturers of 



Plain, Molded, 



and Ornamental 



PRESSED BRICK, 



STANDARD AND ROMAN SIZES. 

IN 

Buff, Gray, and Terra-Cotta Colors* 

Works at Union Furnace^ Ohio^ 



L. G. KILBOURNE, 

Preaident and Oeaeral Manager. 



A. B. COIT, 

Secretary and Treasurer. 



ELLIS LOVEJOY, E. M. 

SuperiatcBdaat. 



XXX 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




A 



\ 




NEW-YORK 

T[RRA-COTTA 
COMPANY 

THIRTY EIGHT 
- PARK ROW ^ 
NEW YORK CITY 



1 

PHILADELPHIA 

BOSTON 

CHICAGO 





BRICKBVILDERi 



^ OFFICE 

'"^ WATER y 
v5TREET ^pi 
BOSTON >|j 



'ifiWfW^w^n^^nWfWM?fWW"^^ 



r i) ! CT^]i , ^ - vi 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN MATERIALS OF CLAY. 

PUIU.ISHED liY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 32S2. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in tlie United 

States and Canada ..... $2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3 50 per year 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THR BRICKBIUI.DKK PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 

PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT. 
No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The Brickbuii.der is published the 20th of each month. 

THE REAS0NAI5LK PRINCIPLES OF ARCHITECTURAL 
COMPETITION. 

THERE are four issues of primary importance which must be 
considered in defining a good architectural competition. The 
first point is the legal validity of the contract between the competing 
architects and the owner. Second, the financial considerations of 
this contract. Third, the considerations other than those purely 
financial. Fourth, the clear subordination of either the cost to the 
accommodation, or the accommodation to the cost. 

first : thk competition agkeement should be a document 

VALID in the courts. 

We recognize two distinct kinds of architectural competition : 
limited competitions, in which the owner invites a limited number of 
architects to compete ; and open competitions, in which all architects 
are free to enter at their own option. 

These two sorts of competition may be variously combined or 
modified ; but whatever form a competition may take, the relation 
existing between competitors and owner is first, last, and always a 
business relation. Its purpose is an exchange of goods or services 
to the profit of both parties. It is not profitable to an owner if a 
competition results in furnishing him with a lot of plans of no real 
service to him, nor is it profitable to architects to run this part of 
their business at an average loss. Only iJiose fo)//is of cpuipclilion 
are profitable which rest upon a sound bi/sincss //asis, and ivhicJi 
bring an equal benefit to both sides. This being granted, it follows 
that these benefits should be legally assured to both parties to the 
contract. 

Important competition agreements should be tentatively drawn 



and submitted to the inspection of legal council on both sides; and 
especially should architects refrain from accepting such agreements 
until the documents have received such scrutiny. This reform 
must be effected through the machinery of their professional organiza- 
tions. 

The competition agreement or contract cannot be valid unless, 
first, the parties issuing it are empowered by law to fulfil it in all 
respects ; and second, unless it be so drawn as to leave no legal 
uncertainty as to its meaning. The more terse the docurnent the 
better. The word "shall" should be regarded with the highest 
suspicion. 

second : the financial considerations of the competition 
agreement. 

If an architect conducts his office with reasonable economy, he 
should make as net profit about one half his gross receipts. The 
usual payment for services being 5 per cent, of the total cost of the 
building, any one piece of work would bring him on an average a 
profit oi 2j4 per cent, of its cost. When, therefore, the award of 
the commission to design and erect a certain building is the declare4 
aim of a competition, this 2}4 per cent, of its cost is the money prize 
for which architects compete. 

Now, before architects can fix a price for their services for 
entering into competition, they must know whether this prize is 
assured to one of the competitors, or not. What is necessary is a 
definite statement which can be legally maintained one way or the 
other. In most cases where competitions are held the erection of a 
l)uilding has been definitely decided upon, and it is a very remote 
contingency that may prevent its erection. The only appreciable 
danger, therefore, in announcing the commission for the building as 
the prize of the competition is that no one of the competitors will 
prove a suitable person to design and erect it. This danger is 
absolutely avoided by having a limited competition to which only 
capable architects are invited ; but, inasmuch as even with excellent 
competitors there is a remote possibility that something may cause the 
abandonment, or essential modification of the owner's intention, a 
mode of liquidating his indebtedness to the winning architect should 
be provided in the competition contract, and this, of course, would be 
the payment to the winning architect of 2)4 per cent, on the pro- 
posed cost of the building, the money equivalent of the commission. 

If, then, a competition agreement guarantees the prize of the 
competition to be the award of the building or the payment of 2^ 
per cent, of its proposed cost, the architect has a definite busi- 
ness proposition upon which to base the price of his services. 
Whether this price be low or high will next depend largely upon 
the following considerations. 

An architect's chance of winning a competition depends, first of 
all, upon his ability, and second, upon the number of contestants in 
the competition. Exceptional ability always has its premiums, and is 
exempt from ordinary rules ; but the great majority which constitutes 
the average man must recognize their force and conform to them. 
They must obey the law of averages, or violate them at their own 
risk. 

Now, suppose a competition to which five men are invited. By 
the law of averages each man has but one chance in five of winning 
that competition, and in a round of five such competitions he stands 



i88 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



to lose four times and win once. As we found above, the net profit 
of a $300,000 l)uilding is zyi per cent, on its cost, or, ■^■j.^oo. This 
is clear gain. In competitions of five contestants for such a building 
each architect therefore stands to win $7,500. minus the loss to him of 
preparing four different sets of unused sl<etclies. The normal value of 
each of these sets of sketches is i per cent., or $3,000, according to 
the schedule of the American Institute of Architects. Half of this 
amount is reckoned as the cost of the drawings, half as profit. 
Profit, however, is only another name for the payment made to the 
architect for his own individual services. The profit for a year 
represents what he personally earns in a year, just as the laborer's 
income is the sum of his total wages. If the laborer did his day's 
work and was denied payment for it, his case would be the same as 
that of the architect who made competition sketches and was paid 
only the "cost" of them. The architect loses as clearly in that case 
as the laborer when his day's wages are withheld. 

Accordingly, if an architect, acting upon the suggestion of cer- 
tain leading members of his profession in New York, decides that 
otherwise proper competitions may be accepted when payment of 
cost alone is made for sketches, he is then doing that work at the 
loss of his own individual wages, which, in the instance taken, 
amount to $1,500. His total losses in a round of five competitions 
would be four times $1,500, or $6,000. His total winning, the profit 
of the full commi.ssion for the building, would be $7,500. This, there- 
fore, leaves him a saving of $1,500, or one half of i per cent, on the 
cost of the biiildint;, as his entire profit on work which normally 
brings a proft of 4}4 per cent.; namely, four different sets of compe- 
tition sketches at I per cent, each and one full commission at 5 per 
cent. This, clearly, is a very narrow margin of profit, yet it is sufti- 
cient to permit us technically to define a competition on this basis as 
profitable. 

When, however, the number of contestants varies from that 
taken in the i)revious e.xample, different results are found. In com- 
petitions of ten contestants the architect stands to lose nine times 
and win once. Computing as above, his losses in ten such competi- 
tions would be nine times $1,500, or $13,500, while his one winning 
brings him in but $7,500, making a total loss of $6,000 if he should 
enter ten such competitions. 

I'lqually, when the move is in the other direction and the num- 
ber of contestants is lessened, the architect stands to increase his 
margin of profit. In competitions of only two, where each contestant 
should win one effort in two, the loss would be only $[,500, to a gain 
of $7,500, leaving a profit of $6,000 on a round of two competitions. 

The following is a summary of what each architect stands to 
win or lose in competitions comprising up to ten competitors for a 
$300,000 building, when the commission, or an equivalent payment, 
is guaranteed, and each competitor is paid one half of i per cent, as 
the cost of his competition sketches. 



No. of 
competi- 
tors. 


Each receives 

in one round 

of competi- 

lions. 


K.ic1i loses in 
one round of 
competitions. 


Difference 

tween rcce 

and lo^se 


be- 

pts 


Number of 
competitions 
in one round. 


Karh stands 

10 win or lost 

in each com 

petition. 


2 


J7,50o 


niiniis 


if 1,500 equals 


»ft,0,K, 


div 


ded 


by 


2 


equ.i 


5 


#3,000 


3 


7,500 




3.000 „ 


4.500 




,. 




3 


,. 




1,500 


4 


7.500 




4,500 


3,000 




)> 




4 






750 


5 


7.500 




6,000 ,, 


1,500 




.. 




5 


>. 




300 


6 


7.500 




7.500 







.. 




6 


.. 







7 


7.5 




q,ooo ,* 


— 1,500 




„ 




7 


.. 




— ii4 


8 


7.500 




lO.SfVj 


3,000 




.. 




8 


.. 




—375 


9 


7,500 




I2,0<.o ,, 


-4.5"0 




,, 




9 


„ 




—500 


10 


7,500 




13.500 


— 6,tKK) 




.. 




10 


.. 




— 600 



The deductions from this investigation are of the greatest im- 
portance, and may be worked out by the owner and the architect as 
their interests impel them. Certainly it is very clear why it is the 
owner's interest to keep the number of contestants as small as possi- 
ble, and to select only architects of the highest ability. 

We are also prepared to understand why open competitions are 
not deemed profitable by architects ; for if, as in the above example, 
a single limited competition of ten contestants with the award of the 
building guaranteed, and each competitor paid the cost of drawings, 
means an average loss of $600 to each of those who enter it, it is 



not reasonable to suppose that architects of standing and intelligence 
will enter competitions where the individual recompense is not as- 
sured at all, and where the number of contestants is entirely unlimited. 

TIIIKU: CONSIDERATIONS OK TIIIC COMI'KTITIO.V AGRKK.MK.VT 
WHICH ARE OTHER THAN FINANCIAL. 

All the advantage that an architect receives in entering into 
competition is not financial. Otherwise there would be no such dis- 
counting of the price of services as is now usual. His greatest in- 
ducement, after the financial one, is the ambition of every architect 
to erect important buildings. It makes a great difference, therefore, 
to an architect already in good practise, whether the erection of the 
building is assured or not. The chances of losing the building 
through the selection of one of the other competitors, when multi- 
plied by the chances of the owner's withdrawing the building alto- 
gether, forms too great a hazard for him to consider in cases where 
the erection of the building is not guaranteed. Guaranteeing the 
erection of the l)uilding, therefore, presents an inducement over and 
above the merely monetary security it gives, and constitutes a con- 
sideration which owners cannot fail to regard. 

.Another consideration of the greatest importance is the assur- 
ance of just dealing between competitors. The knowledge of the 
owner's integrity and right of intention does not of itself offer this 
assurance. It is not the lack of right intentions that wrecks compe- 
titions, but the blunders of men unaccustomed to the task of direct- 
ing them .Architectural competition is not at its best unless it is so 
conducted as to give free play to the contestants' spirit of emulation. 
In this respect it is like all sports which aim at the highest attain- 
ment of the individual. Such forms of emulative competition must 
be conducted under rules very different in nature from tl ose which 
govern in the courts of law. The rules which govern the sports 
may often seem absurdly technical to the non-sportsman, yet they are 
evolved by long practise, and are essential to the moral health of the 
sports conducted under them, quite as much as the laws of our 
courts are essential to the social safety of the community ; but the 
difference between them is a very essential one. The law of the 
courts obliges a plaintiff to prove his injury, as well as the facts 
alleged. The law of sports makes the fact and the injury identical. 
It is not necessary for a yacht to prove that she has been injured in 
a collision brought about through the fault of another boat to claim 
a foul and its penalty, nor need she show a loss if forced off her 
course improperly. The penalty attaches to the fact of interference, 
and the question of the amount of injury caused by that interference, 
or of intention, which forms so large an issue in the courts of law, is 
not considered. A blunder is a crime, and is punished as such. 

y\dditional instances might be set forth at length, showing con- 
clusively that in all those fields of competition where the highest 
perfection of individual attainment is sought, the law sanctioned by 
experience absolutely safeguards the interests of those who maintain 
the rules set down, and as absolutely condemns those who break 
tliem. The rules themselves thereby come to have an importance 
appreciated only by those who have watched their long application, 
and have learned their necessity. It matters not so much what the 
rules may be as thai their integrity be maintained. Otherwise there 
is no assured freedom for any, and the best conditions to enthusias- 
tic effort are lacking. 

The rules which govern competitions should therefore be as few 
and as distinctly stated as possible, and the restraints imposed of a 
kind which leave free the best faculties of the competitor. The 
penalty for an infringement of these rules must be the instant, final, 
and unetjuivocal disbarment of the transgre.ssor. These rules can 
only be drawn up by one who has devoted tiine and thought to the 
science of conducting architectural competitions. 

Still another consideration valued by architects is the knowledge 
that their plans are to receive the judgment of one able to appreciate 
their finer shades of excellence, and a reasonable assurance that the 
opinion of .such a judge will be an important factor in determining 
the award. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



189 



FOURTH : RELATIVE DEMANDS REGARDING COST AND ACCOMMO- 
DATIONS. 

There is yet another most important consideration, which appears 
to have hitherto been very largely overlooked. We refer to the 
habit of stating in competition programs in an absolute way both 
the accommodations of the building, and its limit of cost. This ar- 
bitrary method defeats its own end. The architect is not omniscient, 
and cannot possibly arrive at any right estimate of what it will cost 
to meet the given conditions until his sketches are made, and the 
time for sending them in is close at hand. The competition cannot 
then be declared closed upon his representations and new instructions 
issued. It is too late. The drawings go in and disaster follows. All 
drawings are declared rejected because none fall within the limit of 
cost. Whose fault is it ? It is hard to say. 

Surely no architect should be so silly and no committee so 
fatuous as to believe that absolute statements of cost and absolute 
statements of accommodation, size, materials, etc., can be unchange- 
ably determined before plans are made, /or it is precisely to determine 
the relation of these two thini^s that the architect makes his drawings. 

If the cost must be absolutely limited, it will pay the owner to 
let the architects exercise their intelligence in adjusting his desires 
to his pocketbook ; but if, as in most buildings, the accommodations 
demanded are in reality the essential thing, it is certainly enough to 
state with emphasis that economy in meeting these demands will form 
an important issue in determining the award. 

Roi'.KRT D. Andrews. 



THE recent International Congress of Architects, which was held 
in connection with the Brussels Exposition during the past 
month, has awakened considerable interest on the part of architects 
in this country and abroad; and although America was represented 
by but four delegates, if we are properly informed, out of a total ' 
attendance of about three hundred, the eminence of those partici- 
pating in the deliberations of the congress and the ideas which were 
developed in the discussions have combined to give it a peculiar 
value. It is to be hoped that these international congresses may 
become more frequent. No country can live to itself in art any more 
than in anything else, and in these days when architecture is so 
essentially a matter of convention, tradition, and concurrent practise, 
no one can afford to neglect an opportunity to compare his standards 
with those of other countries, nor to ignore the achievements of 
foreign architects. The object of this congress was avowedly to 
bring about a better understanding of the practise of architecture in 
the various countries and to awaken the public to a better apprecia- 
tion of architecture, and although the duration was short, only five 
days, the program was a very full and complete one. The language 
of the congress was French. Great credit is due to the Socicte 
Centrale d'Architecture for the admirable manner in which the 
congress was organized, the cordial reception and careful considera- 
tion for the comfort and pleasures of the members of the congress, 
and to Mr. Uumortier for his strong and efficient management during 
the entire session. The congress was informally opened on Satur- 
day, August 29, by the King of Belgium, in person, and the succeed- 
ing days were taken up with discussion of architectural topics in the 
mornings, and delightful excursions to surrounding points of archi- 
tectural interest in the afternoon. Aside from the business transacted, 
the one thing which was most worthy of note was the individual 
character of the distinguished delegates and the high personal 
esteem with which they were held. There were present not only 
architects, but statesmen, three members of the Institute of France, 
one deputy, one member of the Italian parliament, and several 
French representatives, besides others in political and municipal 
affairs from many countries. That Leopold, King of the Belgians, 
should have come up from Ostend specially to open the congress is 
sufficient proof of the high esteem in which our profession is held in 
foreign countries. 

It is to be hoped that the next congress of architects, which is 
to be held in connection with the International Exhibition in Paris, 



in 1900, may be more fully attended by our countrymen. The archi- 
tectural efforts of America are hardly appreciated at all in Europe 
outside of England. While our architecture has not the past to 
boast of, which is so valuable a factor in European art, our progress 
during the past two decades has been along lines of which we have 
every reason to be proud, and in an international congress of this 
description our delegates ought to be able both to give and receive. 
We are indebted to Mr. G. O. Totten, Jr., the official delegate from 
the United States Government, for a very complete and interesting 
account of the congress. 



IN this connection it is intensely gratifying in every respect to note 
the spirit which has accompanied the growth of the T .Square 
Club at Philadelphia, which from being an association of young and 
extremely enthusiastic draughtsmen, has developed into one of the 
leading architectural bodies of the country, certainly being foremost 
in the enthusiasm which is so essential to continued interest in archi- 
tecture as a profession. The club has repeatedly put itself on record 
in a most emphatic way as l)eing keenly alive to its own possibilities 
and the general good of the profession, and its history ought to be 
an example to all the other clubs and architectural societies through- 
out the country as showing the lines in which club work can be car- 
ried along so as to profit not only the members themselves, but to 
form a tangible force in the advancement of art in general and archi- 
tecture in particular. The T Square Club is full of live, energetic 
men, including among its members the best talent of the Quaker 
city, a.-.d by its action of sending a properly accredited delegate to 
the Brussels Congress of Architects, it has shown its appreciation of 
the position which a society of this kind can occupy in relation to its 
growth. We lack in this country very strongly what the French term 
esprit de corps, and architects are so constantly accused of profes- 
sional jealousy, and unfortunately there is so often good reason for 
the charge, that we sincerely hope that the spirit of the T Square 
Club may spread beyond the borders of Philadelphia. Mr. Kelsey, 
the delegate of the club, gave a very felicitous address in which he 
summed up the position of the T Square Club as being preemi- 
nently one whose attitude was to seek and study, and every one who 
has had the pleasure of reading his words will feel that in this in- 
stance the profession as a whole, as well as the T Square Club, was 
honored by the Philadelphia delegate. 



PERSONAL AND CLUB NEWS. 

Messrs. O. A. Klumann and Charles I. Thomas, Wilkes-Barre, 
Penn., have associated themselves under the firm name of Klumann 
& Thomas for the practise of architecture. Catalogues and samples 
desired. 

The Chicago Architectural Club had its first meeting after 
vacation, on Monday evening, September 13. 

"How to Make the Most of the Club's Privilejies this Coming 
Season " was the subject for discussion ; many of the leading mem- 
bers offering valuable suggestions which will no doubt materialize as 
the season advances. 

The second annual exhibition of the Cleveland Architectural 
Club will be held in the New England Building, from Nov. 15 to 
Nov. 27, 1897. 

Works will be received until Monday, November 1. 

The exhibition will include: — 

Architectural sketches, perspectives, and elevations in all render- 
ings; photographs of executed work; landscape architecture; in- 
terior architecture and decoration ; interior furnishings (samples and 
sketches); architectural and decorative metal work (wrought iron, 
bronze, and brass); carving and sculpture (wood, stone, metal, or 
plaster); advertisers' exhibit (the latest novelties and improve- 
ments for modern buildings). 

All drawings for the exhibition must be framed or mounted. 

The Cleveland Club will pay all charges for the collecting, ship- 
ping, and returning of contributed works. 



190 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



At the first regular meeting held by the St. Louis Architectural 
Club after the vacation season, a general discussion of the proposed 
work for the winter brought out many interesting features, and con- 
siderable interest was manifest. All committees were instructed to 
bring in full reports at the ne.vt meeting, including a special com- 
mittee which was appointed to look into the advisability of the club 
publishing the revised building ordinance. 

Messrs. Bailey & Knders were appointed a committee to pro- 
cure a suitable case for the medal which was awarded the " T " 
Square Club of Philadelphia some time ago, for the best club ex- 
hibit. 

ILLUSTRATKIi ADXEKTISKMKNTS. 

THE Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company illustrate, in their adver- 
tisement on page iv, the new Mechanics Bank Building, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. ; George L. Morse, architect. 

Fiske, Homes & Co. have illustrated on their advertising page 
(vii), number three of their new and especially prepared designs of 
brick and terra-cotta fireplace mantels. 

On page viii, in the advertisement of the New Jersey Terra- 
cotta Company, is illustrated the new New Zealand Building, Broad- 
way, New York City; Hoppin & Koen, architects. 

A residence at Buffalo, N. Y., of which C. D. Swan was the 




architect, is illustrated in the advertisement of the Harbison & 
Walker Company, on page xxv. 

Two views of the Hall Memorial Chapel, Woodlawn, Chicago, 
W. A. Otis, architect, are shown in the advertisement of Charles T. 
Harris, Lessee, on page xxix. 

The Gilbreth .Seam-Face Granite Company, in their advertise- 
ment on page xxxviii, show a fireplace at Lenox, Mass., of which 
George T. Tilden was the architect. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PLATES 73 and 74. Details of the upper stories of the Uun 
Building, now in course of erection on Broadway, corner of 
Reade Street, New York City; George Edward Harding & Gooch, 
architects. 

The Broadway and Reade Street facades of this building are 
constructed of light brick and terra-cotta. 

Plates 75 and 76. Details of the upper stories of the New 
Queen Insurance Company Building, Broadway, New York City; 
George Edward Harding & Gooch, architects. Like the Dun 
Building, this, too, is constructed of brick and terra cotta. 

Plates 77, 78, 79, and 80. Dental Hall, University of Pennsylva- 
nia. The building, of which the exteriors and details only are given, 
is arranged in plan in two parallel parts connected by a staircase 
neck. The main portion is 50 ft. wide by 180 ft. long, the smaller 
wing is 48 by 85 ft.; these two are arranged on a central axis, 
and their difference in length accommodates itself to the lines of 
33d Street and Locust Street, which intersect at an angle of about 
50 degs. The larger building has its upper story devoted entirely 
to the operating room, in which are placed one hundred dental 



chairs. The back building contains an auditorium seating five 
hundred. The remainder of the floor space is given over to labora- 
tories, examining rooms for patients, lecture rooms, students' as- 
sembly room, and quarters for the faculty and dean. 

The structure is of slow-burning construction throughout with 
the exception of the roofs, where steel trusses are used. The heat- 
ing is by steam and is supplemented by a special system of ventila- 
tion. Lighting throughout and power for operating the machinery 
of the laboratories is by electricity. These two are supplied from 
the main central heat and light station of the university. The ex- 
terior of the building is of brick laid in Flemish bond. The trim- 
mings throughout are of terra-cotta, the roof of red tiles with cresting 
and lanterns of green copper. 



Till': legislature of Illinois having pa.ssed a law providing for the 
licensing of architects and the regulation of the practi.se of 
architecture, the governor has appointed the following named gentle- 
men to act on the Board of Examiners: Mr. Dankmar Adler, of 
Chicago, the president of the board ; Mr. Peter B. Wight, of Chicago, 
the secretary; Mr. William Reeves, of Peoria; Prof. N. Clifford 
Ricker, of the University of Illinois: and Mr. William Zimmerman, 
of Chicago. The board has chosen a committee on examinations, 
consisting of the president, and secretary, and Mr. Reeves, and will 
soon be ready to enter upon the performance of its duties. 



THE matter of licensing architects is receiving more or less 
serious consideration by the profession, and a committee of 
the institute has been appointed to investigate and report on the 
advisablity of adopting some such restriction. The most conserva- 
tive opinion seems to be that the time has not yet arrived when such 
a plan could be carried out with sufficient thoroughness to be of any 
special value, either to the profession or the public. On the other 
hand, the fact remains that this matter is t)eing agitated more or less 
by State and municipal governments, and that certain laws bearing 
on this (luestion have been already passed in some places, which 
shows that within a comparatively short time the proposition must be 
met and settled in some way. Legislation affecting any profession 
should be controlled from within rather than from without, and while 
action may be temporarily deferred, the fact that certain restrictions, 
in many instances quite rigid, are now in force abroad shows plainly 
that some such measures are sure to be adopted sooner or later in this 
country, and also that it is important that the profession should keep 
the matter suflSciently well in hand to forestall any unreasonable 
action on the part of the law makers, who, when left to their own 
devices, are almost sure to impose some ill-considered and unjust 
measure. There appears to be a prejudice with some architects 
against the license idea, on the ground that it places them in an un- 
dignified and unprofessional position. But such objections can be 
easily disposed of by calling attention to the fact that both doctors 
and lawyers now practise under similar conditions to those under 
which it is proposed to place the architect. 



AT a meeting of the Executive Committee of the T Square Club, 
held September 17, a .series of resolutions was adopted 
condemning the action of the State Capitol Commission in violating 
their agreement with competing architects, and in disregarding the 
recommendation of their own experts and the warnings of the 
Governor. The sentiment of the club is clearly shown in the follow- 
ing resolutions : — 

" Resolved, That the architectural profession, and the citizens of 
this Commonwealth, are warned that the evident intention of a 
majority of the Commission to select an architect without reference 
to the terms of the contract they have made is a public scandal 
which calls for immediate correction. 

" Resolved, That this Club pledges itself to the distinguished and 
honorable Board of Experts to uphold them and the reputable 
element in the profession in their protest against the disgraceful 
action of the majority of the Commission." 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



191 



Brick versus Wood. III. 

BY R. CLIPSTON STURGIS. 

IN the preceding articles I have touched upon the advisability 
of using brick from motives of economy and beauty, and its 
adaptability to all kinds of work and all localities. I wish now to 




ENTRANCn COURT, COOMBE WARREN. 
George Devey, Architect. 

take up, perhaps, the most important part of the subject. How can 
a better and more frequent use of brick be encouraged ? 

First, I think, by more diffused knowledge. People generally do 
not appreciate, what I have, perhaps lamely, tried to show, how 
beautiful and appropriate brick is. They should learn why wood 
should not be used for any building which lays claim to dignity or 
importance, even if it be but the dignity of that lowly place a 
home, because, being perishable, it does not, cannot fulfil the de- 
mands made on it by such a building. 

Then, wood being set aside, they should learn that the ma- 
terial which, other things being equal, is nearest at hand and 
cheapest to use is in most cases the best. This material is gen- 
erally brick ; where stone is handier or cheaper, then use it. 

Wood is justified only in two ways; either because it is the 
only material available, or because land must be cleared of timber, 
and it is the easiest and least wasteful to keep the saw-mill going 
and build your buildings with the by-product of cultivation. I?oth 
these circumstances belong to a phase of life which we have 
happily outlived, at all events where architecture, as an art, exists. 

If wood is used under the force of circumstances, it 
must ever be looked upon as a temporary expedient. 
It is not to the advantage of the present owner and 
indweller to live within wooden walls, and it is certainly 
not to the advantage of those who will follow him. It 
is not only that it is using a perishable material for a 
permanent purpose, thus endangering one's own house- 
hold and your neighbors', but that one is using as a 
building material that which has other and, in many 
ways, more important uses. 

For furniture, cabinet work, and innumerable small 
wares wood is indispensable, no other material can well 
replace it in these fields, and these are the natural 
markets for wood when cut. It is equally, I might say 
even more, useful standing, for it alone preserves us 
both from drought and from flood. 

The great forests at the head waters of our rivers 
hold the winter snows and release them gradually to 
keep full the rivers, and to thus irrigate and fertilize the 



lowlands. Once remove these forests, and the spring sends the snows 
down in one mighty rush, to flood the country, devastating the land, 
leaving ruin in its track and drought to follow. 

It is to the shame of our intelligence that we are so slow to 
waken to the necessity of husbanding our wood. We refuse to re- 
serve our still wooded tracks, and we invite, yes, urge, wholesale 
destruction by putting prohibitive tariff on timbers from other 
countries. The folly of such a course seems inconceiv- 
able. When our hills are denuded it will be too late. 

Thus while we are gratifying a perverted taste and 
building of wood we are endangering our own safety and 
that of our neighbors, and at the same time encouraging 
an industry which is fattening on the life blood of the 
country, in injuring its agricultural productiveness. 
There is no possible merit in encouraging this industry, 
for the trade in building lumber is not one which benefits 
the community at large, but one where the profits, un- 
wholesomely large, go into a very small number of 
pockets. 

As to the quality ; this, of course, varies with locali- 
ties, and in many places they have no reason to be 
ashamed of their common brick; but there are many 
kilns which turn out irregular and uneven brick, with great 
variations in size as between the hard burned and the 
soft. For this there seems to be but little excuse. 

As to uniformity ; there is now no standard brick, 
and if backing and facing are different, you must trust 
to luck for a bond here and there where the courses run 
level. This lack of uniformity is still worse from the 
architectural point of view, for in any given brick build- 
ing the drawings cannot be made accurate until the builder has been 
settled upon, and he in turn has decided upon and bought his brick. 
Then only can you tell how thick a two-brick wall is, or how long 
a pier of four stretchers, or whether you can manage to make 
eight headers fill the four-stretcher space — nor can you course 
off your facade and tell how many courses high are your window 
openings. 

No one but an architect can realize how intensely perplexing 
and annoying this is. 

A uniform brick — at least for all common brick — would obvi- 
ate this, and the uniform brick, of whatever size, should at least com- 
ply with the requirement of two headers and a joint equaling a 
stretcher. 

Then, as to the steadiness of the supply. Some of our kilns 
are summer affairs, and only then can brick be made. 

This is particularly discouraging in the very places where I 
think brick building should be encouraged. In the cities one can 
always depend on the large brickmaking centers where machinery 
is used, and the work is carried on regardless of weather; but in the 







I^^M^^A^ft' 




^ — ^'n ^ 


tMHH^KI 


^fx }^ 




KIijMbp'^ 


4 


m 


m m ■■-•rUMi . "T-vraHg" 








r 1 



GARDEN FRONT, COOMIIE WARREN. 
George Devey, Architect. 



192 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



country one must depend on local supply unless freight rates are 
favorable. 

This is a most uneconomical way of doing business. To have 




LUKE field's house, KENSINGTON. 
R. N. Shaw, Architect. 

a large piece of land, with buildings and machinery standing idle 
and profitless for six months, is not the way to produce cheaply. 
Apart from the business aspect, it is annoying to an architect or 
builder to find that when he is ready for brick he can't get them 
from the kiln he prefers because they are sold out, and no more can 
be made until the spring opens ; or, perhaps he has got the plain 
brick and wants a few buUnose, or other simple molded brick made 
from the same clay, and he can't get them, but must use face brick 
with his common brick, and spoil them both. 

But most important of all is it to get the cost brought down 
where brick can actually compete with wood, that is, the brick that 
must of necessity be used in the less expensive class of buildings; 
and this, I believe, is possible, and, in view of the certain rise in 
lumber, as our unfortunate forests are laid low, probable, too, and 
that at no very distant date. 

A very common grade of brick, if they were of good proportion, 
would answer perfectly well for the cheaper class of buildings, 
and would be laid more quickly and to better advantage. The same 
would answer for backing, and would bond with the various superior 
bricks. One frequently meets with the absurdity of a higher price 
from a local kiln than the price, including freight, from a kiln two 
hundred miles away. 

To sum up, I have tried to show how economical and beautiful 




the brick wall is, and how adapted it is to all situations, and have 

pointed out what seems to me the best methods of encouraging 

the use of brick ; I can only hope that I may, at least, have opened 

up a line of thought among builders, architects, and 

brickmakers that may lead to action on this important 

subject. 

I am aware that I have treated the subject very 
cursorily, and also keenly aware that I am attempting to 
give suggestions in a trade which I have never learned ; 
it is only on the principle of judging by their fruits that 
1 have dared to judge at all ; but of this one thing I feel 
certain, that we are using wood too much in our build- 
ing, and that some day we shall pay dearly for it. 

The illustrations in this article have no immediate 
connection with the text further than exemplifying some 
good things in brick. 

Coombe Warren was built fifteen years or so ago 
by the late George Devey for Bertram Currie, P^sq., 
and although somewhat heavy in detail, it is virile 
and interesting — more so than much of the over-or- 
namented Italian Renaissance which we see .so much 
to-day. 

Morley's place is also by Devey; it stands on the 




morley's place. 

George Devey, Architect. 



CHURCH FOR COLORED I'EOPLE, HOSTON. 

site of an old house, "Hall Place," and has the advantage of 
retaining the old garden. With the rapid growth of vines and 
shrubs, and England's moist and mellow touch, it looks to day almost 
like an old house. 

Luke Field's house, on Melbury Road, Kensington, is by Shaw, 
one of his most happy examples of the many houses for artists 
which he has built, so absolutely simple and homelike in appearance, 
and yet so distinctly fitted for its purpose. 

The last illustration is a small church for colored people, built a 
few years ago in Boston. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



193 



Architectural Terra-Cotta. 

BY THOMAS CUSACK. 

{Continued.) 

THE two Doric columns described in a preceding cliapter were, 
we presume, introduced chiefly with the view of affording 
some visible means of support to the sub-cornice resting upon them. 
The word visible is used advisedly, for the invisible has been pro- 
vided in the manner shown at Fig. 33. This occurs at the fourteenth 



/-FUXK LINE 




11 1 1 = 



SCALE OF FEET. 



FIG. 33. 



Story of Fig. 34, which is the Central Syndicate Building, Broadway 
and Pearl Street, New York. The member referred to spans a 
recess of some depth, and of two stories in height, which, in its 
turn, becomes a central feature of the frontage overlooking that 
famous thoroughfare. Just why the least flexible of the classical 
orders should have been chosen, in an effort to clothe and embellish 
an avowedly unsympathetic anatomy of steel, would, we suppose, 
admit of more than one explanation. On that point, however, we 
are not inclined, at this moment, to hazard a conjecture. Suffice it 
to say that the effort has been made, and that, too, under circum- 
stances suffioently exacting to exhaust the resources, if they did not 
tax the complaisance of most architects. 

Our concern at present is chiefly with the cornice, and most of 
what is said applies to the upper stories of this building. In dealing 
with these, there may be a doubt as to whether the designer had any 
very definite object in view; but the doubt is a reasonable one, and 
of it he shall have full benefit. We shall, therefore, assume that it 
was his intention to create, at an altitude of 200 ft., an effect pro- 
portionate to that obtained in classical examples at about one fifth 
of that height. If he has fallen short of this ideal, no one will 
attribute his failure to a lack of ambition. It was certainly a lofty 
one, however hopeless of attainment. He has not, it will be observed, 
attempted to do this by a relative enlargement of all the moldings, 
but by a redistribution and repeated use of the orthodox members, 
arbitrarily assigned to new situations. Thus we have the architrave, 
frieze, and cornice of the Doric order combined; and, as a single 
member of 6 ft. 8 ins., it is made to serve as an enlarged architrave. 
What would ordinarily have been the frieze is utilized as the fifteenth 
story; the piers taking the place of triglyphs, and the windows be- 
coming metopes, minus the ornament. On top of these comes the 
actual cornice, with a projection of 5 ft. 9 ins., making a total of 
some 20 ft. from soffit of architrave, or about one tenth of the entire 
height from grade level. 

What the ancients of Athens, or their less scrupulous successors 
of Rome might have done, or left undone, in the face of such a prob- 



lem has been discussed with avidity among architects. This subject 
would seem to possess a peculiar fascination, and being still an un- 
settled one, it has been rediscussed by the wise men among them, 
with special reference to this building. Nine months or so have 
elapsed since its completion, and up until date of writing they have 
not, so far as is known, agreed upon a verdict. The prevalent im- 
pression is that upon so remote a contingency it would be idle to 
speculate, at which status, the question may be allowed a long rest. 

The Greek architects belonged to a classical era in the world's 
history, while it is our lot to live in an age of iron. They had their 
own problems, which they solved to their own satisfaction, and to 
the admiration of succeeding ages. Their talents found sufficient 
vent in the pursuit of subtle refinements, and when these reached 
the acme of human perfection "a deep sleep" fell upon them. 
Should they awake in this commercial age, the perplexities of the 
situation might worry them more tlian they appear to have done 
the up-to-date designer of this modern office building. He, we 
doubt not, consoles himself with the reflection that they have 
been a long while dead, and so are not likely to turn in their 
sarcophagi over this latest, though not least daring transposition 
of their exquisite detail. 

In consideration of what has been said, we give a number of 
details, as drawn from the models, all of them giving an accurate 
representation of the work as executed. Most of these may be 
left to speak for themselves. In the main cornice (Fig. 38) cer- 
tain peculiarities in the design made it necessary to devise a 
somewhat different method of construction from that shown in 
previous examples. This change is made imperative by the 
absence of modillions, which, among other things, served to con- 
ceal the inverted is, heretofore used as cantilevers. The whole 
of the soffit being now exposed, the iron supports must be in- 
serted some distance from the surface. Instead of JL .sections we 
now find it expedient to use 5 in. 12 lb. I beams, for which an 
exact counterpart is molded in the ends of each block. These 
soffit blocks are made in one piece, with a hole in the center, into 
which the rosette is keyed at the time of setting. In the setting, too, 
of this cornice, different methods of procedure must be resorted to. 
Of these we know of but two that are practicable, and l)etween 
them there is little room for choice. 

If it be decided to space the cantilevers and make permanent 
riveted connections with the structural ironwork, that may be done 
before the walls have reached 
their full height. They must, 
in that case, be spaced accu- 
rately to the dimensions fur- 
nished by, or previou.sly agreed 
to with the terra-cotta maker, 
who, meanwhile, has his work 
too far advanced to admit of 
material alteration. It may be 
that he has it made, perhaps 
fitted to these figures, and 
ready for shipping on demand. 
They should likewise extend 
at right angles to the building 
line, resting on an unyielding 
fulcrum, and be adjusted to 
perfect alignment. We have 
reason to know that these 
fundamental conditions do not 
always receive the attention 
that their importance de- 
mands. The drawings sup- 
plied for this purpose may be 
com])lete, and as perfect as it 
is possible to make them ; it 
does not by any means follow 
that the erection of the work fig. 34. 





194 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



will be equally so. The iron-workers, at least, have a stable material 
on which correct measurements may be made, and the holes punched, 
or, when necessary, drilled with mathematical exactness. This, of 
course, calls for reasonable care and consideration on their part ; 




FIO. 35. CORNICE BETWEEN 4TH AND 5TH STOKIKS 



two qualities which they should be encouraged to cultivate. We are 
very far from saying that they are the only class of workmen to be 
met with on buildings who are wont to excuse themselves by the use 
of a well-worn " near enough " or " good enough." It is, neverthe- 
less, a fact that they use these exploded maxims, and, what is worse, 
appear to act upon them far too frequently. A more rigid super- 
vision is certainly required in such matters, and where other in- 
fluences fail, the contracting engineer should be held to strict account 
by the architect. A few elementary lessons would not be amiss, as 
an aid to memory, the more salutary if of a pecuniary character, and 
taught him at his own expense. 

Assuming, for the moment, that the ironworkers have done their 
part intelligently, the same thing will be expected from the men en- 
trusted with the setting of the terra-cotta. Their 

first requisite is a scaffold of extra width, and, it 

may be added, of extra strength, in order that 

the blocks may swing clear of the cantilevers and 

then slide in between them. When this plan is - 

adopted the chief drawback encountered is in ; 

getting sufficient mortar into the vertical joints. - 

We fear there are cases where this difficulty was : 

deemed a sufficient excuse for setting them drj-. '. 

The terra-cotta manufacturer, however, can do 

much to invalidate this pretext by providing verti- 
cal grooves in the ends of the blocks. Into these, 

cement grout should be run; it will find its way 

down as far as the iron, for which it will be a 

preservative, at the same time filling most of the 

interstices. 

The other, and perhaps better, plan is to have 

all the cantilevers fitted and marked for their re- ; 

speclive places, but not fastened. As each block ■ 

of terra-cotta is bedded in position it is followed 

simultaneously by a cantilever, which may be held 



in place temporarily by a bolt, to be replaced by the usual rivets as 
soon as convenient. This allows mortar of sufficient stiffness to be 
spread on each end of the block, which, when pushed together on 
the iron, leaves no unfilled crevices in the joint. Hut. whichever 
plan happens to be adopted, no extraordi- 
nary effort is presupposed, much less de- 
manded, from anybody concerned. In 
addition to the skill which most work- 
men claim as their stock in trade, a reason- 
able amount of cooperation and helpfulness 
is all that is needed. This, if not expressly 
stipulated in every specification, is tacitly 
understood, and is the es.sence of every 
contract. 

Beyond the points that have been 
suggested, there is but one criticism to 
make in connection with this cornice, and 
it, though the last, is not the least impor- 
tant. The lions' heads on the corona are 
much too plentiful. They are good 
enough things in themselves, l)ut it will 
be seen how easy it is to have too much 
of a good thing. A head on every third 
block would have been ample, and in this 
respect our example of last month comes 
much nearer to the right disposition. 
Most of the moldings introduced into the 
soffit are too small, and, consequently, also 
too numerous. These small undercut 
members were put in at considerable ex- 
pense to the manufacturer, and the most 
regrettable part of it is that when viewed 
from the street they represent nothing, 
unless it may be so much wasted effort. 
Ruskin was thinking prospectively as well as retrospectively when he 
wrote of things such as this being " fused together in nebulous aggre- 
gation." Fewer and bolder members, with sufficient cinctures to give 
relief, would, we think, have been a decided improvement, and these 
could have been had for the asking. The foregoing are faults for 
which no excuse can be offered, but if it be any satisfaction to those 
responsible for them, we will say that they are in what may be con- 
sidered good company, architecturally. Such failings, if not com- 
mon, are certainly not confined to this building. We know of cases 
in which the size of the members began to diminish in inverse ratio 
to their height in the building. The smallest leaf used by one 
eminent member of the profession was withheld from the entrance 
vestibule and reserved as an enrichment for coping on the parapet. 




pnpmp 



=F=T= 




FIG. 36. TKANSOM IN WINDOWS KETWEEN 4TH AND 5TH STORIES. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



195 




FIG. 37. WINDOWS IN I2FTH STORY. 

It is difficult to account for this well-nigh unaccountable tendency. 
One explanation may be found in the fact that the average draughts- 
man views his work at too short a i^nge, viz., the drawing board. 



Let the physical eye follow the lines that are being made on paper, 
by all means, but let the mental vision soar to higher altitudes, and 
there picture the complete work before the foundations have been dug, 
proportioning each detail to what it should appear when placed at 
any given height in the building. 



BRICK EFFLORESCENCE. 



A GERMAN S OPINION. 



THE incrustation or efflorescence of bricks and brickwork 
through weathering formed the subject of an inaugural ad- 
dress by Professor Gunther at the University of Rostock, North 
Germany. Mineral incrustations on walls are mostly white or gray- 
ish, more rarely yellow or green — these latter being due to vana- 
dium, a silvery brittle metal of rare occurrence. In appearance 
these incrustations vary, according to the solubility of the component 
salts, from floury or wooly powders to stalactitic masses; and they 
may result from various causes present either in the raw clay or 
introduced in the water employed in brickmaking, or from pyrites in 
the clay or fuel, or from the ash of the latter material ; and the 
infiltration of soluble substances from the mortar, or combination of 
the alkalis in the latter with the gypsum in the bricks ; or, finally, the 
absorption of nitrates from the soil and from the air of ammonia or 
sodium chlorate (near the sea) may give rise to incrustation. Incrus- 
tation may come either from the bricks or from the mortar. While 
incrustations of calcium carbonate do no harm beyond spoiling the 
appearance of the work, soluble alkali salts repeatedly dissolve and 
recrystallize in the cracks — • ultimately producing disintegration. 
To prevent these incrustations, pyrites, and sulphates can either be 
removed by the slow process of seasoning the clay by prolonged 
exposure to the weather before making up into bricks, or by adding 
barium salts to the clay before burning, so as to produce the insolu- 
ble barium sulphate. Bricks should be very thoroughly burnt, since 
in this state they are less disposed to absorb the moisture necessary 
for the extraction of the soluble salts. — The British Brickhuilder. 




lie. 38. 



196 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Art of Building among the 
Romans. 

Translated from the French of Augustk Choisy by Arthur J. 

Dillon. 



PART III. 
CHAPTER II. 

THK ART OK I'.UII.DING AND THE ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK- 
ING CLASSES. 

I HAVE reviewed the principal epochs of the history of Roman 
construction, and the circumstances that attach it to the history 
of the empire. I now wish to go a step farther, and, without stopping 
over the exterior causes that in turn hastened or retarded the progress 
of the art of building, go back to the influences which the interior 
organization of society has in its methods. What ])art had free 
labor ? What part had slavery ? In what ways, from what parts of the 
people, were procured the thousands of workmen who built the monu- 
ments of Rome? In what way could their efforts be utilized, and 
what were the practical methods that were consequently preferable ? 
All these questions are related to each other. The condition of the 
working classes is shown in the construction of the edifices as plainly 
as the Roman customs are shown in their plans; and the principal 
interest in the study of construction would be lacking if the account of 
the methods were separated from the account of the institutions that 
explain and justify them.' 

One institution, among others, whose name constantly recurs in 
the Roman laws and inscriptions is that of the corporations or col- 
leges of workmen ; strange associations, the details of whose regula- 
tions, unfortunately, the ancients failed to transmit to us, and whose 
history must be sought by the difficult comparison of scattered docu- 
ments. Sometimes a concession of privileges, sometimes a law on 
public taxes, gives us a trace of their immunities or their obligations; 
one inscription gives us a glimpse, in lists of titles as obscure as they 
are numerous, of a complex hierarchy established in each of the cor- 
porations ; another inscription reveals, in fragmentary sentences, a 
series of statutes freely accepted by the corporations, regulating the 
relations of the different members. These are truly very incomplete 
documents, but in spite of the unfortunate vagueness of many of 
them, the general impression obtained from a review of the whole 
mass is of a certain clearness ; and one fact of capital importance 
seems to be shown by this incomplete evidence; it is the existence 
of a working class, widely separated from the rest of Roman society, 
and placed, by an hierarchial organization and by a system of privi- 
leges and duties, in the hands of the emperors. 

Moreover, this organization is of recent date. Before becom- 
ing an instrument of the centralized imperial power, the working- 
men's corporations had a long struggle to obtain recognition of their 
existence and sanction of their franchises; a struggle which com- 
menced with the first days of Rome, and which was prolonged with 
varying fortunes for a period of nearly eight centuries; for it was 
only under Hadrian that the corporations finally took a definite rank 
among the recognized institutions, and commenced to play that im- 
portant part in the internal economy of the empire that was hence- 
forward to be theirs. 

The origin of the workingmen's corporations is confounded 
with that of the Roman state ; perhaps their creation must even be 

' Resides the original texts to which I refer, the following works can be consulted in re- 
lation to the questions which are the subject of this chapter: — 

Heineccius, De collegiis el corpcribus opificum (a dissertation reproduced in the col- 
lection called Opusculorum variorum sylloge). 

Serrigny, Droit public et administratif riiinain. 

Th. Momniscn, I)e collegiis et sodaliciis Ronianorum (Kili:e, 1843). 

Rabanais, Recherches sur les Dendrophores (Bordeaux, 1841). 

Roth, De re municipal! Ronianorum Hbri II. (Stuttgart, iSoi). 

But kindly advice has assisted me more than these learned works, and I beg to acknowl- 
edge my gratitude to M. Egger for direction he gave to nty researches. 



placed among those numerous things borrowed from Etruria in that 
period of peaceful organization to which historians give the name of 
Numa. Afterwards, when the attention of the Romans was again 
turned to war, the institution, temporarily overthrown, rose in a new 
form ; the corporations that were able to assist in military works, in 
the equipment of the armies, in the manufacture and the maneuver- 
ing of the engines of war, became the important ones, and when the 
people were classed by centuries, the power of these corporations 
was so great that by themselves they formed two centuries, voting in 
the comitia with the first class of Roman citizens. This privilege, 
to be sure, was enjoyed by a large number of corporations which we 
could not investigate without going beyond the natural limits of this 
study, but there are several of them in which we are particularly in- 
terested ; among others, those who worked in metal and wood took 
rank in these half-military societies, which, according to the expres- 
sion of Titus Livius, were soldiers by trade, though they did not 
bear arms.'- 

The example of these first corporations, the ever-increasing in- 
fluence that they had in the Roman society greatly increased the 
tendency toward association among the working classes, and little by 
little all the trades of Rome were organized as corporations under 
regulations that made them similar in varying degrees to the corpora- 
tions instituted by Numa and TuUa. Objectionable above ail to the 
last Tarquins, and to the aristocratic government that followed the ex- 
pulsion of those kings, the existence of these popular confederations 
was more than once in question ; •'' but the spirit of association pre- 
vailed over the prohil)itions of the patricians to such an extent that at 
the last years of the republic the whole of the workmen of Rome were 
formed into free societies, strongly constituted, and having, with or 
without the consent of the government, an organization that, to a cer- 
tain degree, put them beyond the control of the central authority. 

It would appear that the material advantages were rather the 
pretext than the real basis of these unions, and about the time of the 
civil commotions that preceded Augustus, the interests of the fac- 
tions into which the Roman world was divided gave the working- 
men's corporations one of the principal elements of their power.- 
They were animated by a seditious spirit, and numerous revolts (in 
which the name of Clodius, it is said, was mixed) finally moved the 
Roman government to a distrust of the principles themselves of these 
institutions. Prohibited under the rule of Cicero, in spite of the sup- 
port they had formerly given him, the corporations were reestablished 
by Clodius, who increased their number, admitted foreigners, and 
even slaves, and increased in them the unquiet spirit which forced 
Julius Caesar to again suppress them.* Only a few exceptions were 
made, through respect of ancient traditions, or on account of regard 
for general needs. The fate of the corporations who took part in 
construction, whether they were comprised in the condemnation, or 
whether their ancient origin and the importance of their services 
placed them in the small number of corporations which, the docu- 
ments say, were spared for the public good, is not known. 

- The original documents on the origin of these corporations are these : — 

ist, Establishment of the corporations under Numa as peaceful organizations. 

Plut., Numa, Cap. XV. 

Plin., Hist. Nat., Lib. XXXIV., Cap. I. 

2d. Transformation of many corporations into semi-military institutions, under TuUa. 

Dinoys. Halic, .Ant. rem., Lib. I\'.. Cap. XVII. 

Tit. I.iv., Lib. I.. Cap. XLIII 

3d. Persistence of distinctions in favor of the corporations who aided the armies. 

Digest., Lib. I., tit. VI., I. 6 (taken from a treatise, " Militarum," written about the 
time of Cummodius). 

.Among the concordant works on these documents, see the dissertation of Heineccius, 
" De orig. et jure coll. et corp. apud Kom," and thai of iM. Mommscn, " De coll. et sodali- 
ciis," p. 27. et seq.) 

3 Heineccius, " De orig. et jure coll.," Cap. I., § q. 

< Some of the documents on which these statements are founded are these : — 
1st. Suppre-ssion of the corporations by Cicero. 

.Asconius, in Corneliana Ciceronis, edit. Orelli, p. 75. 

(Cf. Cic, Pro donio, Cap. XXVIII.; and (.). Cic. De petitione consul.. Cap. I.) 
2d. Rcestablishment by Clodius : — 

Cic, in Pisonem, Cap. IV. 
3d. .Supjircssion by J ulius C.a'sar ; 

Suet.. Jul, Cap. XI.II. 
(I'or the discussion of these documents see the memoir of M. Mommsen.) 



\ 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



197 






i*f^^'j=^i=^^:==^ 





^^mmm 









I. Pantheon. 5-6, Taormine. 
PLATE, XV. THE ART OF BUILDING AMONG THE ROMANS. 



198 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



u r^j u 




I. Bains de Diane a Nimes. 2 and 2 Bis. Point de Narni. 
PLATE XVI. THE ART OF BUILDING AMONG THE ROMANS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



199 



However that may be, the frequency of the edicts published 
against the corporations during the period of a century shows what 
permanence the idea of association had. From Julius Ca;sar to the 
Emperor Claudius, three successive edicts confirm in turn the first 
interdictions.' Finally renouncing the direct contest against a ten- 
dency that increased in proportion to the efforts opposed to it, the 
emperors, little by little, placed themselves at the head of the cor- 
porations, and in order to dominate them, they profited, it seems, 
by the religious character which was found, as well as the idea of 
association, and the partisan spirit was found in them. 

Nero had himself made a priest of all the corporations tolerated 
in Rome,-^ and a great number of the corporations that had been 
overthrown were reconstituted under the open patronage and the 
somewhat perfidious protection of the pontifical power of the 
Cresars. 15ut the direction given to the workingmen's corporations 
by the supreme authority was not sufficient to stifle the fear of them 
for any long period. Trajan tried, but in vain, to revive the ancient 
interdictions ; and during the first years of the second century there 
is the singular spectacle of a Roman emperor compelled to recognize 
in Rome the unions he is endeavoring to suppress in the provinces.-' 

Hadrian was the first to understand the fruitlessness of the 
effort to stop the movement. He abandoned both the idea of sup- 
pressing the corporations and that of transforming them into simply 
religious societies; they seemed to him to afford valuable resources 
for the execution of the great edifices he was planning ; he saw in 
them a powerful instrument which he strove to put to profit in the 
interest of his vast enterprises. Henceforward the workingmen's 
corporations lost their primitive character of free associations and 
became official institutions of the .State, a fundamental change which 
marked, for the greater part of the working classes, the point of 
departure of an entirely new regime, of a condition of affairs whose 
developments fill the long period that elapsed from Hadrian to 
Theodorus.'' 

The new condition imposed on the corporations of builders is 
indicated in a few historical texts, but it is most plainly marked in 
the regulation of Antoninus and his successors, while the definite 
form it took in the last period of the empire is shown in numerous 
texts preserved in the Theodosian Legislation. Aurelius Victor says 
(epit., cap. XIV.) that Hadrian has enrolled the building trades in 
cohorts, organized after the model of those of the armies. " Ad 
specimen legionum militarium, fabros, perpendiculatoris, architectos, 
genusque cunctum exstruendorum mucnium seu decorandum, in co- 
hortis centuriaverat." ^ 

This testimony is made clearer, though the well-defined, original 
form leaves no room for doul>t, by regulations which may be attrib- 
uted to the immediate successor of Hadrian. The jurisconsult 
Callistratus expresses himself thus, in summing up the measures 
taken by Antonine Pius in regard to the corporations: — 

" To certain corporations . . . immunity is granted ; these 
corporations are those to which admission is obtained by virtue 
of a trade, such as the corporation of smiths, and all those which 
have a similar origin, that is to say, which were established to give 

' ist. Under Julius Cssar ; .^".et., Jul., Cap. XMI. 

2d. Under Augustus ; Suet , .-^ug., Cap. XXXIl. 

3d. Under Claudius; Dio. Cass., Lib. LX., Cap. VI. 

(This last document seems also to indicate the cnnnnencenicnt of tolerance on the part of 
the predecessor of Claudius.) 

^Orelli, Inscript. lat., No. 764 (note); I have taken this from the paper of M. Belin de 
Launay in the .'Xcts of the Acad, de Bordeaux, 1867, ler tri. 

3 Prohibitions : Plin., epist., Lib. X., 42 and 43. Recognized corporations : .Aurel. Vict , 
DeCasarib , Cap. XUI. 

< It may be said in passing, that this change in the character of the corporati(jns, whicli 
commenced by being tolerated and ended in being obMgatory, explains a certain lack of agree- 
ment between the juridical documents in the Digest. Taking the oldest of these texts, those of 
Gaius, for example, the workingmen's corporations are almost invariably presented as toler- 
ated associations (see in particular Dig.. Lib. III., tit. IV., 1. i). On the contrary, taking the 
constitutions of the fourth and fifth centuries, they all imply a different char,ictcr to the 
corporations, that of obligatory associations. The means of compulsion which are cited 
farther on belong to this period, and sufificiently mark the nature and importance of the trans- 
formation that was made. 

5" He had enrolled as cohorts, according to the model of the military legions, the 
smiths, terracers, the architects, and all that group of artisans who build or decorate. 



the aid necessary to enterprises of public utility. . . ." " Quibusdam 
collegiis vel corporibus quibus jus cceundi permissum est, immunitas 
tribuitur: Scilicet eis collegis vel corporibus in quibus artifici sui 
causaunus — quisque adsumitur: ut faborum corpus est, et si qua 
eamdem rationem originis habent, id est idcirco instituta sunt, ut 
necessarian! operam publicis utilitatibus exhiberent," etc. (Digest., 
Lib., tit. VI., 1. 5, 12). 6 

I thought I should give this curious document in its entirety, 
for it defines both the kind of servitude imposed on the corporations 
and the reasons for giving the privileges that were granted to them 
in return. The privileges enjoyed by the corporations were above 
all a recompense for the duties that weighed on them. The emper- 
ors had to recompense by indemnities the extretnely onerous obliga- 
tions that bound the members of a corporation to give their services 
in this manner whenever a public necessity demanded their assist- 
ance. 

This was the fundatnental idea on which the workingmen's cor- 
po ations rested, but it will be of interest to go beyond this general- 
ity, and endeavor to fix the nature of the requisitions which their 
members were compelled to meet, the character of their immunities, 
and the principal points of their internal organization. 

The servitude imposed on the corporations did not consist of 
the obligation of giving their work to the State gratuitously, but only 
of the obligation of giving it; it was an infringement of personal 
liberty, nothing more, but none the less a serious infringement when 
judged either by the importance of the compensation given for it, or 
by the severity of the penalties decreed against the members of cor- 
porations who should endeavor to escape the charges put on them 
by flight.' 

It was no less a matter than that of placing one's self absolutely 
at the discretion of the State, of continually residing at the place 
where the corporation did its work, and of accepting as the price for 
these services whatever the State was pleased to grant. It was, as 
can be seen, essentially a dependent condition that has more than 
one point in common with that of the Roinan colonists, or, better 
still, with that of those singular dignitaries of the last days of the 
empire, who, under the name of curials, were given honorary duties 
under ruinous conditions by the despotic emperors. Looked at 
from no matter what point of view, Roman society seems to have 
been based entirely on a system of servitude partially repaid by 
privileges. 

But the members of the corporations were more fortunate in this 
respect than the classes to which we have just compared them, for 
the immunities granted to them in return for their heavy obligations 
were a less illusory compensation. Their privileges consisted in their 
absolute exemption from all public taxes, from all municipal duties, 
and from all extraordinary imposts ; they were not subject to the 
corvde, nor to military service, and were entirely free from the bur- 
densome impositions which, under an infinite variety of names, 
crushed the other classes of Roman society.* 

Apart from these advantages, the workingmen's corporations re- 
ceived from the State a gift of lands whose revenue was included in 
the remuneration for their services. The lands comprised in these 

6 This enunciation, taken from a jurisconsult of the second century, is enlarged upon, 
and made still clearer by Majorien, who shows us all the members of the corporations 
compelled to live in their own cities in order to work for the public benefit in turn {al- 
teriiis vicibus) and at the request of the curiales {pro curialium dis/iosttioitc) : Nov. 
Theod., Lib. IV., tit. I. This is the text of the con.stitution : " De collegiatis vero ilia ser- 
vanda stmt, qu;u pra-ccdentium legutn pr;i-'cipit auctoritas. Quibus illud provisio nos- 
tras serenitatis adjungit, ut collegiatas operas ])atri.T; alternis vicibus pro curialium disposi- 
tione pr<vbentibus, extra territorium civitatis su;e habitare non liceat.'' 

7 Novell. Maj., previously cited, is a sufficient proof of this (Nov. Ma]., tit. I); further- 
more, it may be confirmed by these works : — 



Novell. Theod., Lib. L, tit. XXVI. 
Cod. Theod., Lib. XIV., tit. II., 1. . 



Lib. XIV., tit. VII., 1. 



Lib. VI., til. XXX. 



1. 



3 1st. lOxeinption from military service. Novell. Theod., Lib. L, tit. XXVI. 

2d. Exemption from municipal duties. This is at least probably established by Cod. 
Theod., Lib. XIL, tit. I , where the two kinds of duties seem to be considered equivalent. 
3d. Kxemption from taxes or extraordinary imposts. Cod. Theod., Lib. XIV., tit. II., 

1.2. 

4th. I'.xcmptiou of minors. Digest., Lib. XXVIL, tit. I., 1. 17, § 2. 



200 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



donations, the fundi liolaks. divided between tlie members of the 
corporations, became their individual property, transferable, like other 
possessions, by inheritance, and it was on account of the importance 
of the donation that the charges upon them were divided among the 
different members of the corporation. Each contributed to the ser- 
vice of the .State in proportion to the part he held of these lands so 
heavily encumbered, and the obligations were transferred with the 
property itself.^ 

Several important consequences were l)rought al)out by this, for 
when the endowment passed from a meml^er of a college to his chil- 
dren, the ol)ligation of fulfilling the public duties would also be 
hereditary, and by this reasoning, which, in spite of its unfortunate 
results, was correct, it followed that the Romans found themselves 
compelled to attach the workingman to his corporation, and to 
perpetuate a servitude which took from the son of a Roman working- 
man the right to choose his mode of life, and to select his occupa- 
tion according to his taste or his needs. 

The natural solution would have been to give a choice between 
assuming the duties of the corporation or abandoning the endow 
ment; and this did not escape the attention of the logical and pene- 
trating minds of the Roman law makers. The terms of the law in 
this respect are precise, and contain, one might say, the entire theory 
of the servitude imposed on the workingmen's corporations. "Those 
who hold under any title whatever, property subject to the charges of 
corporations, whether they have ol)tained possession by purchase, 
gift, or in any other manner, must either take the charges on them- 
selves in proportion to the value of the property or else must give up 
possession " (Cod. Theod., Lib. XIV'., tit. IV., 1. 8), and the law adds, 
this also covers " all the corporations that share in the privileges of 
the city of Rome."-' 

But it is to be feared that this law, which seems a safeguard of 
individual liberty, was only one of those speculative matters from 
which Roman legislation is not free ; there is no doubt that in more 
than one case the strict deductions were put aside at the exigency of 
certain less favored corporations that had become, through long 
custom, necessary organs of the imperial administration. The em- 
perors arrogated tlie right of placing citizens in the corporations on 
their own authority, and of transferring members of one corporation 
to another ; and, above all, as though they feared a lack of membersi 
forced membership in those corporations whose duties were the most 
burdensome was made a legal penalty.^ 

Thus, by means of a wisely tyrannical discipline the Roman 
government provided for the general necessities of public works and 
for the provisioning of the large cities. The workman or merchant 
of the Roman empire was not an independent citizen who worked 
according to his own will to supply his own daily needs ; he was a 
functionary of the centralized government, receiving, in the form of 
revenue from an endowment, a regular salary, and bound to de- 
liver, in exchange for this revenue, this salary, the result of his 
labor either to the State or to the municipality. The State, through 

'C.id. Theod., Lib. XIV., tit. HI , 1. 7, 13, ig ; tit. IV., 1. .S. 

The working of this system of donations and duties can be observed by reading the 
applications the Romans made of it to two of their principal corporations, the uaz>ktilarf 
and the /•istores ; each of tliesc applications, each of these monographs, as they may be 
called, is the subject of a special title in the Theodosian ("ode. 

Taking the expressions of the Code exactly, two meanings may be given to the words 
fundi dotaUs. The donation to the corporations could be a complete abandonment of cer- 
tain property to their members, or it could be simply the exemption from charges of land 
held by them. These two hypotheses, neither of which, moreover, excludes the other, carry 
the stme consequences as far as the legal position of the coUegiati and the character of their 
remuneration is concerned : whether the members of the corporations Iiad the revenue of 
the donated lands as an indemnity, or whether the fiinJi dotn/es was simply the partial or 
complete exemption from all imposts entailed by the possession of such lands, the principal 
remains the same and the conclusions we are brought to remain true. 

^ " Hi vero qui pr:edia obnoxia corpori, vel ex empto, vel ex donato, vel ex quo libet titulo 
tenent, pro rata publicum munus agnoscant,aut possessiontbus cedunt. Circa reliqua etiam 
corpora, quic ad privilegia Urbis Roms pertinere noscuntur, eadem pr.xcepti nostri forma 
servetur." 

3 For the participation of citizens in the corporations, and the right of transferring the 
members of one corporation 10 another, sec Symmach., Lib. X., ep. 58. 

For the grade of the condemnation that placed free citizens in certain corporations whose 
duties were onerous, see Cod. Thend , I. it> I\ ,tit, XL..I.5; Lib. XIV, 10, tit. Ill, 1. 23, 
*tc, 



its endowed employees, produced directly the provisions necessary 
for the support of the people {pis/ores, siiari, etc.), undertook all 
transportation (itaTUu/arii, veclnrarii, etc.), and built its monuments 
[s/nictoris, ttguarii, fabri, etc.); a strange system which wiped out 
private enterprise and competition, and which substituted for the 
spontaneous workings of industry, the machinery of an immense ad- 
ministrative hierarchy which commenced at the emperors and ended 
at the lowest workman of the large cities. 

It can be seen that it would be a serious error to regard the 
services of the corporations as gratuitous; their endowments and 
their privileges were a first recompense, but they had also in many 
cases a further one which was regulated entirely by the importance 
of the services rendered. I found the proof of this in the curious 
constitutions that regulated the corporation that was bound to sup- 
ply Rome with the lime necessary for its buildings, the "<:«/«> 
coctores." Their pay, following a widespread custom of the empire, 
was not in money but in kind, an amphora of wine for three wagons 
of lime ; the carters who transported the lime (also functionaries of 
the Roman administration) received an amphora of wine for every 
2,900 lbs. of lime, not including the income from their endowed 
lands, and the produce of three hundred oxen given to their corpora- 
tion (Cod. Theod., Lib. XIV., tit. VI., 1. i). 

It seems, then, that the Roman society recognized the state of 
sul)jection which it imposed on the corporations by immunities or 
permanent gifts, and recompensed each service rendered l>y a special 
salary. These benefits, however, reasonable and seemingly equi- 
table, were far from being sufficient to repay the services at their true 
value ; they were, as the Code says, but consolations {snlafium) * 
which served to lighten the heavy obligations. The State reserved 
the right of fixing the payments of the forced contractors of its 
works, and the amounts it paid were but a small recompense, and 
dissimulated but poorly the semi-slavery. The greater part of the 
expenses of the city were in reality borne by the corporations; and, 
to use the language that was used by an illustrious Roman citizen in 
a petition to the Emperor, " The ancient privileges were bought at a 
great price ; their so-called immimities are paid for by perpetual 
slavery." ^ 

( Continued.) 



P'REE/.INC. TEST FOR liRICKS. 

ONI'", of the most important features in structural materials of 
all kinds is their permanence under the influence of atmos- 
pheric influences. Of all these perhaps the one that exercises the 
greatest mechanical effect is frost, which tends to disintegrate bricks 
and stone by the expansion in the act of freezing of the water 
enclosed in the pores, with a consequent separation of particles or 
flakes when thawing ensues. Probably very few of your readers have 
ever thought of testing the permanency of their goods under such 
conditions ; the winter time provides a seasonable opportunity, and 
there is no reason why every manufacturer should not, if we have 
frost enough, be able to ascertain to what extent his goods will stand 
frost. This can be determined by a very simple test, namely, l>y 
direct freezing. Let typical samples of the goods be chosen during 
frosty weather, and saturated with water, and then alternately frozen 
and thawed a dozen times or more. Now, if the samples to be 
tested are weighed dry, and the loss of weight l)y e.xfoliation deter- 
mined also on the dry samples, the thing is accomplished. It would be 
possible to create a standard of permanency by counting a given 
percentage of loss as unity (this would have to l)e chosen arbitrarily) 
and then referring other percentages of loss to it. Thus might be 
created a scale of permanency, and when about to enter into a con- 
tract, this might be referred to just in the same way as the resistance 
to crushing strain is now quoted. — British Brickbuilder. 

4 Cod. Theod., Lib. XIV, tit. Ill, 1. 19. 

5 Symmach., Lib. X., ep. 27: The " report" from which I took this citation forms one 
of the most interesting and most complete pictures the ancients have left us of the posi- 
tion and condition of the corporations of th? workingmen of the Roman empire. 



k 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



20f 



Fire-proofing Department. 



doors were put in or any plastering was done, and though very 
elastic we could not pull any of them down by hand, and they are 




DETAILS OF FIRE-PROOF CONSTRUCTION WITH 
BURNED CLAY. 

HY PETER B. WIGHT. 
PARTITIONS AND WALL FUKRING. 

HOLLOW-TILE building blocks were invented and patented in 
this country by the late George H. Johnson, about the 
year 1872, the purpose of the invention being to construct round or 
square grain bins in elevators ; though numerous forms of rectan- 
gular hollow blocks had been made in France before that time. 
The feature of Mr. Johnson's invention was to cramp the blocks to- 
gether with burned clay cramps, the blocks being set on end. Thus 
when the courses were set with broken joints the cramps were con- 
cealed. An added strength was thus given to grain bins which are 
subject to great lateral thrusts. But the 
invention was of doubtful utility and 
added to the expense of partition work 
when used in buildings. It was used for 
a considerable time by the company which 
continued Mr. Johnson's work in Chicago, 
but has since been abandoned. One of 
these partitions is shown in Fig. i. 

The first hollow block used for parti- 
tions in New York and the Eastern States 
in the early 70's was 4 by 6 by 12 ins. in 
size, with two longitudinal holes. The 
FIG. I. thickness of the clay was ^4 in. for hard 

tile and % in. for porous tile. One of the 
latter is shown in Fig. 2. These were used for both 4 in. and 6 in. 
partitions, and are still the standard article of manufacture by some 
makers. But they make the partitions unnecessarily heavy, and are 
more expensive to set than larger and lighter blocks. The tiles for 
partitions made by Johnson were 10 by lo ins. without any cross 
webs, and ^ in. thick. In 18S1 partition tiles were used at Chicago 
which were 12 by 12 ins., with one and two cross webs. They were 
only % in. thick and made of hard fire-clay. An illustration of these 
is given (Fig. 3). They were generally laid on the side, though, being 
square, they could be set on end, like the Johnson tile, which was 
frequently done, especially where the partition was very high or sub- 
jected to great weight, as in the surrounding of an elevator shaft. 
At angles they were always set on 
end. Greater care and a little more 
expense is required in setting par- 
tition tiles on the ends. This method 
is also the best when the partition is 
not to be plastered, as when they are 
set on the side it is impossible to fill 
all the vertical joints. This remark 
does not apply, however, to the 4 by 
6 blocks, which are laid like large 
bricks, and have more surface at the 

ends to hold the mortar joint. They, however, show the holes at the 
angles of partitions which have to be filled with mortar. Hollow 
partition tiles may now be had for partitions 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 ins. 
thick, and 12 in. partitions may be had by setting 6 by 12 in. tiles on 
the fiat side. This is a handy way to build light fireproof vaults in 
buildings where there are sufficient foundations. 

The thickness of partitions in practise is regulated by the 
heights of stories. A3 in. partition can be safely built to 12 ft., 
a 4 in. to 16 ft., and a 6 in. to 20 ft. in height. I advise that these 
be the outside limits, as Ihere is a possibility of careless workman- 
ship that has escaped detection. I was once required by an archi- 
tect to build the 3 in. partitions in a story 16 ft. high, he taking the 
responsibility. They were tested by severe shaking before the 




FIG. 




61NOM Partition. 



■'VlNCM pAHTiTrON 

FIG. 3. 



3/4 INCH Partitiom 



there to-day. The length of any one straight section of a partition 
is a more important element than its height, and judgment must be 
used in every case. I have built a 3 in. partition around two sides 
of an elevator shaft, 120 ft. high on girders in the cellar, the tiles 
being set on end; the weight at the bottom course was about 1,500 
lbs. per lineal foot. This was only 94 lbs. per square inch of tile area. 

It is customary in .St. Paul and Minneapolis to build the parti- 
tions in office buildings, having stories 10^ ft. in the clear, with 
2 in. porous tiles. The tiles are 8 by 1 2 ins. and abundantly strong 
when set in good mortar tempered with cement. When they want 
to cut out additional doors between rooms the carpenter does it with 
a saw. Two-inch partitions of hard hollow tiles have been recently 
built in Chicago. The same tiles are also used for wall furrings, and 
building out architectural shapes around columns, and boxing in pipes. 

When l)ook tiles were first used for roofs it was found that the 
same die would make a square partition tile which was very useful 
under certain circumstances. It was possible to give greater strength 
to long partitions without lateral supports by setting them on the 
side. The tiles, breaking joints, could be built up to a great length 
even without mortar. This led to making 4 in. book tiles for parti- 
tions. These have been used considerably in the Central States, but 
not at the East. An illustration is here given (Fig. 4). Another use 
was made of tiles of this section ; wood blocks t in. thick were 
mill-worked to fit exactly between the joints of these tiles, and cut off 
to the length of the tiles. They were used only between tiles set in 
courses on end, wherever nailing was required. Thus, wherever 
there was to be wooden wainscoting, the first and fourth courses 
were set on end with wood blocks between which were as immovable 
as the tiles. These blocks should never be used in the joints when 
the tiles are set horizontally. 

. Two questions of importance are to be considered in setting 
partitions : the first is securing them to the walls and ceilings, and the 
second is the treatment of openings. The simplest and best way to 
secure partitions to brick walls is to drive large cut nails (not wire 
nails) into the joints of the brickwork on top of each course of tiles 
before setting the next 
course. The heads of 
the nails will then come 
between the courses. 
Cut nails are better in 
mortar or in porous 
tiles because they are 
of wedge shape. 
Nothing more than a 
few wooden wedges at 
the top is of any use. 
It is best to set parti- 
tions in the lower stories 
first and work upward. 
The weight of the par- 
titions on each floor fk;. 4. 




Sinoki^cwfliiiOTU 



Jh/^arlliioTU 



202 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FIG. 5. 



will add to the deflection of the beams of that floor, and thus bring 
pressure on the partitions of the floor beneath ; while, if the partitions 

on the upper floor are 
set first, the setting of 
the partitions of the 
floor beneath it will pull 
them away from the 
ceiling. In buildings 
with wooden joists no 
dependence can be had 
on securing tile parti- 
tions at the top. They 
will always settle down 
and show a crack at the 
ceiling line unless they 
are set on steel beams. 
It is best for fire-proof- 
ing purposes in every 
case to set partitions 
^ "j J K ^^H after the ceilings are 

jT I ( ^^^li ^^1 brown coated. 

The greatest faults 
to be found in hollow- 
tile partitions are in the 
methods used for build- 
ing doors and windows 
in them. First of all, 
the top of a door should 
always be covered with 
a flat end-pressure arch 
made of the partition 
material. As an example of how not to do this, see the half-tone 
from a photograph of a partition door in the Ilorne Office Building 
at Pittsburgh, taken after the fire in that building (Fig. 5). Here the 
tiles over the door have fallen down, while a natural arch has been 
formed by those that held their places. Where there are long rows 
of windows it is impossible to put in an arch. In such cases no e.x- 
pedient can be relied upon except to build a channel bar frame in each 
opening. It has been shown in repeated fires that all rough wooden 
frames are useless. If there must be finished wooden jambs, they 
should be screwed to steel jambs, but it would be better to hang all 
doors to steel jambs made of channels. The tiles can be built into 
them and their flanges will become grounds for the plasterer. An 
ornamental German steel rolled molding can be used to cover the 
joint. Where there are only occasional doors in the partitions and 
economy is desired, the rough wooden jambs can be secured in no 
l)etter way than the simple one of driving two cut nails into their backs 
t)etween the joints in the courses of tiles, and depending on the weight 
of the tiles on the projecting nail 
heads to hold the rough frames in 
place. These are better than angle 
cleats or anything else of the kind. 
No door studs should run to the 
ceiling. The tile partitions will 
always stand the racket if the door 
jambs are secured firmly to them. 
FL.xperience has shown that no de- 
pendence can be placed in nails for 
securing anything to porous tiles, 
but wood screws are reliable. 

Furring brick walls is a simple 
process that requires little com- 
ment. The best method is that 
shown in the illustration (Fig. 6). 
This shows porous terra-cotta 
plates 2 ins. thick and 12 ins. 
square. 

( Continued.) 



Mortar and Concrete. 




FIG. 6. 



LIME, HYDRAULIC CEMENT, MORTAR, AND CON- 
CRETE. VI. 

BY CLIFFOKD KICHAKDSOX. 

THE ROSENDALE CEMENT INDUSTRY. 

A GREAT anticlinal fold, extending along the valley of Round- 
out Creek from the Hud.son River to the south and west for 
many miles, brings to the surface a series of cemenc rocks which is 
the source of the raw material for the great Rosendale cement in- 
dustry ; an industry which, as has been shown, supplies the Atlantic 
Coast with over three million barrels of cement a year, and which in- 
cludes the mills of one company, alone able to turn out seven thou- 
sand barrels of cement a day. 

The rock of suitable nature for cement making consists of two 
beds, one lighter in color than the other, which are separated by from 
(t to 12 ft. of rock, not sufficiently argillaceous for making cement. 
The average thickness of the light rock is 1 1 ft., and the dark rock 
2 1 ft. They are now quarried at a considerable depth below the 
surface, and obtained in a dense and unaltered condition. A col- 
lection of the rock from cjuarries, working at three different depths, 
made especially for the purpose in May, 1897, had the following 
composition : — 

UI'PKK OK LIGHT STRATUM. 

T. ■. Nearest Medium t^ 

'•'="''">'• .Surface. Depth. "«P«>- 

Coarser than 200 sieve 2.9 o. .6 

Coarser than 100 sieve 2.3 .6 

Coarser than 50 sieve 1.7 .4 

Loss on ignitifin 3S 00 36.QO 37-72 

Insoluble in HCl 17.38 22.68 20.68 

Toial Alumina and Iron (_)xides . . 5.50 762 7.20 

Total C'arbonates ....,,. So.>o 72.70 75'8o 

Carbonic Acid, Water, etc 38.00 36.90 37-72 

Lime CaO, soluble 2''.66 23.60 23-92 

Lime CaO, insoluble trace trace trace 

Magnesia, soluble 15.00 '3-7o 15-06 

Magnesia, insoluble .79 .88 .69 

Total 15.79 U-sS 15.75 

Alumina, soluble 1.04 1.88 .56 

Alumina, insoluble 2 94 3.80 3.52 

Total 398 5.68 4.0S 

Iron Oxide, soluble 1.52 1.20 1.96 

Iron Oxide, insoluble 40 .74 1.16 

Total 1.92 1.94 3.12 

Silica 12.72 16,66 I5"i4 

Sulphuric Acid 6S .13 .09 

LOWKR OK UAKK STKATCM. 

T-» -. Nearest Medium ,. 

Density. g^^,^^^ ,)^p„, Deepest. 

Coarser than 200 sieve o. o. 1.2 

Coarser than 100 sieve .5 

Coarser than 50 sieve .3 

I..0SS on ignition 3.1-84 36.28 34*6o 

Insoluble in HCI ^6.62 23.90 25.06 

Total Alumina and iron Oxide . . S.14 11.00 7.78 

Total Carbonates 70.20 66.50 73 30 

Carbonic Acid, Water, eic 33-84 36.28 34»6o 

Lime CaO, soluble -'2.00 22.17 22.01 

Lime CaO, insoluble trace trace trace 

Magnesia, soluble »3 90 12.07 ".115 

Magnesia, insoluble 83 .79 2.98 

Total M-73 12.86 16.13 

Alumina, soluble 1.12 3.92 2. 58 

Alumina, insoluble 3.68 4.38 2,26 

Total 4.80 8.30 4.84 

Iron Oxide, soluble 3.34 2.70 1.72 

Iron Oxide, insoluble .92 .86 1.22 

Total 4.26 3.56 2.94 

Silica ■ . . 18.40 16.22 18,48 

Sulphuric Acid .17 .25 trace 

The hydraulic limestones of the Rosendale cement formation 
are seen to be somewhat variable in different localities and at differ- 
ent depths of the quarries from the surface. The upper or lighter 
stratum or bed is richer in carbonates than the lower or darker one, 
and, of course, poorer in silicates and oxides of iron and alumina. 
The nearer to the surface the quarrying is done the greater the 
amount of carbonates in the lighter stone, and the smaller the amount 
of silicates. This surface stone seems to be the most inferior in use. 
It is, however, mixed with the rock from the deeper quarries, having 
the most silicates, so that a proper average composition is obtained. 
All the cement rock contains much magnesia, from 15.06 to 12.07 
per cent., but, fortunately, the silica and alumina are not, as a whole, 
deficient in amount, so that none of the strata are rejected. They 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



203 



require careful combination and proper burning, however, and their 
composition being so variable should be frequently determined by 
analysis, as a control. The best cement produced from this rock 
may be regarded as the highest standard of what a natural cement 
should be. 

BURNING OF NATURAL CEMENT. 

Natural cement is burned in much the same way as lime. The 
kiln commonly used is the ordinary draw kiln, a structure of masonry 
lined with fire-brick, or an outer iron casing, or shell, enclosing a light 
brickwork the space between which and the fire-brick lining is filled 
in with sand or loam. These kilns are from 20 to 30 ft. high and 
from 8 to 1 2 ft. in diameter. They are arranged either singly, in 
pairs, or in banks, and have somewhat varied vertical sections. 
There is generally an increase in diameter from the top to a certain 
distance, and then a more or less gradual contraction to the throat, 
an opening at the bottom, or eye, through which the draught of the 
kiln is maintained and the burnt stone drawn. 

The peculiar forms seen in practise are characteristic of the 
localities where they are used. 

In some works Hame kilns have been employed in which the 
combustion is carried on in furnaces outside of the main body, and 
the stone burned by the heat of the products of combustion. These 
kilns have no great application in the United States, as they require 
more fuel and more constant attention. Theoretically they are a 
much better form, as the finished cement is not mixed with the fuel 
ash, and the burning is more regular. The cement produced by 
them is found, however, not to be so much more satisfactory as to 
repay the extra cost. 

Ordinary kilns hold enough stone to make from 300 to 600 
barrels of cement of 300 lbs. each. They are charged with alternate 
layers of stone of suitable size, and coal. The size of the rock de- 
pends upon the ease with which it can be calcined, and the degree 
required for producing a good cement. It is at times uniform, or a 
certain proportion of finer material may also be added to prevent the 
too free burning of the kiln. 

The proportions of fuel and stone vary very much. From one 
quarter to one eighth of the weight of the stone in coal is used. 

The regulation of the temperature and time of burning is ac- 
complished by varying the amount of coal, the size of the pieces of 
rock, the draught through the kiln, and the length of time between 
each drawing. The amount of coal and the draught are, of course, 
the principal factors in the burning. For hard burning more coal is 
used, for quick burning less, and more draught. 

In burning the Rosendale cements there has been no change 
in the form of kiln since the early days of the industry. The old- 
fashioned draw or pot kiln is still in use, the eyes of two kilns open- 
ing into the same drawing pit, and the kilns being arranged in banks 
of six or more. The fuel is fine anthracite which is charged alter- 
nately with the rock, about 4 ins. of the former and 18 to 20 of the 
stone, which corresponds to about four and five tenths to five times 
more stone than coal in volume. Gilmore states that at the Ulster 
County cement works 3,500 lbs. of coal burns 30,000 lbs. of cement, 
which would be equivalent to over 40,000 lbs. of rock, and a proportion 
of over twelve times as much stone by weight as rock. 

The kilns are drawn twice daily in the Rosendale district, begin- 
ning at 5 A. M., continuing until the rock gets hot, and again in the 
afternoon. At night the kilns are heaped up, and are burned down 
by morning. From i cu. yd. of rock nine barrels of cement are 
ground. 

In the Potomac Valley and in the West bituminous coal is 
used in the same way. The custom there is to draw but twice a day, 
with the limestones free from magnesia, while at Fort Scott, Kan., 
small drawings are made every four hours. For each stone and each 
kind of fuel and form of the kiln the best proportions must be learned 
by experience, and it is not always possible to learn them from the 
manufacturers. 

If the kilns are not properly charged and watched they may burn 



too quickly and freely, or, not having sufficient draught, the stone 
will be burned too little or unevenly, and the quality of the cement be 
inferior. Some rock, under careless regard of conditions, will be 
over and some underburned. 

Finally, there is such a difference in the way various hydraulic 
limestones ought to be calcined that they should each properly be 
burned in separate kilns, where strata of different composition in the 
same quarry are in use, and the product then mixed in the most 
desirable proportions. Economy and carelessness, however, seldom 
permit of this refinement in practise. 

TEMPERATURE OF DURNING. 

What the suitable temperature and length of time of burning 
any particular stone may be depends on its composition as well as on 
its physical properties, density, and state of aggregation. 

With a good stone, with medium percentages of clay, of fine 
grain and good density, a gentle and rather prolonged burning is 
best. The carbonic acid should be nearly, but certainly not entirely, 
removed from its combination as carbonates, yet no signs of sintering 
or clinker should appear. 

When the insoluble part is more silicious than clayey, and espe- 
cially when it is rather coarse, a very gentle and prolonged heat is the 
best to enable the lime to slowly combine with the silica. 

When the insoluble matter is clay, and this is present at all in 
excess, a sharp, quick heat is found most desirable. The higher the 
amount of insoluble matter or silicates in a hydraulic limestone the 
more carefully it must be burned and the lower the heat must be. 
Rocks of this class, when overburned, are liable to crack and blow on 
setting. 

When magnesia is present in large amount the rock can be 
burned in two ways, either below a red heat sufficiently to expel the 
carbonic acid from the magnesian carbonate, and to a smaller degree 
from the calcium carbonate, which gives a cement of considerable 
hydraulic activity ; or it may be very strongly burned until the hy- 
draulic activity of the magnesia is destroyed. The latter method is 
seldom or never followed in practise, as it is difficult to regulate and 
not universally applicable. 

The smaller the amount of clay and silica in magnesian rocks 
the more moderate must the burning be, until finally a dolomite with 
no clay is reached, which, with light burning, will yield a mixture of 
magnesian oxide and carbonate of lime which has very considerable 
hydraulic activity. 

Magnesian cements deficient in clay, which approach hydraulic 
limes, if not burned carefully, are, however, very apt to expand a long 
time after use. 

In the Rosendale limestones of Ulster County, New York, a suit- 
able amount of clay is found, and this, together with the density of 
the rock, gives the cements made from them their desirable proper- 
ties, as distinguished from the Western New York cements, which 
are, most of them, scarcely more than hydraulic limes. 

CHEMISTRY OF liURNING. 

In the process of burning cement stone the rock, at a low 
temperature, is dried out. At about 750 degs. Fahr. it begins to 
lose carbonic acid, although a continued bright-red heat is necessary 
for the complete conversion of the carbonates to caustic lime and 
magnesia. A porous stone burns much more easily than a very 
dense one. The best hydraulic limestone requires, therefore, longer 
burning than the inferior material. The rate of burning also 
depends on the size of the fragments and upon the rapid removal of 
the carbonic acid from the kiln, as in ordinary lime burning. The 
amount of clay or silica in the stone has also an influence; the more 
of these substances present, the more difficult the burning. 

When the carbonic acid has been driven off in part the free 
lime, at the high temperature, attacks the clay and silica, combining 
with them to form new compounds having hydraulic energy and 
rendering them soluble in acid, although previously insoluble. The 
heat, however, in the process of natural cement making is not great 



204 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



enough to bring about the combination of the entire amount of lime 
present with the silica and clay, as in the case of Portland cement. 
A certain amount remains uncombined, both free and as carbonates, 
and the silicates and aluminates are not as basic, lime and magnesia 
not being present in these compounds to their full capacity, as they 
are in the artificial cements, where as much lime is combined with 
the silica and alumina as is possible, to form very basic compounds. 

Some free lime, and generally carbonates, are therefore present 
in natural cement, and are characteristic of it. 

If too great a heat is used in burning, approaching that em- 
ployed in the Portland cement manufacture, compounds are in most 
instances formed which have no hydraulic value unless the propor- 
tions of the various constituents in the stone are approximately those 
required for that class of highly burned artificial cements known as 
Portlands, when such a substance may be formed. In the presence 
of too much clay overburned natural cements contain very unstable 
compounds which, while they may at first set on addition of water, 
check later and fly to pieces. 

When there is an excess of certain elements in limestone, such 
as alkalies or sulphates, these substances may enter into the reactions 
of the burning process and complicate it, as they have a tendency to 
form with ease compounds of ready fusibility. Rocks of such com- 
position are unsuitable for use. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF RKSULT.S OF BURNMNG. 

The peculiarities which have been mentioned may be illustrated 
by some particular cases. 

No. I. A Lime Cement. This cement when freshly made had 
the following composition : — 

Loss on ignition, carbonic acid, and water, 10.27 

Silica and silicates, not decomposed by burning. 9.80 

Silica combined with lime in burning, 20.42 

Alumina and iron oxide, •3.76 

Lime, 39-54 

Magnesia, 3.80 

This cement, burned from a stone comparatively free from 
magnesia, as ready for use, loses only about 10 per cent, of its weight 
on ignition, consisting of water, with which the freshly burned stone 
was sprinkled to lengthen the time of setting, and of carbonic acid, 
which shows that the burning was thorough. The silicates have not, 
at the temperature employed, all been decomposed and become com- 
bined with lime, but very much the largest part has done so. There 
is an ample amount of alumina, all of which has been converted into 
compounds of hydraulic value in the kiln. This cement is an ex- 
cellent example of this type of natural lime cements. 

Tests for tensile strength gave the following results : — 

Neat at i day 150 
7 days 440 

2« „ 452 

2 parts quartz 7 „ 244 

28 „ 276 

It acquires strength rapidly in the test pieces in seven days, and 
would be found to increase slowly for one or two years thereafter. 
In actual use, with larger quantities of water in the mortar, it would 
of course attain its strength more slowly. 

No. 2. A Blowing Magnesian Cement. This cement, when 
made into briquettes and immersed in water, checked and blew to 
pieces in a few days. The difficulty is revealed by the following 
results of an analysis : — 

Loss on ignition, carbonic acid, 7.44 

Silica and silicates, undecomposed, 17-09 

Silica combined, 10. SS 

Alumina and iron o.xide, 13.26 

Lime, 38.69 

Magnesia, 9.64 

Sulphuric oxide, .95 



The burning, it appears, has been so conducted that, while 
carbonic acid had been largely driven off, the temperature was too 
low to permit of combination of the free lime with the silica, 
although unstable alumina compounds had been formed. The 
cement, therefore, blows. On reburning it, at a higher temperature, 
for a short time a normal magnesian cement was obtained. It con- 
tained then but 3.70 per cent, of carbonic acid, and but 4.70 per cent, 
of undecomposed silicates. This cement gained strength slowly but 
regularly, and, when properly burned, has been largely used in con- 
crete with great success. 

Tensile strength tests resulted as follows : — 

Neat at i day 82 

7 days 102 

28 „ 252 

3 months 340 

6 „ 3SS 

2 parts quartz 7 days 59 

28 ,, 120 

3 months 238 

6 „ 288 

No. 3. A Magnesian Cement Deficient in Clay. This cement 
gave very low results on testing for tensile strength for the first few 
days after mixing, but soon gained rapidly, expanding, however, very 
considerably at a greater age. Its composition was as follows: — 

Loss on ignition, 6.00 

Silica and silicates undecomposed, 4.48 

Silica combined, 13.06 

Alumina and iron oxide, 5.01 

Lime, 41-79 

Magnesia, 29.60 

The cement is plainly deficient in silica and alumina and con- 
tains a very large amount of magnesia. It has been burned, 
apparently, quite hard, and is practically merely a dolomite cement 
which is weak at first, and afterwards, although attaining very con- 
siderable strength, expands. To obtain the best results with this 
cement it was, of course, necessary to burn it quite hard. The 
results of tests for tensile strength were as follows : — 
Neat at i day 36 

7 days 230 

28 „ 400 

6 months Expands 
2 parts (juartz 7 days 130 

28 „ 300 

6 months Expands 

This cement is used successfully for much work where the 
expansion in sand mortar does no damage, but it is hardly satis- 
factory to use such material. 



HARDENING AND DETERIORATION OF LIME 
.MORTAR. 

1!Y H. K. LANDIS, E. M. 

IT frequently happens that specifications are very rigorous in their 
requirements for the character of sand employed in mortars 
containing the best grade of lime, and very exacting in the propor- 
tion of sand to be used. This is probably due to the antiquated 
idea, held by some, that the sand actually combines with the lime and 
forms large proportions of silicate of lime. It is a fact that silicate 
of lime is formed in lime mortars, but not in quantities sufficient to 
make it the predominant factor in hardening of mortar. Petzholdt 
found two thirds of i per cent, of the quartz sand added to lime 
had combined with it in five weeks, while but one tenth that amount 
was found combined at the end of one week. In a wall one century 
old 2.1 per cent, of combined silica was found, while this was in- 
creased to 6.2 per cent, in a mortar three hundred years old, although 
the original lime contained buto.ii per cent, combined silica. The 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



205 



hardening effect of this silicate of lime is, however, insignificant when 
compared with the total hardening of lime mortar, for after several 
years there will be but half a per cent, of silicate of lime in the mortar. 

This silicate is not very stable because carbonic acid, a com- 
paratively weak agent, displaces it. Moisture favors the formation 
of silicate of lime, so that its formation begins from the time the 
mortar is mixed, and is comparatively rapid until the lime mortar has 
dried ; then carbonic acid gas begins to act, and as numerous obser- 
vations and analyses have shown, really displaces the silicate with 
carbonate, for scarcely a trace of silicate is found among the carbon- 
ate ; it, however, exists in the interior where the gas has not yet pen- 
etrated. 

The mixture of sand with lime is thus not the necessary condi- 
tion of hardening, for hard mortars can be obtained by mixing finely 
ground limestone or chalk with the lime. Its functions lie more 
particularly in making the mortar more porous, thus permitting easy 
access of carbonic acid gas in counteracting the effects of shrinkage, 
and in reducing the cost of mortar. 

Sand should be free from earth, dust, clay, or iron rust in order to 
permit the close adhesion of lime to it; this action is mechanical. 
It should be angular, as the mortar is thus not so liable to fracture 
along a smooth plane, which is thus one of greater weakness; angu- 
lar masses knit together and bind each other, and are also more elas- 
tic; the sharp edges of the silica sand do not form silicates to any 
noteworthy extent. The particles should be uniform in size and not 
too coarse, in order to avoid the occurrence of flat surfaces in the 
section of mortar which would be large enough to weaken the mor- 
tar itself, because the cohesion of lime for itself is greater than its 
adhesion to any large surface. Thus far a specification can reason- 
ably go. 

Not all mortars are equal setting; some become solid in a few 
days, while others will not be completely hardened in a century. 
When fresh mortar is exposed to the air it first loses part of its 
water, then begins to take up carbonic acid gas, which is given out 
by animals, and by vegetable combustion, and has its hydrate of lime 
changed to carbonate of lime. This absorption takes place gradu- 
ally, from the surface inward, and usually does not begin until the 
mortar has set ; it is found that the proportion of water in fresh mor- 
tar — about 50 per cent. — is strong enough to prevent the formation 
of carbonate of lime, and to prevent the absorption of gas. If we 
place fresh mortar in a glass tube and fill it with carbonic acid gas, 
the mortar will be unchanged after many days, and the (juantity of 
gas absorbed will be insignificant, while the same mortar exposed an 
equal time in air will have absorbed considerable gas. 

Suspend in a flask filled with carbonic acid gas samples of fresh 
mortar. At the end of a week it will be as moist as when put in, 
and will have absorbed less than i per cent, of its weight of gas. If, 
now, a dryer, such as strong sulphuric acid, is placed in the bottom 
of the flask, the same samples of mortar will absorb the carbonic 
acid gas in the flask at the rate of about 14 per cent, per day. A 
number of other experiments may be performed to show the same 
fact. If, however, we dry the mortar completely we obtain a very 
compact but very friable mass. Duquesnay says that in this state 
the mortar does not iiarden and absorbs no carbonic acid gas. A 
certain amount of moisture is thus necessary in the mortar. 

The formation of carbonate of lime is favored by drying slowly 
after setting, and this also favors the cohesion of the hydrate, since 
the particles which solidify first are surrounded by a solution of lime 
which on drying leaves its lime on the outside of these particles and 
cements them together just as the grains of sand are cemented to- 
gether in the formation of sandstone ; this cementing is the more 
complete as the drying is slower, and thus one can explain the ex- 
treme solidity of masonry of the middle ages, which now must be 
blasted in removing. 

Gas penetrates smooth surfaces more slowly than rough ones ; 
in fact, the character of the surface exposed to the air has a very 
strong influence. In a block of lime which was examined chemically 
at the end of a year, the depth to which carbonation had penetrated 



on a trowel-finished side, a rough-finished side, and a side which 
had been broken off, was in the proportion, respectively, of 3 to 7 to 
14, half the surface of a cross section being unaffected. This would 
indicate that the usual method of smooth finishing joints is not the 
best. 

Deterioration in mortars has numerous causes which depend 
upon both outside conditions and the character of the mortar itself. 
It is assumed that stone and sand shall be used, which will be un- 
affected by the ordinary agencies with which it comes in contact. 
Precautions are easy to observe in this regard, but when we come to 
lime it is not so easy to prevent alteration. Lime is soluble in water, 
and if exposed to a current will be taken up by the water quite 
rapidly. When the mortar has somewhat hardened in air and is 
then exposed to still water the effect is inappreciable, for the lime is 
protected by a superficial coat of carbonate, and not only resists the 
dissolving action of the water but attains to considerable hardness. 

Nitrogenous matter, such as manure or urine, can produce 
nitrates of lime under certain conditions of moisture and temperature. 
This salt deposits as snow-white accretions on the stone or as a 
superficial layer on the mortar, and sometimes resemble flakes of 
snow. Such salts are used in the chemical industry ; their production 
should be discouraged, as they have a deteriorating effect on the 
masonry, making it liable to crumble. 

Efflorescences of another kind often appear on the surface of 
the walls, such as sulphate of soda, carbonate of soda, chloride of 
sodium, carbonate of potash, and chloride of potassium, which con- 
tain the constituents of neither stone, brick, nor sand, and are hence 
attributed to the kind of lime used in the mortar. The presence of 
alkalies is explained by their existing in the original limestone before 
calcination, or that they are derived from wood and coal ashes which 
contain considerable quantities of alkalies; sometimes soil alkalies 
are brought in by surface waters and disperse through the walls, 
lea\-ing a white deposit on the surface when they evaporate. 

Ammoniacal fumes are given out by many industrial operations, 
as when tobacco waste is burned in fireplaces along with coal or 
coke ; the latter furnish sulphurous vapors derived from the oxida- 
tion of iron pyrites in the coal, which combines at the top of the 
chimney with condensed water vapor and ammonia gases, forming 
sulphate of ammonia; this liquid in a short time causes the mortar 
to disappear entirely. The use of salty water for slaking lime or 
mixing mortar causes the formation of chloride of sodium and car- 
bonate of soda (common salt and washing soda), which absorb 
moisture readily and tend to constantly keep the walls damp. ■ 



THE ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY OF CEMENTS AND 
BETONS. 

IN a very interesting series of experiments made by Dr. Lindecka 
and described in the Electrolechnischc Zciltschrift a considerable 
amount of new information was brought to light. 

He found that the electric resistance of a cubic foot of cement, 
when dry, was about 144 ohms, which fell to 43 ohms after 24 hours' 
immersion in water, while it rose to 1S20 ohms when exposed to a 
temperature of 212° Fahr. 

Sand and gravel increase the electrical resistance one part of 
cement to seven of gravel in a block having a resistance of 18,000 
ohms, which fell to 72 ohms when the blocks were wet, or rose to 2 
megohms at 212° Fahr. 

If we allow for concrete an average resistance of 1,670 ohms 
per cubic foot, one obtains an insulation resistance of about 1.2 ohms 
per thousand. In asphalt paving the loss of current through the 
asphalt is very small, so that where conductors are laid directly in 
the concrete they should be surrounded with asphalt cement. This 
cement is usually made, one half broken stone ; gravel, free from clay 
or sand, 20 per cent. ; asphalt, i 2 per cent. ; tar, 8, and mineral oil, i o 
per cent. These figures are important, not only as showing how 
current may be saved, but also in pointing out the conditions under 
which cement insulation may become a dangerously good conductor. 



2o6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Masons' Department. 



HOW SHALL THE VALUE OF EXTRA WORK I5E 
DETER AH NED? 

THE most irritating and troublesome questions which the archi- 
tect and contractor are called upon to consider are probably 
those of determining the value of extra work or work omitted. The 
zeal which the architect often displays in the interest of his client on 
the one hand, and on the other the pernicious habit of many con- 
tractors who take work at cost or below and depend on changes to 
make their profit, are perhaps equally responsible for the trouble 
which ensues. It takes comparatively little experience to absolutely 
prove that almost no building contract is carried to completion 
without more or less changes from the original scheme. And the 
alterations made from time to time, which affect the progress of the 
work, must of necessity be ordered without delay and in accordance 
with the terms of the contract. The natural result of this is that 
very little time is afforded the architect to verify the propositions of 
the contractor, and the necessary haste often tends to encourage 
arbitrary action. While most all building contracts at the present 
time provide for an appeal from the decision of the architect by 
either of the parties concerned, and the reference of such questions 
to three arbitrators, such a course is rarely taken. The complexity 
of the architect's duties makes it impossible for him to keep more 
than generally informed as to the value of the various work and 
materials which enter into the construction of a building, and he must, 
therefore, adopt one of two courses to obtain the information which 
is necessary for him to possess in order to fulfil his obligation to the 
client on one side and the builder on the other ; the first is to arrive 
at a conclusion from personal observation and experience ; the 
other is to obtain the desired knowledge from experts, that is to say, 
those who are engaged in the same sort of business in regard to 
which the question arises. Each of these courses have their own 
peculiar disadvantages. In the first instance, the architect is usually 
inclined to undervalue, for the simple reason that it is almost impos- 
sible for an outsider to appreciate the amount of detail which goes 
to make up the cost of labor and materials connected with any given 
piece of work. If, on the contrary, he seeks expert advice, what may 
be broadly defined as " professional courtesy " prevents his getting 
at the bottom facts, or else, for some reason, the person to whom the 
matter is referred takes the opportunity to even things up or pay off 
an old score by giving prices unreasonably low. The simple truth is 
that the position of the architect, when called upon to determine 
what is a fair value for the work of a contractor, is one which is 
extremely difficult to fill with any degree of satisfaction to both of 
the parties concerned. This fact has led some architects to insert a 
clause in their contracts making the architect the sole judge of the 
value of work and materials, with no appeal from his decision. This 
arbitrary method can hardly be defended as quite ju.st or reasonable, 
but one is sometimes inclined to believe that even a solution as abso- 
lute as this is preferable to the discussions and irritations of a less 
severe method ; for under this plan the matters can at least be settled 
promptly and once for all, which in some ways has an advantage over 
the usual manner which so often involves perhaps a greater loss in 
the way of delays than would be suffered by the arbitrary decision of 
the architect. There can be no question that, if some method could be 
devised by which the value of extras could be settled both promptly 
and fairly, the builders who figure to do work exactly as called 
for, and include in their original estimate a fair and reasonable profit, 
would be much more likely to be successful when in competition 
with those who pursue the opposite course. There are very few 
architects of standing who would not prefer to give their work to 
the former class, but the apparent saving by the acceptance of a low 
bid is usually too much of a temptation to the client, who cannot be 
made to realize the economy of a just discrimination until he has 



paid out much more than the original saving in overvalued extras 
and undervalued omissions. 

The satisfactory solution of this problem seems at first thought 
a difficult matter, but in reality it probably presents no more serious 
complications than many other questions which have been met and 
settled. With the knowledge which both architects and contractors 
have on this subject, it is to be hoped that their organizations will 
realize the importance of instituting a reform in this direction. 

Contractor. 



ErilTOR OF THE I$RICKIiUII.I)ER. 

Dear Sir : — May I trespa.ss on your valuable space to ask for a 
bit of advice? I am erecting a building of which the first story is 
stone, and the upper stories of brick and terra-cotta. For con- 
structive reasons the masonry should be laid up in cement, but I 
do not dare to risk the staining which cement is so apt to impart to 
the stonework. I have been advised to put a certain amount of 
sugar in lime mortar and use the mixture instead of cement, and I 
have been told that the addition of sugar to lime mortar will produce 
a species of cement which will set up very nearly as hard as if 
hydraulic cement were used. Is this true? Can you give me any 
idea as to the proportion of sugar to use? And whether there is 
any liability of the mortar staining the limestone? I was advised by 
the mason to cover the back of the stonework with asphalt, but I 
hesitate to do so, fearing that the oil in the asphalt would work 
through and stain the stone. Is there anything else which can be 
used to advantage to prevent the moisture of the cement from the 
brick backing working out through the stone? 

Also, in regard to the terra-cotta, it is to be what is commonly 
designated as white terra-cotta. In the last building upon which I 
used this shade of terra-cotta I find that the surface of the material 
is stained somewhat, and though the building has been finished for 
over a year, the individual blocks are not of the same tone, and none 
of them have come back to the color they presented before the work 
was set in the building. The terra-cotta was laid up with mortar 
composed of lime, with a very small proportion, I think one sixth in 
bulk, of Rosendale cement. I am afraid to use cement in the new 
work. Why should the light terra-cotta stain, or, why should it not 
regain its original color when dried? I feel that facts of this sort 
are pretty vitally connected with the use of terra-cotta, and should be 
glad of any advice you could give me. Architect. 

In regard to the staining of stonework, Lefarge cement, it is 
claimed, will not stain the stone at all, but any other cement which 
is on the market at present, with which we are familiar, is liable to 
produce discolorations. The value of sugar as a component of lime 
mortar is an unknown quantity to us. It has been used repeatedly, 
but we are unable to give any exact information as to the quantity 
necessary to produce the best results. The value of sugar as a 
component of lime mortar lies in the fact that sugar unites with a 
portion of the lime, forming saccharate of lime, which is considerably 
more soluble than the ordinary hydrate. Consequently, the resulting 
mixture will form a more intimate bond with the sand. 

In regard to the staining of terra-cotta, it may come from one of 
several causes. We do not believe that cement can be trusted in 
any quantity in the mortar which is to be used for setting up light- 
colored terra-cotta. Even one sixth might produce permanent 
stains. .Another cause of possible stains is due to the terra-cotta 
being improperly packed in soiled material. We know of one case 
where straw was used which had been taken from a stable where it 
had served as bedding for horses, and the owner of the building in 
question was for a long while at a loss to account for the vile 
yellowish stains which appeared on his terra-cotta. We believe, 
however, if pure lime mortar, the lime for which has been slacked at 
least three weeks before being used, is employed with clean, sharp 
white sand, and proper care is taken in the handling and setting, and 
nothing but pure water is used to clean off the surface of the terra- 
cotta, there will be no stains whatever on even the most delicate 
shades. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



207 



The use of iron ties is not advisable in connection with terra- 
cotta if extreme precautions are to be taken. Nothing better has 
so far been found than copper for this purpose, and if iron is used, 
even when thoroughly galvanized, it is liable to rust ; and a very slight 
amount of oxide of iron is capable of producing serious stains in the 
terracotta. 

It must be remembered that it is not enough to lay up the terra- 
cotta itself with mortar from which the cement is excluded, but the 
brick backing must equally be kept free from the disturbing influ- 
ence, for it has been found that the staining qualities of the cement 
will penetrate through several courses of brick and affect the exterior 
surface of the terra-cotta. Furthermore, it is bad construction to 
lay up the backing of a wall with a different mortar than the front. 
The matrix ought to be the same in each case to insure equal shrink- 
age of the joints and to preserve the alignment of the wall. 

We refer the questions of our correspondent to our readers, and 
would be glad to receive any information on the subject. Eds. 



QUANTITY OF MORTAR REQUIRED FOR A 
THOUSAND BRICK. 

A WRITER discussing in one of our exchanges the quantity of 
mortar necessary to lay 1,000 brick, states that this is a 
point on which knowledge is essential before one can properly 
estimate the cost of brickwork. He says that the proportion will 
vary with the size of the brick and with the thickness of the joints. 
With the standard size of brick, which are 8^ by 4 by 1% ins., a 
cubic yard of masonry laid with yi to % in. joints will require from 
•35 to .40 cu. yd. of mortar; or 1,000 bricks will require .80 to .90 cu. 
yd. If the joints are % io Yi in. thick, a cubic yard of brickwork 
will require from .25 to .30 cu. yd. of mortar; or 1,000 bricks will 
require from .45 to .55 cu. yd. If the joints are y% in., as for pressed 
brickwork, 1,000 bricks will require from .15 to .20 cu. yd. of mortar. 
It should not be difficult for an estimator to be able to tell exactly 
the cost of the materials required to build up 1,000 bricks in a wall, 
having the cost of bricks, sand, and lime at hand, including hauling, 
with the above data before him. It is a little difficult to tell exactly 
how many bricks a man will lay in a day of nine hours, as conditions 
vary, and some men are much more expert than others; but if well 
supplied with materials, and no scaffolds to adjust, and a long wall 
to work on, 1,500 bricks would make a good average day's work. If, 
however, there are many openings to work around, and neat facing 
to do, from 900 to 1,100 will make a good day's work. In good 
ordinary street fronts from 700 to 900 may be counted, and in the 
finest street work, where there are numerous angles, doorways, or 
belting courses, from 150 to 250 may be considered a good day's 
work. In large works, or where walls are very thick, a good man 
will lay from 1,500 to 1,800 bricks, but this is rather the exception 
than the rule. A good laboring man will mix mortar and carry it and 
bricks for the bricklayers, if mortar and bricks are not more than 25 
ft. from the building, and provided he does not have to carry water 
or climb a ladder. As the brickwork of a building rises, so does the 
cost. Whatever may be the figures obtained as the cost per 1,000 of 
laying bricks for the first story, 5 per cent, should be added to it for 
laying the bricks for the second story, and 12^ per cent, for the 
third story, and a corresponding percentage for the work laid in 
higher stories. 

SURETY ON BOND OF CONTRACTOR. 

WHERE a building contract provides as a condition precedent 
to the final payment that there shall be no legal claims 
against the contractor for work or materials furnished, a surety on 
the bond of the contractor cannot enforce a lien for work or materi- 
als. He cannot be permitted to recover without violating his con- 
tract of suretyship, and he must therefore be held to have waived 
the right to file any lien in the face of his contract. — Supreme Court 
of Pennsylvania. 



Recent Brick and Terra-Cotta 

Work in American Cities, 

and 

Manufacturers' Department. 

CHICAGO. — Foundation walls are being constructed for a 
church which promises to be a very interesting piece of brick 
architecture. The designs of the architect, Mr. H. J. Schlacks, show 
the extreme dimensions of the building in plan to be about 108 by 
203 ft. The style is denominated by the architect " late Romanesque 
Gothic." The plan is a modification of the general Gothic type of 
the middle ages. The nave is 40 ft. wide between piers, while the 
aisles are narrow, and having no seats, serve for aisles only. 

The foundation walls are of rubble stone and rest directly on 
natural rock 15 ft. below grade, the same stratum which is more than 



'^. 



r?^^^.'^ 



AN 






TERRA-COTTA PANEL, MISSION LODGE HALL, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Hermann & Swain, Architects. 

Executed by Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 

100 ft. under sand and clay at the business center of Chicago, five 
miles from this St. I'aul's Catholic Church, which is located at 22d 
Street and Hoyne Avenue. All the walls are stone up to and includ- 
ing a granite water table r8 ins. above grade. Above this water 
table all the walls are to be brick, built hollow. The entire exterior 
and interior, including vaulted floors and the lofty vaulted roof, are to 
be faced with special brick and terra-cotta of various colors. Several 
large finial crosses are to be terra-cotta, and copings and other trim- 
mings will be of the same material. The splay molded sills and 
jambs of windows both outside and inside, the buttress caps, etc., and 
the vaulting as well as the plain wall surfaces are all to be of fire-clay 
stiff mud brick repressed and vitrified. The full-size diagrams of all 
these brick are being made in the architect's office. There are prob- 
ably fifty different special shape brick. The standard adopted for a 
finished brick is 4}^ ins. by 8^ ins. by 2,",^ ins., the vertical mortar 
joints are allowed >s in., and the horizontal joints ■\. in. The archi- 




TERRA-COTTA DETAIL, HUDSON HUILDINCJ, 32 ISROADWAY, NEW 

YORK. 

Clinton ft Russell and A. F. Lcicht, Architects. 

Executed by the White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company. 



208 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




The Governor of Illinois has appointed the examining 
board of architects, the members being Mr. D. Adler, Mr. P. 
B. Wight, Prof. N. C. Ricker, Mr. Wm. H. Reeves, and Mr. 
Wm. Zimmerman. The effectivene.ss of the new law will de- 
pend in great measure on the efforts of this board. 

In the way of building items we note: A mill and ware- 
house 5160,000, by Handers & Zimmerman ; a factory, $50,000, 
by J. H. Wagner; a fire-proof office and theater building, by 
Inland Steel Company, $65,000; Wells-Fargo stable, $75,000, 
by M. L. Beers; Dormitory at Beloit, Wis., $30,000, by Patton 
& Fisher; Lehman apartment house, $200,000, bv K. R. 
Krause ; a row of twelve stone houses, $90,000, by H. L. Ot- 
tenheimer; apartment building, $25,000, by Pond & Pond. 



N 



QUEEN INSURANCE CO.MPANY BUILDING, BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY, 
(leo. Edw. Harding & Gooch, -Architects, 
face biick supplied by Sayre & Fisher Compai)y. 

tect's aim has been to make the building look what it is, a brick build- 
ing, and in designing the terra-cotta ornament care was taken that it 
should not be an imitation of carved stone. 

All the work is to be laid in imported Portland cement mortar. 
The piers carrying the vaulted roof are solid construction, not iron 
columns veneered with terra-cotta. Massive walls, instead of being 
filled with useless concrete, are hollow, carefully laid with thickness 
proportioned to imposed loads. The result ought to be both strength 
and economy. As for color, the exterior is to be a mottled mahogany, 
while the interior is to be treated in light shades of buff mottled, and 
with the mahogany color for trimming. Bricks are being delivered 
on the ground now. 

The design shows a simplicity and beauty of composition, and 
yet a building so large and imposing that one thinks he is looking at 
a cathedral costing a half million of dollars. Imagine, then, one's 
astonishment when assurred by the architect that the church will be 
constructed and completed for $75,000! It might be added that the 
construction of this building is intended to be as nearly fire-proof as 
possible. The door frames are iron, while windows are minus frames 
and sash, the glass being .set directly in the brick. 

Work on the new government building has begun in earnest and 
is being pushed seven days in the week, and nights as well. This 
great excavation, a block square, busy with men, teams, and pile- 
driving apparatus, is now the center of all eyes in Chicago. 



KW YORK. — That the immediate outlook for pros- 
perity, or at least better times for the building and 
real estate trades, in this city is near may be inferred by the 
observant in connection with two very important kinds of 
transactions which have been the features of the past month. 

The first is the selling of private houses to those who will 
occupy them. This is the healthiest sign that has shown itself 
in the real estate maiket in months. Purchases of this kind 
mean that small investors in considerable numbers have en- 
tirely recovered confidence and are ready to do business. The 
few sales already closed will inspire hesitating buyers to come 
forward with some assurance, and with the great improve- 
ment in general trade, and the .splendid condition of the stock 
and grain markets, there cannot but be, at least, the beginning 
of an active fall season. 

The second line of sales is not so gratifying. One of the 
leading New York papers is authority for the statement that 
New York has an oversupply of many kinds of structures. 
Flats and tenements there are in plenty, as thousands of va- 
cancies testify, and in small low-priced dwellings the demand 
liardly equals the supply. Looking back on the work of the 
past spring and summer, the casual observer would naturally 
think that the 
architects 
must be very 
busy; but on 
i n V estigation 
it is found that 
this large 
work is, as is 
perfectly proper, en- 
trusted to those few 
who have attained a 
reputation for carry- 
ing on work of that 
kind, while it is a 
fact that those men 
whose special study 
is smaller work, resi- 
dences, etc., are not 
terribly overworked, 
and there are still 
draughtsmen look- 
ing for jobs, which 
will probably be 
forthcoming to those 
who are worthy. 
Among the recent 
items of news are : — 
A fifteen-story 

office building at 35 , erra-cotta detail, preshvterian 

Broadway for the „uilding, i-hiladelphia, pa. 

estate of A. Hemen- j^^ j, h„^,„„ a,,,,j,,„. 

way. It will be a Executed l)y;the;Conkling, Armstrong Tcrra-Cntta Company. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



209 



brick building and will cost $800,000. Clinton & Russell are 
the architects. 

The Medical Society of the county of Kings are holding 
a competition for a new club house to be erected on Bedford 
Avenue, Brooklyn, at a cost of $50,000. Drawings are due 
September 20. The building committee has appointed Frank 
Freeman, a practising architect, to be their professional adviser. 
This is not usually considered proper practise ; but in this case 
we can assure competitors of fair treatment, as the architect 
mentioned is one who holds the honor of this profession above 
all thoughts of personal gratification. 

A five-story brick business building will be erected on 
Prince Street, corner Marion, to cost $50,000. Richard Berger, 
architect. 

Howard & Cauldwell, architects, have made plans for a 
$20,000 addition to the Ladies' Christian Union Building, 27 
North Washington Square. 

George Keister, architect, has planned a $40,000 addition 
to an eight-story brick and stone business building for Mr. J. 13. 
Cole. 

G. F. Pelham, architect, has made plans for a five story 
brick apartment house on Amsterdam Avenue, to cost $70,000. 

Edward VVenz, architect, has planned three five-story brick 
flats and stores to be erected at Lenox Avenue and 113th 
Street, at a cost of $95,000. 

M. J. Garvin, architect, has planned two five-story brick 
flats and stores to be built on 171st Street. Cost, $55,000. 

Henry Anderson, architect, has planned a flat building to 
be erected on i i 5th Street, corner .Seventh Avenue, at a cost of 
$90,000. 

Neville & Bagge, architects, have planned five five-story 
brick flats to be erected on i i 5th Street, near Lenox Avenue, at 
a cost of $1 1 5,000. 

C. B. J. .Snyder, architect, has prepared plans for a five- 
story brick public school, to cost $220,000. 



ST. LOUIS. — The revival of business throughout the en- 
tire West, and the improvement in local realty circles, 
although not affecting the architects much as yet, offers consid- 
erable encouragement, and it seems to be the feeling with every 
one that next year will be a busy one, and that work will com- 
mence early in the season. 

During the last few months there has been a gradual in- 
crease in the value of the improvements that have been made, which 
have been of the character of flats and small residences in the outly- 
ing districts, but now the improvement or alteration of business 








RESIDICNCIC AT MADISON, N. J. 
lioring X: 'rilloii, Architects. 



DUNN BUILDING, HROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY. 
Cleo. Kdw. Harding tt (iooch, Architects, 

houses, and the building of additions to factories, seems to be at- 
tracting considerable attention. Many of these improvements are of 
considerable importance ; as, for instance, the alterations in the 
Southern and Hurst hotels, the erecting of a $90,000 
factory by the Curtis Manufacturing Company, a 
$100,000 plant by the Brecht Ice Machine Company 
in North St. Louis, and a large ice factory by the 
Anheuser-Busch Brewing Company. 

Work has also been commenced upon several 
buildings where it was suspended last year on account 
of money matters. 

John Conradi is the architect for the new Deutches 
Theater, which is being built on Broadway, between 
Market and Walnut Streets, at a cost of $40,000. 

The transfer of 107 ft. of land on the north side 
of Washington Avenue between 9th and loth Streets, 
and extending through 225 ft. to Lucas Avenue, was 
recently made, and it is reported that improvements 
in the way of a large wholesale house to cost nearly 
half a million dollars will be made. The building is 
to be occupied by the Hagardine-McKittrick Dry 
(Joods Company, and work is to be carried on night 
and day to have it ready for occupancy by the first of 
May. Eames & Young are the architects. This lo- 
cation is fast becoming the center of the wholesale 



2IO 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



dry goods and boot and shoe trade, and otlier improvements are 
under consideration. 

The Barnes Medical College will open their school year in their 
new building on Chestnut and 31st Streets, which they have recently 
completed. The building is five stories and basement, in the Italian 
renaissance style of architecture. Buff brick and white stone have 

been used in the exterior. J. B. Legg was 

the architect. 



In our last month's Boston letter, it was reported that Mr. 
George B. Rogers was the architect of the new Times Building, at 
Hartford. We have since learned that Mr. A. W. Scoville is the 



<; 



1^ 



TERRA-COTTA DETAIL, 

MAIN ENTRANCE, ST. 

JOHN'S CHURCH, 

JOHNSTOWN, PA. 

Beezcr Bros., Architects. 

Made by the Standard Terra- 

Cotta Company. 



PITTSBURG. — The outlook for build- 
ing during the fall is far more prom- 
ising than it has been for several years. So 
great has been the demand for building 
permits, and so decided and general the 
opinion that building operations will assume 
vast proportions in the near future, that 
property has been affected in all sections of 
the city, and values will naturally be en- 
hanced materially. Preparations and plans 
are being made for the erection of a market 
house in the East End, by a new corpora- 
tion, under the title of " The Liberty Market." 
f 200,000 will be spent; steel framing, Pom- 
pean and white enameled brick will compose 
the structure, and all modern improvement 
and convenience will be installed. A charter 
was issued at the State Department at Har- 
risburg for the Bellefield Company of Pitts- 
burg, which proposes to erect a hotel near 
the entrance of Schenley Park. The capital 
stock is $300,000. The plans have been 
prepared by Architects Rutan & Russell, for 
a modern building in every particular. 

Architects V'rydagh & Wolfe ; Struthers 
& Hannah; J. L. Beatty ; Bartberger & 
East ; and E. E. Miller, have submitted 
.sketches for the U. P. Shadyside Presby- 
terian Church. 

Architect Charles Bickel is receiving 
bids for the erection of the Majestic apart- 
ment house, at Butler and 35th Streets, for 
Capt. M. A. Cutter, to be five stories, pressed 
brick and terra-cotta. 

Architects Vrydagh & Wolfe are pre- 
paring plans for a brick colonial residence 
for W. L. Smith on Morewood Avenue, to 
cost $10,000. 

Architect J. N. Camp- 
plans for a $10,000 buff brick 



bell is preparing 

colonial residence at Crafton for James .McAleer, Esc], 

Plans are being prepared for a new school build- 
ing for the loth ward, Allegheny, to cost $125,000. 

Architects Rutan & Russell are preparing plans 
for a hotel at Sewickley. 

George Booth, of the Department of Charities, 
has had plans prepared for a brick building for 
children at the poor farm at Marshalsca. 

Architect J. E. Obitz is preparing plans for a 
brick church to be erected at Tarrentum for the 
Trinity Evangelical Lutheran congregation. 

Architect U. J. L. Peopies's plan for the new 
high school at McKeesport has been accepted. 




MERCANTILE liUILUING, ST. PAUL, MINN. 
Cass (Gilbert, Architect. 

architect of the i)uilding, Mr. Rogers being in his employ as 
draughtsman at the time that the plans were being made. 

Charles T. Harris, Lessee, will supply the Celadon roofing 
tiles for the following new buildings : — 

Residence for N. W. Bowen, Delphi, Ind.; Dauphin Park 
School Building, Chicago. 11!.; residence for Mrs. A. H. Armour. 



NEWS FROM THE BUSY. 

The Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Company, 
of Chicago, have taken a new suite of ofiices in the 
Marquette Building. 




residence at PITTSBURG, PA. 

Alden & Harlow, Architects. 

Face brick manufactured by the Harbison & Walker Company. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



21 I 




to South America, and have recently shipped another of 
their well-known automatic end-cut brickmaking ma- 
chines to Europe. They are very much gratified with 
the interest taken in their new steam-power repress for 
plastic brick, and have received two orders for this press 
within a few weeks. It is illustrated on page xl of this 
issue, and weighs about 14,000 lbs. 

The Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick 
Company report that their business is better than it has 
been for years past. They are running a very large 
force of men at their works in Charlestown, and say that 
their brick mantel liusiness the last week in August was 
the largest in the history of the company. In all their 
departments the demand is so great for their goods 
(which are sent to all parts, not only of the United States, 
but of the world) that they may have to run extra time to 
fill their orders. 

The following is a list of new buildings, for which 
the White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company have fur- 
nished the architectural terra-cotta : — 



RE.SIDENCE at MADISON, N. J. 
Boring & Tihon, Architects. 

Kansas City, Mo.; Railroad .Station, at Franklin, Penn.; Biological 
Building, Columbus, Ohio; Susquehanna Avenue Church, Phila- 
delphia, Penn. ; residence, Newark, N. J. 

We have had sent us by the Powhatan Clay Manufacturing 
Company, a sample of their new silver gray brick. In shade and 
texture it is an ideal brick which shows that same excellence of 
manufacture that has made the cream-white brick, made by this 
company, so popular. 

The " Brooklyn Bridge " brand cement was specified on the 
thirty-story office building, on Park Row; R. H. Robertson, archi- 
tect; John Downey, general contractor; Dawson & Archer, masons. 
The latter have adopted this brand of cement, and it will be the only 
Rosendale cement used in the construction of what will be the 
largest office building in the world. It may be also stated that tnis 
brand was the only Rosendale cement used in the largest hotel in the 
world, the " Astoria." 

Chambers Brothers Company, of Philadelphia, report de- 
cided improvement in inquiries for brickmaking machinery within 
the past two months, and have booked an order for machinery to go 




central motive, dental hall, university of PENNSYLVANIA. 

Edgar V. Seder, Arcliitect. 

Executed in Terr.i-Cotta l)y the C!onkling, Armstrong Terra-Cott.-! Company. 



TERRA-COTTA LIONS HEAD IN ( KOWN MOLD OF CORNICE OVER 

12TH STORY ST. JAMES BUILDING, HUOADWAV, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

Bruce Price, Arcliitect. 

F.xecuted l)y tlie Perili Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 

Hospital for Crippled and Ruptured, Lexington Avenue and 43d 
.Street, New York ; architect, C. C. Haight. Addi- 
WBBA ^'*^'^ ^^ Normal .School, Jamaica, L. I.; architect, 
'|H9 I. G. Perry. Mercantile Building, 134-13.S Mott 
^■H Street, New York ; De Lemos & Codres, architects ; 
" The Washington Irving " apartment house, 1 1 2th 
Street, near 7th Avenue; architect, George Keister. 
Hudson Building, 32-34 Barry Street, New York, 
Clinton & Russell and A. F. Leicht, architects. 
Mercantile Building, loth Street and University 
Place, New York ; architect, W. J. Dilthey. Mer- 
cantile Building, 7 Great Jones Street ; architect, 
L. Korn. Memorial Chapel, Welle.sley College, 
Wellesley, Mass. ; architects, Heins & La Farge. 



FisKi;, Homes & Co. report an active demand 
for their light brick specialties, sales for August 
being largely in excess of previous month. 

Amongst principal orders booked are : — 
Extension of Hotel Reynolds, Boylston .Street, 
Albert Geiger, E.sq., owner, Arthur H. Vinal archi- 
tect; the Home for Incurables, Cambridge, Mass., 



:li2 



THjE BRICKBUILDER. 



W. H. and J. A. McGinty architects ; United States Post-Office, 
Lynn, Mass. ; chapel and office, Mt. Auburn Cemetery, W. A. Sears 
architect ; Mercantile Building, Merrimac Street, Boston, T. E. Clark 




ibi 



PORTION OF rAKATET KAIL, C. WEYANU liREWKRY, liUFFAI.O, N. V. 

Oct). J. Metzgcr, Arcliitect. 

Kxeciited in terra-cotta by the Northwestern Tena-Cotta Company, 

architect; Mercantile Building, Main Street, Cambridge, Mass.; 
Twombly Block, .South Framingham, Mass., C. E. Barnes & Co. 
architects; Legal Chambers, Spring and Poplar Streets. Boston, F. 
A. Norcross architect ; Slocum Block, New Bedford, Mass., Nat C. 
Smith architect: extension of I'arker House, New Bedford, ^L^ss., 



Nat C. Smith architect; private residence, Cambridge, Mass., H. 
Langford Warren architect ; business block, Lawrence, Mass. ; 
Galvin's Block, Exeter and Boylston Streets, Boston ; residence. New 
Haven, Conn. ; barn for Springfield Street Railway Company, Spring- 
field, Mass., brick and terra-cotta, Gardner, Pyne & Gardner archi- 
tects ; Tyler Block, New Haven, Conn.; Besse Block, Springfield, 
Mass. ; together with about fifty apartment houses, business blocks, 
and private residences in lioston and immediate vicinity, taking 
appro.ximately one million bricks. 

We are in receipt of some very handsome blotters from the 
Clinton Wire Cloth Company, of Clinton, Mass. 

It is the intention of the company to mail a new blotter each 
month to all parties interested in the use of wire cloth for building 
or other purposes. .Any parties desiring to receive them regularly 
may have their names put on the list by sending their address to 
the Clinton Wire Cloth Company, Clinton, Mass. 



For Sale. 

Brick I'lant and Clay Farm in Savrevillc 'J'own- 
ship, Middlesex Co., N.J., on Raritan Ri\cr, about 
3 miles above South Amboy. 282 acres rich de- 
posit of Tcrra-Cotta, Fire, Red, Blue, and Burt" 
Brick, and Common Clays. Facilities for ship- 
ping b}' Water or Rail. Full}- eciuippcd Factory, 
Dwellings, Office, Store, etc., etc. For further 
particulars apply to W. C. Mason, 27 Main St., 
Hartford. 





^w 


****'"' ' IT 

MKk.f 




R^^^B. 


-'p-^ 






JJjiK 




■■^||L^ 4liB!Sp]'jT7pHi n 1 ( 


1 






Jt 




1 


Ml^^'^^^'^^^^^^tflH 


^'* :!^fl 









FIREPLACE MANTELS. 

The best kind are those we furnish in Ornamental Brick of such colors as Red, Cream, Buff, Pink, Brown, and Gray. 
No other kind will give such soft, rich effects of harmony and simplicity, or such general good satisfaction. 

OURS ARE THE BEST 




and yet they are not too expensive. Don't buy a 
mantel before you have learned all about ours. 

Send for Sketch Book of 52 designs costing from 
$12 upwards. 



Phila. & Boston Face Brick Co. 

15 LIBERTY SQUARE, BOSTON, MASS. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXXI 



INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS. 



ADDRESS. 

RCHITECTURAL FAIENCE MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

New York Agents, Pfotenhauer & Nesbit, Metropolitan Building, New York City. 
The Grueby Faience Company, 164 Devonshire Street, Boston .... 
Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, 24 So. 7th St. 
New York Agent, 287 Fourth Ave. 
Chicago Agent, C. T. Harris & Co., Marquette Bldg. 

ARCHITECTURAL INSTRUCTION. 

Correspondence School of Architecture, Scranton, Pa. ..... 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Co., Burlington, N. J. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Donnelly Brick and Terra-Cotta Co., Berlin, Conn. ...... 

Boston Office, S2 De\'onshire St., J. Mair Staveley, Agent. 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 105 East 22d St., New York City . , " . 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

New York Office, Charities Building, 289 4th Ave. PhiladelphiaOfBce, 24 South 7th St. 
Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Co., Indianapolis, Ind. ...... 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 38 Park Row, New York City 

New Knghind Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

Philadelphia Office, 1341 Arch St. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, 108 Fulton St., New York City 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 102 Milk St. 
Standard Terra-Cotta Company, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City , . , 

Boston Agents, O. W, Peterson & Co., John Hancock Building. 

Philadelphia Agent, W. L. McPherson, Building Exchange. 
The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Room 1 1 18, The Rookery, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Winkle Terra Cotta Co., Telephone Building, .St. I^ouis, Mo. .... 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Pressed and Ornamental). (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 
Brush & Schmidt, Office, 2 Builders' Exchange, Buffalo, N. Y. . 

Clearfield Clay Working Co., Clearfield, Pa. . 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio .... 

Day Brick Company, Belleville, 111. ......... 

Donnelly Brick and Terra Cotta Co., Berlin, Conn 

Boston Office, ^2 Hevonshire .St., J. Mair Staveley, Agent. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. 

Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Harbison & Walker Co., The. Office, 22d and Railroad Sts., Pittsburg, Pa. . 
Hydraulic-Press Brick Co., The . 

Home Office, Odd Fellows Building, St. Louis, Mo. 
Ittner, Anthony, Telephone Building, St. Louis, Mo. ...... 

La Salle Pressed Brick Company, La Salle, 111. . . . ' . 

National Brick Co., Bradford, Pa 

New York and New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co.: Office, 41 Wall St., N. Y.; Works, Shaw- 
nee, Ohio ............. 

Oliphant, Pope & Co., Trenton, N. J. 

Parry Bros. & Co., 10 Broad St., Boston 

Pennsylvania Buff Brick and Tile Co., Prudential Building, Newark, N. J. 
Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, Builders' Exchange. 
Perth Amljoy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 88 Water Street. 

Philadelphia Office, 1044 Drexel Building. 
Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick Co., 4 Liberty Sq., Boston .... 
Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... 

Ralston Brick Co., Ralston, Lycoming Co., Pa. 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 
Raveiiscroft, W. S., & Co., Office, Ridgway, Pa. : Works, Daguscahonda, Pa. 
Ridgvvay Press-Brick Co., Ridgway, Pa 

New England Agents, G. R. Twichell & Co., 19 Federal St., Boston. 

New York Agent, O. D. Person, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Shawmut Brick Co., Cartwright, Pa. 

General Sales Agent, C. E. Willard, 171 Devonshire St., Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 

Eastern Agent, James L. Rankine, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 

Williamsport Brick Co., Williamsport, Pa. . 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Enameled). (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 14 East 23d St., New York. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Cr:in. ....... 

Clearfield Clay Working Co., Clearfield, Pa 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 

Grueby Faience Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

Hydraulic Press Brick Co , The 

Home Office, Odd Fellows Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mt. Savage Enameled Brick Co. , Mt. Savage, Md 

Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 

Eastern Agent, James I,. Rankine, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

BRICK PRESERVATIVE AND WATER-PROOFING. 

Cabot, Samuel, 70 Kilby St., Boston 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 I'earl St., New York 

CEMENTS. 

Alpha Cement Company, General Agents, Wm. J. Donaldson & Co., Bourse 

Building, Philadelphia 

New England Agents, James A. Davis & Co., 92 State St., Poston. 

Alsen's Portland Cement, 143 Liberty St., New York City 

Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston 

Commercial Wood and Cement Company, Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Office, 156 Fifth Avenue. 

Cummings Cement Co., Ellicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y 

French, Samuel H., & Co., York Avenue, Philadelphia. Pa 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York 



xxu 
xxiii 



XXIX 

ii 



XXV 

xlii 



xxiu 

XV 



II 
xxii 
xxiii 
xviii 



VI 



111 

ii 

xvii 

xxiv 

xxiv 



XIX 

xxi 

xviii 
ix 



IX 

xxiii 
vii 

ix 
xlii 

XX 

xviii 
xvii 
xix 

xviii 



xxxv 

xxxiv 



XXXII 

xxxii 
xxxiii 
xxxiii 

xxxii 
xxxiii 
xxxiv 



ADDRESS. 

CEMENTS.— Co«/;««^ar. 

Lawrence Cement Company, No. i Broadway, New York City .... 

Lesley & Trinkle, 22 and 24 So. isth St., Philadelphia 

Manhattan Cement Company, 15 to 25 Whitehall St., New York City 

New England Agents, Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston. 
Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York ..... 

New York & Rosendale Cement Company, 280 Broadway, New York City 

New England Agents, I. W. Pinkham & Co., 1S8 Devonshire St., Boston. 

James C. GoflE, 31-49 Point St., Providence, R. I. 

J. S. Noble, 67-69 Lyman St., Springfield, Mass. 

Lord Bros. & Co., Portland, Me. 

Thiele, E., 78 William St., New York City 

Union Akron Cement Company, 141 Erie St., Buffalo, N. Y. . 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 

CLAY MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS. Brick (Front Enameled and Ornamental) 
Terra-Cotta, Architectural Faience, Fire-proofing, and Roofing Tiles. 

Black, John H., 33 Erie Co. Savings Bk. lildg., Buffalo, N. Y 

Ketcham, O. W., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia ..... 

Lippincott, E. P., & Co., 24 Builders' Exchange Baltimore, Md., and 808 F St., 

N. W., Washington, D. C 

Mayland, H. F., 287 Fourth Ave.. New York City ...... 

Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., 14 E. 23d St., New York City 

Peterson, O. W., & Co., John Hancock ]5uilding, Boston 

Staveley, J. Mair, 40 Water St., Boston ........ 

Thomas, E. H., 24 So. 7th St., Phila., Pa., 874 Broadway, New York 
Twitchell, G. R. & Co., 166 Devonshire .St., Boston ...... 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 

Willard, C. E., 171 Devonshire St., Boston ....... 

CLAYWORKERS' CHEMICALS AND MINERALS. 

F. W. Silkman, 231 Pearl St., New York 

CLAYWORKING MACHINERY. 

American Clay Working Machinery Co., Bucyrus, Ohio ..... 

Carmichael Clay Steamer, Wellsburg, W. Va. ....... 

Chambers Bros. Company, Philadelphia, Pa. ....... 

Chisholm, Boyd & White Company, 57th and Wallace Sts., Chicago 

F^astern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... 

Simpson Brick Press Co., 41 5 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, III. 

Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

The F. D. Cummer & Sons Co., Cleveland, Ohio ...... 

The Wallace Manufacturing Co., Frankfort, Ind. ...... 

ELEVATORS. 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... 

Moore & Wyiiian, Elevator and Machine Works, Granite St., Boston 

ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS. 

Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York 

FIRE-PROOFING MATERLA.L MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents. 
Boston Fire-proofing Co., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston ..... 

Central Fireproofing Co., 874 Broadway, New York ...... 

Empire Fireproofing Co., 1301 Monadnock Block, Chicago .... 

Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Co., 104 South 12th St., Philadelphia 

Boston Agent, James D. Lazell, 443 Tremont Bldg. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

Guastavino, R., 9 East 59th St., New York 

Boston Office, 444 Albany Street. 
Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co , 14 E. 23d St., New York City 
Maurer, Henry, & Son, 420 E. 23d St., New York City ..... 
New York & New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Co., 1545 So. Clark St., Chicago 
Pittsburg Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, Carnegie Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 

New York Office, Metropolitan Building. 

Western Office, 5 Parker Block, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... 

Standard Fireproofing Co., 11 1 Fifth Ave., New York ..... 

GRANITE. 

Gilbreth Seam-Face Granite Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

KILNS. 

Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

MAIL CHUTES. 

Cutler Manufacturing Co., Rochester, N. Y. ...... . 

MASONS' SUPPLIES. 

Gilbreth Scaffold Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

Hamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass. ...... 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 

MORTAR COLORS. 

Clinton Metallic Paint Company, Clinton, N. Y. . 

French, Samuel IL, & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. ....... 

MOSAIC WORK. 

The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio ........ 

ROOFING TILES MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 

Chicago Terra Cotta Roofing and Siding Tile Co., IT 22 Marquette Building, 
Chicago, III. ............. 

Harris, Charles T., lessee of The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Limited. 
Main Office and Factory, Alfred, N. Y. 
Chicago Office, Marquette Building. 
New York Office, 1120 Presbyterian liuilding, New York City. 

SAFETY TREAD. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Co., 40 Water .St., Boston .... 
SASH LOCKS. 

Gale Sash Lock, Rufus E. Eggleston Manfr., 575-576 Mutual Life Bldg., Phila., Pa, 

253 Broadway, New York City . 

SNOW GUARDS. 

F"olsom Patent Snow Guard, 178 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. . . 

TILES. 

The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio ........ 

VENTILATORS. 

Pancoast Ventilator Co., The. 316 Bourse Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
WALL TIES. 

Hamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass 

WINDOW SASH. 

Bolles' Sliding and Revolving Sash ........ 

General Agents: Edward R. Diggs, Builders' Exchange, Baltimore, Md.; Rufus E. Eggleston, 
575 Mutual Life Building, Phila., Pa. 



XXXIII 

xxxiv 
xxxiv 

xxxiii 
xxxiii 



XXXII 

xxxii 
xxvii 



XXlll 

iii 

xxvi 

xxii 

ix 

xxiii 

ii 

xxvii 

xxi 



xl 

xxxix 

xl 

xl 

xli 

xli 

xxxix 

xxxix 

xxxix 

xli 
xxxvii 



XIV 

xiii 

xvii 

xii 

vii 
xvi 

xxvi 
xiv 

XV 
XV 

xvi 



XV 

xxxviii 

xxxix 

ii 

xxxviii 

xxxvii 

xxvii 

xxxv 

xxxiii 



xxviu 
xxix 



xxxv 
xxxvii 
xxxvi 



XXXll 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



DYCKERHOFF 

Portland Cement 



HAM & CARTER, 

560 Albany Street, BOSTON. 



(^ 



E. THIELE, 

78 William St., NEW YORK. 

SOLE AGENTS. 




" With a true sense ot economy we would buy nothinfi in Hurope 
hut of necessity. The ^old reserves of our government antl individ- 
uals would then increase without even the intervention of tariff's." 

Alpha Portland Cement- 

is the most economical. It is the finest ground cement on the market. For that 
reason it will take more sand and broken stone than any other cement in existence. 
To-day our best contractors and engineers consider it superior to any imported 
cement on the market. We guarantee every barrel of the " Alpha " to be uniform 
in quality, and to pass any requirement yet demanded of a Portland Cement. 



I 



—=»«>- 



WM. J. DONALDSON, 

General Agent, 
Bctz Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 



TAMES A. DAVIS & CO., 

Sole N. E. Agents, 
92 State Street, Boston. 



SOLE MANUFACTURERS 
OF THE 



Union Akron Cement Company, 

Akron Cement, 



The Strongest Natural Hydraulic Cement Manufactured 

in America. In Successful Use for the 

past Fifty Years. 

CAPACITY OF WORKS 2,000 BARRELS DAILY. 



OFFICE, 141 FRIE ST., 



BUFFALO, N. Y. 



ALSEN'S PORTLAND CEMENT. 



143 LIBERTY STREET 

WALDO BROS., 



The strongest, finest ground, and most uniform Cement 
in the world. Permits the admixture of more sand than 
any other, and is the best for mortar or stuccoing. 
- - - - NEW YORK. 

I02 Milk St., Boston. 



AGENTS FOR NEW ENGLAND. 




ESTABLISHED 1854. 

URIAH CUMMINGS, President. PALMER CUMMINGS, Treas. & Gen'l Mgr. 

HOMER S. CUMMINGS, Secretary. RAY P. CUMMINGS, Vice-President. 
Stamford, Conn. 



Buffalo, N. V. 



The Cummings Cement Co. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Hydraulic Rock Cement ami Portland Cement, 

Gen'l Offices : Ellicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 

New England Office: Stamford, Conn. 
Cement Works at Akron, N. Y. The largest in the United States. 



THEBRICKBUILDER. iii 



THE PLANT OF 

The Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Co., 

AT RICHMOND, VA., 



Will in the future be given up 
entirely to the manufacture of 



Cream White Bricks 



Many leading architects and their buildings will testify that these bricks have no equal. 



Through our sales agency, located at TOWNSEND BUILDING 

25th ST. and BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY, F. H. S. MORRISON, Manager, 

we have arranged to handle the product of the 

Jarden Brick Co., for the dtks of new york and Brooklyn. 
O. W. KETCHAM, ZCena^Cotta, 

Supplies r>\ 



OFFICE: 



Builders' Exchange, />^ V *ft^t^t^b 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. ©^W ^* Jt^tlCK* 

-^^^V Every Description. 



Telephone, 2163. 



H. F. MAYLAND &. CO., 

MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS AND 
DEALERS IN 

FRONT AND SHAPE BRICK IN ALL COLORS. 

Telephone, 614 I8th St. 287 FOURTH AVENUE, Room 616. 

NEW YORK, 



IV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




The Mechanics' Bank Building, Court St., corner Montague St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Mr. George L. Morse, Architect. 

Light Gray Terra-Cotta furnished by 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co., 

WORKS: Rocky Hill, N. J. 105 East 22d Street, N. Y. 

Boston Representative: CHARLUS BACON, 3 Hamilton Place. 



THE BRICKBUjILDER. 



t 



Conkling, Armstrong 
^ ^ Terra-Cotta Co. 




BOWLING GREEN OFFICE BUILDING, NEW YORK, 
CONTAINS A LARGE AMOUNT OF OUR TERRA-COTTA. 



. • Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior Q^^ality 



WORKS: OFFICES: 

Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., Builders' Excliange, Philadelphia, 

PHILADELPHIA, PHiLA. TELEPHONE CALL 9005. and 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 



VI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 



Perth Amboy, N* J, 



....Manufacturers.... 



Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

J 60 Fifth Avenue* 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros*, 102 Milk Street* 



STANDARD TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 

PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue. 



BOSTON OFFICE: 

John Hancock Building, 

O. W PETERSON & CO., Agents. 



WASHINGTON OFFICE: 

Builders Exchange, 
WM. C. LEWIS, Agent. 



PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: 

Builders Exchange, 
w. LINCOLN Mcpherson, Agent. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vll 



Something New 

In Brick and Terra -Cotta Fireplace Mantels. 




Designed by J. A. SCHWEINFURTH. 
Del. by H. F. BRISCOE. Modeled by TITO CONTI. 



We are now prepared to furnish an entirely new and complete line of Fireplace Mantels 

2)C8lQnC0 in classical style to produce rich, yet dignified -CiSSCtTlDlCO from standard interchangeable pieces in 
architectural effects. 

1 11 jOOCICO entirely by hand in the highest perfection 
of the art. 

|Pl*C68C0 with great care to give clear-cut outlines and 
smooth surfaces. 

JoUVnCO in a suitable variety of soft, rich colors. 



any desired combination, thus giving a 
great variety of size and detail with no 
additional cost. 

II n OfCnCt^l producing all the desirable effects of special 
mantels, made to order, without their 
excessive cost, or their uncertainty of 
manufacture. 



166 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dealers also in Architectural Terra-Cotta and Building Bricks in all colors known to clay working. 

Fire-Proofing and General Building Materials. 



Vlll 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 



K. MATHIASEN, President. 




NEW ZEALAND BUILDING, COR. BROADWAY AND 37th STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

HOPPIN & KOEN, Architects. 

Architectural Terra-Cotta furnished by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co. 



Office: 108 Fulton Street, 



New York Gty. 



Works: PERTH AMBOY, N.J. 



Sales Agents for New England, G"* \\* 1 WlChcU & Co*^ J9 Federal Street, Boston. 



mmt 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



XI 




THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra- Cotta 



IN ALL COLORS. 



WORKS: 

Cheltenham, St. Louis. 



OFFICE: 

502-503 Century Building. 



AN ENTRANCE IN TERRA-COTTA, UNION TRUST BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

LOUIS H. SULLIVAN, Architect. 
Tebra-Cotta Executed by THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 




Boston Fire-Proofing Company, 



D. McINTOSH, Proprietor. 



i66 DEVONSHIRE STREET, 



BOSTON, MASS. 



Fire-Proof 



Building 



Material. 



" Porous Terra-Cotta stands fire and water." 



EXCHANGE CLUB BUILDINQ, Boston, Mas: 

BALL & OABNEY, ARCHITECTS. 

Fire-proofed by tlie Boston Fire-Proofing Co. 



xn 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



THE FAWCETT VENTILATED FIREPROOF BUILDING COMPANY, L't'd. 

Patented in England, Belgiuna, France, United States. 



pniiiiimiiiiiMimii]«iiirninirii|iiiiHiiiiiimiMiii^JtiTmiTiTTiwinn^ 




Aiit Kui TO tin. Bit>c*L 





LONGITUDINAL SECTION Showing the Tubular Terra-Cotta Lintel encasing the Beam^ 
THE Air Passage under Beam, and the Admission of Colo Air into the End of Tubular Lintcl. 



lintels with concrete 
Removed. 



mmi:.<^:::^-^mmL^W£^^^ 





CONCRETE WITH LINTEL 
REMOVED. 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION Showing the Concrete Bearing on the Bottom Flange or 
the Beam and Cold Air Passage under the Beam. 




^ Passage under the Beams and the Admission of TRANSVERSE SECTION Showing the Con- 
Cold Air into the Side of the Lintel. NOTE,- crete Bearing on the Bottom Flange of the 
Onlt two Air Bricks are absolutely necessary Beam A. NOTE.-There is no Room for the 
IN Each Room to obtain a Thorough Draught Concrete to work under the Beams at A. other- 
under the Beams, and they may both be in the wise the air passage would be Stopped. 
same Wall. 



LINTELS FIXED READY FOR 
CONCRETING. 



'bzxi 



s 

I I I I 



^ 



T-r-H- 



,» 



5C-A1.E IN Feet. 



Table showing the Weight of Materials used in Constructing the 
Fawcett Ventilated Fireproofing System. 


Matf.riaus 

USED 

IN Floor. 


Wt. of floor material per sq. ft. of surface, for various size beams. 


Materials 

USED 

:n Floor. 


DEPTH IN INCHES. 


4 in. 


5 in. 


Cin. 


7 in. 


8«k 


9 in. 


10 in. 


12 in. 


Steel Beams 
Lintels 
Concrete 
Wood Floor 
Plastering 


3.7 lbs 
15.0 „ 
2C.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 


5.1 lbs 
15.0 „ 
32.5 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 


a.91bs 
15.0 „ 
39.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 


8.9 lbs 

15.0 „ 

45.5 „ 

3.5 „ 

7 „ 


10.5 lbs 
15.0 „ 
52.0 „ 
3.6,, 
7.0 „ 


12.2 lbs 
15.0 „ 
58.5 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 


15.5 lbs 
15.0 „ 
65.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 


19.1 lbs 
15.0 „ 
78.0 „ 
3 5 „ 
7.0 „ 


Steel Beams 
Lintels 
Concrete 
Wood Floor 
Plastering 


Tntal Dead ) 
Weight / 


52.2 „ 


fiS.l „ 


71.4 „ 


79.9 „ 


88.0 „ 


96.2 „ 106.0 „ 

1 


122.6 „ 


Total Dead 
Weight 


NOTE.— The Dead Weight per sq. ft. of surface is calculated for Concrete 
2 inches above top of Beams. 



Table showing Size of Steel Beams used in the Construction of the 


Fawcett Ventilated Fireproofing System. 




SPANS IN FEET. 




Live 

Load 

per 

Sq. Ft. 


10 Feet. 


12 Feet. 


14 Feet. 


16 Feet. 


18 Feet. 


20 Feet. 


22 Feet. 


24 Feet. 


26 Feet. 


Live 

Load 

per 

Sq. Ft. 






5. 

a 








K. 
O 




4 

a 

O 


x^ 

be*- 


J3 

H. 
O 




s. 
a 




H. 
Q 




Depth. 

Weight 
pel ft. 


100 lbs. 


41 


0.2 


41 


7.6 


61 


9.2 


61 


10.3 


61 


119 


61 


139 


71 


15 5 


81 


17 2 


9120.3 


100 lbs. 


l.iOlbs. 


41 


7 5 


5 1 


9.2 


61 


11.9 


61 


13 9 


71 


14 4 71 


17 8 


81 


18 


9120 3 


9124 4 


LW lbs. 


2.T0 lbs. 


51 


9.2 


51 


10 3 


61 


13.0 


71 


14 4 


7 1 17.8 8 1 


18 


91 


20 3 10125 5 


lOl.-M) 


200 lbs. 


•250 lbs. 


51 


10 3 


C I 


11.9 


71 


14 4 71 


15 5 


81 17 2, 9 1 


20.3 


91 


24.4 101 o'O.O 


10 1 33 1 


250 lbs. 


.■iOO lbs. 


61 


11.9 


61 


13.0 


71 


15.5 8 1 


17.2 9 1 20 3J91 


25.1 101 


30.0!l2I30.6 

1 1 


I21J32.O 


300 lbs. 


NOTE.— The above sizes of beams are for the Tinished floor including concrete 2 inches 


above top of beams, yellow pine flooring, and plastered ceiling. 



WE ALSO FURNISH TERRA-COTTA PARTITIONS, ROOF BLOCKS, FURRING, GIRDER, COLUMN, AND PIPE COVERING. 



.y)VANTAGES OF OUR SYSTEM. 

The Only System that provides an Absolutely Scientific Safeguard against Fire. 

Adopted by Architects and Engineers on Account of 

1. Fireproof Quality. 4. Strength. 

2. Sanitary Value. 5. Ease and Quickness of 

3. Lightness. Construction. 

6. Cheapness. 

In these 6 Main Advantages The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Floor 
Excels all Other. 



MAIN OFFICE, 

448, 449, 450, and 451 

Philadelphia Bourse, . 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



Sales Agent for the New England states, JAMES D. LAZELL, 443Tremont BuildiHg, Boston, Mass. 
Sales Agent for New York, A. J. COFFIN, 412 Presbytcrian Building, Fifth Ave., New York. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. xxvii 



WALDO BROTHERS, 

New Address, 

102 /Ibilh street 

Two doors below Post Office Square. 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

High Grade Building Materials. 

AGENTS FOR 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 

Atwood Faience Co. 

Front Bricks in all colors. 

English Glazed Bricks. 

Baltimore Retort and Fire Brick Co. 

Gartcraig Fire Bricks. 

Welsh Quarry Tiles. 

Alsen Portland Cement. 

Atlas Cement. 

Brooks, Shoobridge & Co. Portland Cement. 

Phoenix, Shield, Wedge, and Cleopatra Portland Cement. 

Hoffman Rosendale Cement. 

Shepherd and Gay Lime. 

Bostwick Metal Lath. 

Morse Wall Ties. 

Akron Sewer Pipe. 

H. H. Meier & Co.'s Puzzolan Portland Cement. 

WHARVES: YARD: 



Waldo, 548 Albany Street. W On N. E. R.R, Tracks, near 

Tudor, 1 Charles River Avenue. ^ Congress St., So. Boston. 



TELEPHONES: 



1294 Boston — I I Boston — i i^ Charlestown. 



xxvni 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ZIbC /HbOSaiC ^ile (ZC ZanesviHe, Ohio. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Ceramic Mosaic Tiie 

AND 

Parian Vitreous Tile 



(^be Sttonoest Zilc in the nDavket) 



Por Floors and 
Decoration 



^ 



Estimates, 
Samples, and 
Designs on 
Application. 






Chicago Terra-Cotta Roofing & Siding Tile Company, 

I \22 Marquette Building, Chicago. 

Ditvinc^ IRoofino Ziic ot all min&6. 



Write for Catalogue. 




'4 




t't^ltt|*^ i•L,-J ^ i^V ^ *i 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXIX 



:^?lfP<^>tfP<^tf^<sls>cst^<^^ 



Announcement. 



During the coming year there will appear on this page a series of articles, with illus- 
trations, which will serve to show not only the mechanical excellence, but also the artistic 
possibilities of the roofing tiles, in various shapes, manufactured by our company. 

The high reputation secured for our product during the past three years, under the 
management of Charles T. Harris, Lessee, will not only be maintained, but also increased 
under new and more favorable business arrangements. 

The majority^ of the stock of the company has lately come into the hands of the 
Lessee; so that now all interests are practically one, and in the same hands, and those 
that of the active management of the business. 

With increased facilities of manufacture our rapidly growing business will have the 
same prompt and accurate attention that has secured a national reputation for us as 
making the best goods in our line, and for careful and exact business methods that keep 
promises and meet obligations. 

As heretofore, our New York office will be under the personal supervision of Mr. 
William R. Clarke, who has been actively identified with the work of the Celadon Terra- 
Cotta Co. since its beginning ; the Chicago office and Western business will be looked 
after by Mr. Henry S. Harris, who has represented the interests of the Lessee on that 
field for the past two years ; while the general management of the business will remain 
in the hands of Mr. Charles T. Harris, who has for sixteen years been identified with the 
roofing-tile business of this country, and for the past three years Lessee and Manager of 
the business which has made greater progress in the manufacture of roofing tiles than 
has any of its predecessors or contemporaries. The factory work will be under the direct 
inspection of Mr. A. B. Clarke, which insures both accuracy of manufacture and prompt- 
ness of deliveries. 

All inquiries shall have prompt and proper attention ; all promises will be kept, because 
none will be made that cannot be; all representations made will be based on facts, and an 
earnest effort made to satisfy the wishes of owners and develop the details of architects, 
as will be evident from the facts and figures given in the following series of articles be- 
ginning in November number. 



CHARLES T. HARRIS, President. 
HEiNRY S. HARRIS, Vice-President. 



WILLIAM R. CLARKE, Sec y and Treas. 
ALVORl) B. CLARKE, Superintendent. 



The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd., 

CHARLES T. HARRIS, Lessee, 



Manufacturers of 



Artistic Roofing Tiles. 

NEW YORK OFFICE: CHICAGO OFFICE: 

Room 1123, Presbyterian Bids:., Works at Alfred, N. Y. Room lOOl, Marquette Bldg., 



156 Fifth Avenue. 



(Under Babcock Patents.) 



204 Dearborn St. 



E 

m. 

E 
E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

m. 

E 

E 

E 
E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 
E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 
E 

E 

E 

E 

E 



XXX 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 




THE ASTORIA HOTEL, FIFTH AVENUE AND THIRTY-FOURTH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 



H. J, HARCENBERGH, ARCHITECT. 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA EXECUTED BY 



The New York Architectural Terra -Cotta Company, 



38 Park Row, New Yokk City. 
PHILADELPHIA. BOSTON. 



CHICAGO. 




Jbrickbvilder 



OCT. 

1897 
No. 10 



WATER Ki 
6TREET ^p! 
B05T0N^! 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN MATERIALS OF CLAY. 

PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 
p. o. nox 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to sul)scril)ers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union . . . . . §3 50 per year 

COPYKKiHT, 1803, t*Y THR BRICKBI'H.DER PIIBLISIMNG COM PAN V. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 

PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT. 
No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this pul)lication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 

IN colonial times, and down to a comparatively recent date, to lay 
brick in Flemisli, or in luiglish bond, was a common practise. 
Specimens of both may still be seen in the older parts of nearly all 
of our Eastern cities ; Init we fear that what was formerly a rule — 
and a very good rule, too — has long since become the rarest exxep- 
tion. This is especially true of New York, where, of all the work 
done by the present generation of builders, we know but a few 
righteous examples. 

America has gained immensely in many things by adopting the 
good, rejecting the bad, and avoiding the mistakes of older nations. 
In the bonding of brickwork this wise policy seems to have been 
reversed. Notwithstanding the force of both precept and example, 
we have contracted the inexcusably bad habit of laying brick in ver- 
tical tiers, with little more than a pretense at bonding. Worse still, 
we seem inclined tc pursue this retrograde and dangerous career in 
spite of all warning and remonstrance. The sham that goes under 
the name of " American bond," and at which people who have seen 
It for the first time laugh ironically, has not the poor merit of being 
a successful delusion. Nobody, we suppose, is expected to believe 
that the four inches of face brick, in which no headers are permitted 
to appear, can be counted in as an integral part of the wall's thick- 
ness. A brick-mason of some thirty years' experience in England 
assured us, not many days ago, that " to face a wall without using 
bona fide headers is a thing utterly unknown there, — except as a 
criminal offense." We hope that here, too, there is a time coming 
when it will be classified in the same category, and similarly branded 
in public estimation. 

The first, but we think the only practical difficulty encountered 
in this is the various sizes efface brick now in general use, and the 



want of corresponding sizes of common brick to work with them. 
These sizes, however, resolve themselves into two classes, the one 
being a brick of 2i ins. average thickness, which, with a ,■',, joint, 
will course at a common multiple oi 2^ in. centers. The other, but 
much smaller class, comprises the various kinds of Pompeian brick, 
the approximate thickness of which may be set down at i }i ins. 
This with a mortar joint of ,v gives us I !| ins. as the unit of measure- 
ment. It is with the latter class that the obstacles to be overcome 
appear most formidable; but they are only apparent, and in both 
cases can be made to vanish. 

One way in which this may be done is to have common brick 
made to the same thickness as the face brick ; or just a trifle less, to 
allow for a necessarily greater degree of irregularity in the bricks, 
and a more liberal use of mortar in bedding them. That a demand 
for CMTimon brick to be used in this way exists may have been 
gleaned from many inquiries made l)v architects from time to time, 
echoed by The Bkickbuilder, and reechoed by some of our con- 
tributors. We would be glad to see that demand grow more general 
and insistent on their part. It would be an encouraging evidence of 
good intentions, and an augury of awakened interest. We can an- 
swer for the brickmaking fraternity that the supply would soon he 
forthcoming. The' movement would be supported by all well con- 
ditioned builders, as nobody knows better than they do the inde- 
fensible character of prevailing practises. 

So far as the architects are concerned we have given them 
credit for gocd intentions, but these of themselves are inadequate. 
They are entitled, and by virtue of their office empowered, to do more 
than this. They should insist upon having the kind as well as the 
quality of material necessary to produce work that will be lastingly 
serviceable to their clients; therefore creditable to their own judg- 
ment, forethought, and integrity. They are supposed to know, and 
as a rule they do know what is right in such matters; it is equally 
incumbent upon them to point the way, and to see that the desired 
end is substantially attained. If not by a faithful discharge of these 
duties, then we would willingly listen to such other reasons (if any) 
as may be adduced in vindication of their existence. 

It is the policy of this journal to find a market for good mate- 
rials, and encourage those who seek to propagate honest methods of 
using them. Not everything that is offered comes up to this stand- 
ard, but we have not found it at all necessary to single out individual 
men or things for invidious criticism, much le-ss wholesale denuncia- 
tion. We have been content to advocate and uphold that which is 
beyond reproach ; leaving th:.t which is otherwise to perish, as it 
ought, and as it undoubtedly will, from lack of patronage. Pursuing 
the present subject in a similar spirit, towards a tangible conclusion, 
we invite feasible suggestions in further elucidation of this question 
of brick bonding. We anticipate for them, on behalf of our respected 
readers, a discriminating appreciation, if not a willing acceptance. 
In any event, their sponsors shall have the opportunity of addressing 
a large and interested audience, whom we have reason to believe re- 
gards the question at issue as one ripe for discussion. 



WE are so slow in this country to appreciate the value of 
proper esthetic treatment of our public work that it comes 
almost as a matter of course that, when a great undertaking which is 
primarily of a utilitarian character is undertaken by a municipality, 



214 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



the result, however satisfactory from a standpoint of mere prosaic 
fitness, is pretty sure to be hopelessly inartistic. Our lost oppor- 
tunities are legion, and to them must be added the Boston Subway. 
This was a piece of work which from its very nature would suggest 
the use of brick masonry. The past is .so full of instances wherein 
vaulted structures have been made both practical and attractive, and 
it would seem so natural a desire on the part of our commissioners to 
at least attempt a species of good looks in connection with subter- 
raneous constructions, that the utter lack of any attempt at anything 
more than a strictly utilitarian treatment of the problem is certainly 
disheartening. The stations where the public is supposed to enter 
and leave the cars — we refer now to the underground portions — 
are spacious, well arranged, and, considering the conditions, excel- 
lently well lighted. We have every assurance that the supporting 
members are well proportioned and the structure, as a whole, perfectly 
stable. But the rank Philistinism which would utterly ignore such 
a splendid opportunity for striking architectural effects as these 
stations offer is certainly to be deplored. The commission, in its 
inscrutible wisdom, has seen fit to employ glazed brick quite e.xten- 
sively as a facing to the walls of the stations. So far this is excellent ; 
but not the slightest attempt has been made to do anything moie 
than face a barren, uninteresting wall with a deadvvhite glazed sur- 
face. The isolated columns, the iron girders, the brick arches 
between the beams, all stand out in naked insistence, and the daily 
traveler through the subway can find nothing more attractive to cheer 
his eye than the dreary reflections of white from the paint on the col- 
umns, the enameling on the beams, and the glazing on the bricks. It 
is surely not from lack of precedent that the opportunity has been 
neglected. One has only to go through the new Public Library 
Building to see how strikingly successful effects can be obtained by 
combinations of vaulting with the use of either the Guastavino arches 
or some kindred form of brick or terra-cotta. The subway has been 
well built, well planned, and has been in the hands of a commission 
which was able in every respect except in its ability to appreciate the 
desirability of good looks. In this respect the subway stations pre- 
sent a dismal, hopeless failure. 



public, fulfilling as many of their requirements as possible, and 
increasing the revenue of the company as well as the architectural 
beauty of the city. 

MR. EDMUND M. WHEELWRIGHT'S series on Ameri- 
can Schoolhouse Architecture will begin in the November 
number of The Brickisuii.der. The series will comprise prob- 
ably four articles, which will be published in consecutive issues. 
Mr. Wheelwright's superior knowledge of the subject, gained by a 
thorough study of foreign methods of planning and construction, and 
his experience as city architect of Boston, at a period when many of 
its best schoolhouses were built, should make this series of added 
interest and value. 

ILLUSTRATED ADVERTISEMENTS. 

PANEL executed by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Company. Gardner & Fyne, architects. Louis Roncoli, 
modeler. 

The accompanying panel is suggestive of modern locomotion in 
its latest phase of development ; it is likewise more realistic than 
symbolic in point of conception. This will become sufficiently ap- 
parent when it is stated that the panel is intended to be placed over 
the entrance to a building now in course of erection for the Spring- 
field (Mass.) Street Railroad Company. 

To model in perspective a series of scenes, giving the principal 
features a certain degree of relief, and to treat the subject so that 
the composition as a whole may appear correct in its lines, when it, 
in turn, is seen in perspective from various points of view, is a task 
that has never yet been fully accomplished. The difficulties are in- 
herent, and, beyond a certain point, may be considered insuperable. 
The best that can be done is but a well-lialanced approximation to 
the truth, and this is as far as Mr. Roncoli has essayed in the present 
instance. His famous countryman, (ihiberti, did not accomplish 
much more than this in his bronze gates at Florence, which, though 
an acknowledged masterpiece in their way. have often been ques- 
tioned as to the convergence of the vanishing'points. 




PERSONAL AND CLUB NEWS. 
Mr. J. C. NiKHEL, architect, 59 Court Street, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
succeeds to the business of Carl F. liisenach, who retires from 
practise. 

Mr. Harold F. Ada.ms, architect, formerly associated with 
Mr. Wm. G. Hoopes, Atlantic City, N. J., has opened an office in the 
Real Estate and Law Building, Atlantic City, and would be glad to 
receive catalogues. 

The second annual redesigning competition, held by the T -Square 
Club, of Philadelphia, called for the redesigning of the Reading Kail- 
road Terminal, " under conditions which the citizens of Philadelphia 
had every right to expect and demand. In consideration of the privi- 
lege of building over the streets, which the city owned, councils should 
have insisted upon the acquirement by the railroad company of the 
entire block from 1 i th to 12th Street, and from Market to Filbert 
Street, and also upon the proper recession of all fronts so as to accom- 
modate the accumulated traffic," says the program. .Some of the con- 
ditions were : one or more courts of approach ; accommodations for 
shops, stores, a bank, and such trades as would necessarily have to 
be provided for in this rearrangement; facilities for checking bicycles, 
and their convenient storage, etc.; waiting places for street cars; 
hotel accommodations. In general, the building should be con- 
sidered and arranged to be a central place of convenience for the 



In their advertisement, page xiv, K. Guastivano Company show 
a cut of their large roof construction, being the fourth recently built 
for the West End Street Railway, of Boston, for their power stations. 
The cut shows the roof in process of construction, after which the 
haunches of the arches are concreted over the beams, and the whole 
surface asphalted and graveled. It is similar in construction to the 
roof built by them for the Union Railroad Company, of Providence, 
the Colorado Telegraph Company, and others. 

No. 4 of the series of brick and terra-cotta fireplace mantels 
which is being illustrated in the advertisement of Fiske, Homes & Co., 
page vii, is one designed by J. A. Schweinfurth, architect, and mod- 
eled by Tito Conti, the drawing being by H. F. Briscoe. 

The always interesting building of the Exchange Club, Boston, 
Ball & Dabney, architects, is illustrated in the advertisement of the 
Boston Fire-Proofing Company on page xi. 

The Harbison & Walker Company illustrate in their advertise- 
ment for this month, on page xxv, the Conestoga Building at Pitt.s- 
burg, Penn., Alden & Harlow, architects. 

A section of a wall laid up with seam-face granite is shown in 
the advertisement of the Gilbreth Seam-Face Granite Company, page 
xxxviii. 

Many other advertisements which appear in this month's num- 
ber have interesting illustrations which have been mentioned before 
in this column. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



215 



E 



Some Important Problems in 
Construction. I. 

BY WM. W. CREHORE, ASSOC. M. AM. SOC. C. E. 

THE title selected for these studies is perhaps not as truly 
significant or descriptive as it might be, since it is the writer's 
intention more particularly to discuss what not to do and why than 
to enter upon the statement and solution of any of the numerous 
prolilems which are presented by the various conditions of modern 
construction. General questions as to which of two or more alterna- 
tives is the best and most economical might, however, quite properly 
be propounded like problems for solution, and with this explanation 
the title may perhaps be allowed to apply. 

One of the first things to be decided in designing the skeleton 
frame of a fire-proof building is whether to use cast-iron or built- 
steel columns. If the building is to be a high one, or one whose 
height is many times its least dimension, the necessity 
for some effectual system of wind bracing will preclude 
the use of cast-iron columns ; for wind bracing must be 
riveted and fastened to connecting members by rivets, 
whereas rivets cannot be driven in cast iron without 
liability of cracking it. Everything considered, perhaps ^' 

the best and safest course to pursue is to reject cast 
iron altogether and proceed to use steel throughout ; but at present 
prices, as long as the law does not absolutely prohibit the use of cast 
iron, there are certain limits between which it is safe and a little less 
costly than steel. These limits are not by any means to be deter- 
mined off-hand, nor, unfortunately, by the legal limitations of the 
use of cast iron. A safe designer will take into 
account the possibility of making details of con- 
nections which will be fully as strong as the 
members connected. 

Fig. I shows a 6 in. cast-iron column carry- 
ing a 12 in. double beam girder on each side. 
The total width of this girder over flanges being 
a little more than twice the diameter of the 
column, it becomes a serious problem to design a 
seat and brackets which will convey the load into 
the body of the column. Fig. 2 represents the 
same thing in a worse form, as the loads come 
from adjacent instead of opposite sides of the 



^ 






T 



SI, I 



t^ 



T 



I I 



J 




T 



2 



riQ. 3 



column, and this eccentric loading causes an addi- 
tional moment in the shaft of the column. Cast 
brackets and seats in cases like these 
are out of proportion to the size of 
the column, and must of necessity h& 
clumsy and unsuitable, to say the 
least. The column, although theoret- 
ically of sufficient size for the im- 
posed loads were they laid vertically 
on its shaft, is not large enough to 
receive them through side brackets. 

.Six or seven inch cast columns are seldom 
made thicker than one inch, because the same 
amount of metal put into a larger sized column is 
more economical. A small column I in. thick 
reduced to three quarters of an inch on one side 
by the shifting of the core, as is frequently the 
case, is not heavy enough to withstand the pull of 
1% and lYz in. seats and brackets attached to it. 
The metal in the body of the column in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the bracket is more severely 
stressed than any other portion of the column or 
the bracket itself, and the tendency of the seats 
and brackets to pull out of the column is in- 
creased. This might have been theoretically in- 



Q^ 



5E5 



T 



i 



G I 



^ 



% 



T 



n' V 



r 



ferred, but it is confirmed by observation of cast column failures 
of recent years. 

It seems clear from the preceding remarks that the use of small 
ca.st-iron columns is often accompanied by considerable risk, even 
when they are most carefully designed and used 
within the legal limitations. In the writer's opin- 
ion, the "line" should be "drawn" at the 8 in. 
column, and nothing smaller should be used except 
in very rare instances where the loads can be 
symmetrically imposed. This limitation having 
been determined, it will be found a little less 
costly at present prices to use riveted steel col- 
umns in the three or four top stories of an ordi- 
narily loaded building, and this method has also 
the advantage of stiffening the building where 
stiffness is most needed to resist wind forces. 
These upper story columns may be made of four 
angles and a plate, or of four angles latticed. To 
produce the desired rigidity, all beam 
and girder connections to them as 
well as their connections to each 
other should be riveted. 

On the other hand, the 16 in. 
cast column may be taken as the 
upper limit. Beyond this steel box 
columns can be built of angles and plates to 
better advantage and will be found less costly. 
In the manufacture of very heavy cast columns it 
is difficult to keep the core from shifting consid- 
erably, owing to the increased action of gravity 
on the molten metal, causing it to flow underneath 
and buoy the core up. Then, too, imperfections 
are less easily detected in heavy castings, and one 
cannot be as certain of getting good material. 

A shaft made up of a number of cast columns 
is very dependent on the flange connections for 
its stability. Fig. 3 shows an error (much too 
common among designers) whereby the stability 
of the shaft is practically reduced to zero. The 
column flanges should extend equally in all direc- 
tions, as shown in Fig. 4, and not in two opposite 
directions only, as in Fig. 3. A thrust along the 
line of the beam at D would tend to separate the two columns B and 
C, and to cause them to take the positions indicated by the dotted 
lines. The only possible advantage to be gained in this side flange 
construction is in case of columns built in the wall to permit 
the brickwork to pass more easily around them, but the risk is 
too great and it should never be allowed. Column flanges 
should be reinforced also by small 45 deg. brackets, as shown 
in Fig. 4, and the bolts should be located as far out as possible 
in each direction for the purpose of increasing the column's 
stability or of broadening its base (which amounts to the 
same thing). 

Another error, not now so common as it used to be, is the 
use of shallow brackets under the beam seats. A 45 deg. bracket 
for this purpose is too shallow. The depth of the bracket not only 
affects the resistance of the material to the. external shearing forces, 
but also determines the tensile stress at the point where the seat joins 
the main body of the column, that is, at the point a in Fig. 4. The 
deeper the bracket the less this tensile stress becomes for a given 
load. If we assume the bracket and seat together as one rigid body, 
then the load from the beam acting downward at P (Fig. 5), a 
distance x from the column, causes a pull or a tensile stress along 
the line of the force H and in the opposite direction. It will be 
easily seen that the amount of this pull, H, is dependent for a 
given load, P, upon the two distances x and y (or rather their 
relation to each other), and that this pull increases as x increases, 
but decreases as y increases. Multiplying each force by its per- 



f^'G ■^. 



2l6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




pendicular distance from the point a and equating these products, 
we have 

Hv = Px, 
giving the amount of the pull 

H = I". 

y 

Although, strictly speaking, the strain does not all reach the column 
in the line of //, but is distributed along the whole height of the 
bracket, still much the greater part of it must be resisted by the 
metal in the line of the force //, and the deeper the bracket the less 

this force is. With a 45 
deg. bracket the force // 
is just equal to the load 1', 
and diminishes as the 
angle between the seat 
and the bracket increases. 
These brackets are now 
usually made with a 60 
deg. slope 

In the preceding dis- 
cussion the load is 
assumed to be applied at 
the very tip end of the 
column seat, and were the 
beam to deflect, however 
slightly, this would be the 
actual point of its applica- 
tion. To prevent this and 
thus add strength and sta- 
bility by applying the load 
close to the column, the 
seat is often made slightly sloping (see dotted lines, Fig. 5), say ^V 'o 
\ in. to the foot, just enough to exceed the largest anticipated deflec- 
tion of the beam. 

A similar line of reasoning applies to the brackets or webs of a 
cast-iron shoe.- Such a shoe as is represented in Fig. 6 is too .shallow 
for its width, and the lower flange is subjected to a greater tensile 
stress at a than that of a deeper shoe would be, as in Fig. 7. A 
slight unevenness in the grouting of a cast-iron shoe is not an unusual 
occurrence, and as it is sure to set up irregular and almost incalcu- 
lable stresses in the metal, a shoe should be designed with an ample 
factor of safety to begin with. This, it should be noted, does not 
mean that the metal .should be used wastefully merely to increase the 
weight of the casting, but that it should be properly placed where it 
will do the most good. The commonest errors are making the shoe 
too shallow and placing the brackets or webs too far apart, thus 
weakening the lower flange or base-plate. A slope of 60 degs. 
usually figures out about right for these shoe brackets also. 

Another reprehensible practise is that of leaving columns (espe- 
cially cast columns) unbraced or insufficiently braced in one direc- 
tion. It nearly always happens that the principal loads to be carried 
come from opposite sides of the column only, but it is quite essential, 
both for economy and stability, that the 
lesser loads coming from the other direc- 
tions should be so spaced that a pair of 
them may be directly supjjorted by the 
columns, and of the intermediate pairs 
none should load the girder at its center. 
In strictly fire-proof construction, where 
all the beams and columns are of metal 
and ihe floors of some solid material, the structure is usually rigid 
enough if its base is not too narrow ; but in a combination semi- 
fireproof structure of cast-iron columns, steel girders, and wooden 
beams, where the beams rest on top of the girders, there is almost 
no lateral stiffness through the whole length of a line of girders 
unless special stiffening beams are placed between all columns in the 
direction at right angles to the girders. 

There is a frequent tendency to use the girders in this kind of 



depth 




A 



7 



n 



>-v>~J. 



I 



r'G.s. 



construction on very long spans, which of course means on spans 
which bear a high ratio to the depth of the girders. Theoreticallv 
there is a fixed limiting span up to which a beam of 
may be used with its maximum allowable load- 
ing before excessive deflection will take place. 
In fact, the amount of deflection for (juiescent 
loading may be accurately calculated before- 
hand. Hut practically ordinary loading is not 
always quiescent, and the effect of suddenly 
applied, moving, or vibratory loads increases 
disproportionately with the length of the span ; 
so that where any possibility of such loading 
exists the girders should be made on the 
longer spans proportionately much deeper than 
required by the theory of flexure. 

In using girders three or four feet deep 
their ends should be rigidly connected for 
their full depth, and not left simply to bear on 

the column's seat, and perhaps with an additional bolt or two at the 
top of the girder. Such ineffective connections do not develop the 
girder's full strength under torsional or eccentrically applied forces. 
Aside from this, the strength of a structure as a whole does not de- 
pend upon individual members in it, but upon the united effect of all 
its members combined, so that it becomes a positive waste of material 
to connect members to each other in an inferior manner. For this 
reason deep girders cannot be used to advantage with cast-iron 
columns. Used with built-steel columns deep girders should be con- 
nected by rivets the full depth of the web, as in Fig. 8, and not as 
in Fig. 9. The open holes show positions of the field rivets. 

In reviewing an experience of several 
years in designing new structures and ex- 
amining old ones, it can be said that the 
more experience one has the less likely he 
"1; to is to lay down any hard and fast rules of 

procedure. The conditions affecting each 
case are .so various that construction which might be safely used in 
one case would be totally unsuitable in another case, while to the 
inexperienced eye the same two cases might have every appearance 
of similarity. The indiscriminate use of manufacturers' tables by 
those whose knowledge of the subject stops there often leads to 
incongruous, not to say harmful, results in practise. It reminds 
one of the young dressmaker who started out by attempting to 
fit all her customers with the same pattern. Tables and for- 
muhv are exceedingly useful when rightly understood and applied, 
but a thorough acquaintance with their limitations in actual 
practise, as well as the 
power to know good 
from bad practise, is a 
necessary preliminary 
to their intelligent ap- 
plication. 



-^ 



a 



There can be no 
doubt that the best 
windows for brick 
churches are either 
those beautiful Italian 
developments of plate 
tracery in which all the 
bricks are carefully cut 
and rubbed for their 
jjroper place, or those 
in which, within an en- 
closing arch of line 
upon line of brickwork, 
a small portion of stone 
is used for the tracer- 
ies. — Street. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



217 



Architectural Terra-Cotta. 

BY THOMAS CUSACK. 

{Continued.) 

THE building now l)efore us (Fig. 39) will be found to coincide 
in many things with the one chosen as the subject of last ex- 
ample, besides the construction of its cornice, of which more anon. 
This similarity is sufficiently marked to suggest comparison, which, 
if made, must reveal some of the points of divergence. But first, as 
to the resemblance. The two buildings were designed and erected 
simultaneously ; granite being used in the lower stories of both, 
with gray terra-cotta and brick for what may be considered the shaft 
of the building. The last story 
and the main cornice are, in each 
case, entirely of terra cotta, no 
face brick being used above the 
lintels of the story below. They 
were, we presume, planned to 
meet the greatest number of 
known wants, witii tlie least sacri- 
fice of space, and, in other re- 
spects, carried out in accordance 
with approved practise, the best 
classical authorities available 
having been consulted and fol- 
lowed (periia|5s too literally) in 
determining their respective 
styles of exterior detail. At this 
point they begin to part com- 
pany. They are by different ar- 
chitects, belong to different cities, 
and have nothing in common as 
to origin or ownership. The 
former building is fifteen stories, 
and standing on a corner, has 
one frontage on aside street, and 
the other on a thoroughfare more 
widely known than any other on 
the American continent. The 
remaining sides abut on adjoin- 
ing property to about one third 
of that height, above which they 
are frankly exposed as rear walls, 
pending a similar upward move- 
ment on the sites now occupied 
by these dwarfed, diminutive 
relics of a bygone time. The 
latter, standing free from en- 
croachments on all sides, afforded 
what we can well imagine to have 
been an eagerly accepted oppor- 
tunity for harmonious treatment on four elevations. Here was a 
chance for the erection of an architectural entity, prized, we presume, 
in proportion to its exceeding rarity in the business center of most 
cities. The opportunity, in this case, has not been wasted. For, if 
" design, order, and congruity " be the essentials of good architecture, 
we have them embodied to a degree that is both creditable and en- 
couraging. The fortunate architects were Mr. James Windrim and 
his son, John T. Windrim, of Philadelphia. The building virtually 
belongs to that city, being part of the Girard estate, of which Mr. 
Joseph L. Caven is chairman of committee, and to whose enterprise 
the success of this project is said to be largely due. 

More closely examined, the fundamental difference will be found 
to consist in the adoption of the Ionic order as the prevailing key- 
note, in preference to the Doric of last example. This has been 

The construction of balconies at tlie tentli story is withheld for subsequent discussion. 
in connection with others of a like character. — T. C 




FIG. 39. 



done subject, of course, to such modifications as become expedient 
in applying either of them to a thirteen-story building. Avoiding, so 
far as is possible, anything in the nature of an invidious comparison, 
we think this is unquestionably the more manageable of the two 
orders; and of that the building now under notice affords a particu- 
larly happy illustration. The freedom with which it has been 
handled by Mr. Windrim, without incongruity, is not merely an evi- 
dence of care and deliberation ; it shows that he had a comprehen- 
sive grasp of his onerous undertaking as a whole and from the 
outset. There are few, if any, indications of his having taken hold 
inconsiderately of an unknown quantity, for in no case (to use an in- 
elegant but very expressive phrase) has the tail Ijeen able to wag the 
dog. If there be an exception to this throughout the building, it is 

probably confined to the columns 
at the thirteenth story. There is 
nothing to be said against the 
use of these columns per sc ; on 
the contrary, much might' be 
urged in their favor, but, consid- 
ering their distance from the 
average spectator, a certain ex- 
aggeration with the view to 
greater boldness of detail would 
have been quite justifiable. If 
" 'twill be recorded for a prece- 
dent," then so much the better 
in all such cases, provided it is 
done with judgment and discre- 
tion. The persuasive Portia, 
with an artist's eye to a still more 
effective climax, did not deign to 
'■ alter a decree established " ; 
vet. with due deference to the 
strict laws of Venice, whereof 
she was adjudged a well-deserv- 
ing pillar, there are times and 
places (of which this is an in- 
stance) where the eye is the ulti- 
mate arbiter, when one may say 
with Bassanio: "To do a great 
right, do a little wrong." Col- 
umns of the same general pro- 
portions are used in the vestibule, 
etc., in which positions they are 
unexceptionable. But in those 
placed at a height of 160 ft. from 
the street level, we think the 
number of flutes might have 
been reduced to, say eighteen, 
allow'ing a proportionate increase 
in the size of flute and fillet. For 
the same reason the finer lines in 
capital could have been omitted, and its projection, especially that of 
the abacus, increased with obvious advantage. As it is, the striation 
in the columns is not sufficiently perceptible, and the capitals appear 
rather meager, therefore the general effect less satisfying to the eye 
than could have been desired in this otherwise spirited composition. 
To be sure, this, like other tall buildings, is bound to be viewed 
from a variety of points other than the one already mentioned. 
This much we gladly admit in extenuation of the foregoing criti- 
cism. An ever-increasing population is destined to spend most of 
its waking moments at various levels in surrounding buildings of 
corresponding height. From these points much of the detail will 
be seen under more favorable conditions. It may likewise be fairly 
conceded that no stage setting has been invented that will suit all 
parts of the house. With that understanding, a compromise is 
made between the parquet and the dress circle ; less regard being 
had to the supposedly less critical " family circle," and no attempt 



GIRARt) BUILDING, PHILADEI.PHI.\, I'A. 
James Windrim & .Son, Arcliitects. 



2l8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



made (in this one particular) to " split the ears of the groundlings," 
ye gods of the gallery. So, too, in another branch of the arts 
— painting; whether in the works of old or, shall we say, new 
masters, they are seen best from an approximately correct focus ; 
adjusted instinctively to the vision of the individual spectator. Hut 
after all, in the case of buildings — it mav be from force of habit 



At the fifth story, and again at every second story up to the 
eleventh, the wall line recedes three quarters of an inch, or 3 ins. in 
all, making a total difference of 6 ins. each way in the plan area of 
the building, at bottom and top respectively. Practically as well as 
aesthetically considered, it will be admitted that this gradual batter 
is equally beneficial in all high buildings; and if anybody is in 










HbmhhbP 



"Tin 








FIfi. 40. 



coeval with the human species, amounting to a pre-" sky-scraper " 
prejudice — most of us are inclined to fix our judgment seat at some 
coign of vantage on the opposite sidewalk. Of the future we must 
speak with re.serve; but from this point of view the buildings of 
the present, like those of the past, will be criticized, commended, or 
condemned. It may be noted in this connection that the well-known 
optical illusion which makes a high building with parallel sides 
appear top heavy has not been ignored or forgotten in this one, 
where the remedy is simple, and the result undoubtedly effectual. 



search of a precedent, Mr. VVindrim has furnished one here that 
is not likely to be assailed. 

A true section through thirteenth story, the cornice and parapet 
above, with part elevation of same, is shown at Fig. 40 as executed. 
At Fig. 41 are plans through one of the piers showing their con- 
struction, from which it will be seen that all the blocks are made 
to alternate ; breaking bond at every course, except at back of 
square shaft, in which provision is made for cramping it to the 
adjoining block; which, in turn,' is locked in position at each suc- 



■ I 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



219 



ceeding course. In addition to this, the brick backing is built into 
the chambers of the blocks and around the main column; an ex- 
ample of well-knit composite construction, the strength and reliability 
of which it is impossible to gainsay. No misplaced effort this, in a 
building bearing the name of Stephen Girard, whose biography was 
among the school books of the present writer. It is not unworthy, 
in point of strength and tenacity, the business methods of the old 
sea captain, from whose magnificent bequest this building is but an 
offshoot — albeit, we think, an enduring one. 

The fret course forming frieze is jointed vertically throughout, 
to save cutting through the pattern diagonally. This is on the face 
only, however, and to a depth of about 3 ins. in the blocks spanning 
apertures below, in which case the joints are radial to the remainder 
of their depth ; thus forming an arch-lintel. This principle of 
construction we have from the Greeks, and yet we are often 
asked to believe that they had no knowledge of an arch ! while 
their more enterprising successors are given all the credit of that 
invention. 

The cornice has a total projection of 5 ft. 6 ins. from wall line 
to tip of lion's head : and is carried by 4 in. 12 lb. I beams, spaced 
on I ft. 7 in. centers. These cantilevers might have been farther 




I " I 




-■Ran AT A- A- (f.o 40) 

I I I I "= 

I 2 

FIG. 41. 

apart, but their position is determined arbitrarily by the arrange- 
ment of paneling in the soffit ; which, for reasons to be explained 
presently, had to be uniform in size, and, as nearly as possible, rec- 
tangular. The vertical joint, as it approaches the lower surface, is 
deflected from center of rail just enough to avoid cutting through 
the row of buttons at that point. In other respects, the method of 
inserting the I beams and of setting the blocks themselves does 
not differ materially from those described in last example. To such 
as have noted what there was to say in that connection, it will not 
be needful to add much on this occasion. Those who have not done 
so cannot do better than accept our invitation in this regard, and 
refer back to last issue of this journal. If it serves no other pur- 
pose, it will at least spare us the weariness of a twice-told tale. 

The two 12 in. channels .seen directly under the superincumbent 
parapet are well placed. They equalize the weight resting on them 
and distribute it over the cantilevers below, and they, being securely 
bracketed to a 12 in. I beam running between main columns, require 
no better fulcrum than the solid brick and terra-cotta on which they 
rest. The size of these channels may be in excess of actual require- 
ments ; but as to that, we defer to the opinion of the capable en- 



gineer who fixed the weight of section to be used : if a fault, it is 
on the side of safety. The pierced parapet is made in single blocks, 
as shown, with a series of stanchions passing up between them ; to 
these is secured a continuous channel, into which the blocks are 
molded to fit snugly between the flanges. The top coping is then 
bedded down in cement, securing the iron from atmospheric action; 
minus exposed tie-rods and slays, which, even on a roof, can hardly 
be divested of an unpleasant suggestiveness. Do what we may, 
they seem to shape themselves into alphabet from which we involun- 
tarily spell out — "hold me up until I get paid for"; then come 
disturiiing visions of sheet metal, followed by symptoms of mal 
dc HUT. 

In the panels of the cornice soffit, to which allusion has been 
made, there is a fanciful device for artificial lighting, which, if not 
unique, is an evidence of progressive thought and resource. Instead 
of the usual rosette, an incandescent bull) is inserted in the center 
of each panel, which, like Goldsmith's bedstead, is " contrived a 
double debt to pay." This row of pendants marks the place of a 
conventional ornament from the rising until the going down of the 
sun. When old Sol has disappeared for the day, away to the west 
of Fairmount Park, the building will become outlined by a fringe of 
luminous jets, from which its detail may be studied under a subdued 
light; for, in truth, a fixed planetary system of its own will begin to 
twinkle, as is the custom of stars of greater magnitude in the milky 
way. If modern invention has robbed life of half its poetry, it has 
brought compensating enjoyments within the reach of all, since the 
founder of Girard College went aloft for the last time in 1831. 
Thus does science pay tribute to art, — to the fine as well as to the 
industrial arts, — for in architecture, rightly understood, and at its 
best, we have a blending of both. 



SHATTERED SURFACES ON BRICKS. 

FOR many years architects have been puzzled to account for the 
'' blistering " so frequently found on otherwise sound bricks. 
It commences by the development of minute cracks on the surface, 
radiating from a central point, and the center gradually becomes 
lifted up so as to form a shallow miniature cone. Eventually this 
may drop off, leaving a scar on the surface, and rendering the whole 
unsightly. This phenomenon has generally been ascribed to chemi- 
cal action, and for working out the problem it has been assumed 
that the center of the disturbance is a piece of lime (burnt chalk, 
for instance), which, by slaking, expands and produces the cracks 
alluded to. Of course, there can be no question that lime is often 
guilty in cracking bricks; but vve feel certain that in the case of the 
blistering above referred to, lime is not the culprit. For you may 
examine as many of these shattered surfaces as you like, and you 
will find that the phenomenon is as clearly pronounced in those 
bricks which do not contain lime lumps as in those which do. Others 
have suggested that the scaling is due to the accumulation of mois- 
ture behind the skin, or real surface of the brick, and they have sug- 
gested that the damp course should be improved, and there is much 
in that contention. At the same time it is undeniable that shattered 
surfaces are seen under such conditions that the damp course could 
not be held responsible, and it frequently happens that out of several 
square yards of brickwork, only a dozen or so of the bricks are 
affected in the manner now indicated. The writer is under the im- 
pression that much of this scarring is due to unequal contraction 
and expansion in heterogeneous bricks, and it shows tliat the brick 
earth h"as not been thoroughly pugged in the first place. Even a 
cursory examination shows that these low-grade bricks are full of 
hard pellets, and these would expand and contract at different rates 
to the comparatively looser material. A cone would tend to form 
over these pellets at the point of least resistance — and that would be 
at the surface — in much the same way as a sheet of lead becomes 
corrugated when used as sink lining, owing to the alternate applica- 
tion of hot and cold water. — The British Briclchuilder. 



220 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Art of Building among the 
Romans. 

Translated from the French of Auguste Choisy by Arthur J. 

Dillon. 



PART 111. 
CHAPTER II. 

THE ART OF BUILDING AND THE ORGANIZATION OK THE WORK- 
ING CLASSES. 

{Continued.) 

TWV. .servile condition of the corporations wa.s the consequence 
of an evidently vicious economic system ; but to the credit 
of the Roman law makers, it must be said that they always endeav- 
ored to keep tliis dependence within the limits made necessary by 
their political system: and the same principle that led them to 
re.spect municipal franchises kept them from all useless interference 
in the interior management of the workingmen's corporations. This 
is shown even in the decemviral laws. The law of the XII. Tables 
says, " Power is given to corporations to organize themselves in any 
manner they please, provided they do not infringe the public law." ' 
And it was by virtue of this broad tolerance that the workingmen 
were enabled to establish separate as.sociations among themselves, to 
place themselves under the direction or financial responsibility of 
some more enterprising or wealthy workman who could interpose 
between them and the .State, dealing, usually under bond, with the 
magistrates who were charged with the duty of erecting public 
buildings, and playing the role of an actual contractor (redemptor or 
locator operis).'- 

Moreover, there was uncon.sciously formed an administration in 
each corporation entirely distinct from the general administration of 
the city.^ 

' Digest. , Lib. XI. VII. , tit. XXII.. 1. 4. Cf. Dig, Lib. III., tit. I V., 1. 1 ; I.ampiid., 
Alex. Scv., Cap. XXXIII. 

2 'i'he attributes of contractors are tixed by the Digest, Lib. L., tit. X.. I. 2. § i. Vox 
evidence that the bargains with the contractors were usually made under bond, see Cic. , in 
Verrcm, .\ci II., Lib. 1, Cap. 54-56. Cf. the Lex puteolona, p. 144, etc. The same custom 
is brought out in the account of a difiEiculty that arose between Q. Cicero and his contractor 
(Cic. ep. ad Q. Krat., Lib. III., ep. i, J 5>. See also Cic, ad Attic, Lib. IV., ep. XVI., 
§14; and tinally, the numerous ci>nvcntional inscriptions, such as "' Opus ex . . . H.S faci- 
endum locare,'* e\-erywhere the '* iocatore " or " redemptor " seems to undertake the respon- 
sibility of executing the work at his own risk, in return for a round sum. Kx. : Orell. 3148; 
3277; 3325; 4616; 6^K)5; 660^; 7420 a ^, a (c, aA; 1476 (with the correction of M. Henzen), 
etc. (On the customary bargains of this nature among the Creeks, see Kangab(5, .Ant. hell., 
771 ; Corp. inscrip. gr., 2266). 

3 Below is a table of the most important texts in support of this account of the internal 
organization of the cor]jorations, and of safeguards opposed to them by the central ad- 
ministration ; 

i3t. Inter\enlion of the government into the internal affairs of the corporations. 
The right retained by the Senate to forbid the meetings of the workingnian's corpora- 
tions. 

Digest, Lib. III., tit. IV., 1. i; Lib. Xl.VII.tit. XXII. . 1..?: 
Orelli, 2797, 3140, 4075, 4115, 4235 . . . 
Corporations where the number of members was limited by the government, 
Plin. Epist., Lib. X., ep. 42. 

2d. Existence and examples of an internal police freely accepted by the corpora- 
tions. 

Digest, Lib. XI. VII., tit. XXII. .1, 4. 
Orelli, 2417, 6086. 
3d. Division into centuries and decuries, 

Orelli, 4060, 4071, 4085, 4137. 
4th. Hierarchy and magistracy of the corporations, 
Ordo collegii, Orelli. 2417, 4115. 
Magistri, Orelli, 4054. . . . 4137. 
Quinquennales, Orelli, 4054. . . . 4137. 
IMebs. Orelli, 4054. . . . 4137. 
Offices whose hierarchical ttrder is distinctly shown, 
Actor or Syndicus, Digest, Lib. III., tit. IV., 1, i. 
Prsefectus, t.)relli, 7198. 
(^u.-cstores, Orelli. 2863. 
Curatores, Orelli, 7194. 
.Scrih.t, Orelli, i(»t. 
Honorary titles. 
Paler collegii, Orelli, 4134. 
Patronus collegii, Orelli, 4054. . . . 4137. 
Immunis collegii, Orelli, 4137. 



The Senate reserved the right of authorizing or suspending the 
meetings of the corporations ; but, once authorized, the corporation 
had an existence of its own independently of that of the city of 
which it was a part ; it made its own special police regulations, some 
of which have come down to us ; and it created in itself a series of 
otilicers whose functions and mutual subordination seem copied from 
the organization of the Roman city. Far more than the city, the 
corporations were the ties that united the Roman workingmen, and 
their lives were so concentrated about them that they came to date 
the years, even in public acts, from the time of the foundation of 
their special corporation. 

Just as the municipalities, the corporations were divided into 
centuries and decuries, under chiefs ordinarily elective, known as 
masters, quinquennials, etc. ; the members placed themselves collec- 
tively under patrons and took honorary associates ; they met on 
certain days in meeting places, which are designated schola? in the 
inscriptions : and there they celebrated feasts from which relig- 
ion was rarely missing. They had their priests, their temples, and a 
complete system of religious institutions that persisted even until 
after the triumph of Christianity, and called down on such corpora- 
tions that still retained the pagan tinge all the rigor of the laws of 
the emperors who succeeded Constantine.'' Besides the religious 
and administrative divisions, there was another division, founded 
on the nature of the occupations followed by the members of the 
same college. The corporations were divided into distinct classes 
of workingmen, whose sharply separated prerogatives marked the 
extreme division that existed in industrial operations. As far as 
concerns the collegium structorum, or corporation of workingmen 
who had charge of Roman masonry, I have not been able to find 
with any certainty the names of the categories whose existence I 
have indicated ; this college left no traces except in short inscrip- 
tions, and it is to be hoped that new discoveries will supply us with 
the documents that are still lacking in its history. Hut if we judge 
from the corporation of aquarii whose details are given by Frontinus, 
the division of labor was marked in the organization of the corpora- 
tions by very distinct categories. Hut whether this division co- 
incided with that into centuries and decuries is a question on which 
the documents so far seem to throw no light. 

Frontinus (de Aqusd., 177) divides the corporation of aquarii 
into villici, castellarii, circitores, silicarii, tectores, etc. I will not 
stop here to discuss the meaning of these distinctions, which would 
lead me far from my subject, but will only note their multiplicity and 
call attention to the deductions that can be drawn therefrom. The 
aquarii, it is true, con.stituted a familia publica and not a corporation 
properly so called, but the distinction between corporations and 

5th. Election in the nomination of certain officers of the corporations, 

Orelli, 4057. 

Reservations in favor of the government, 

Orelli, 2163. 
6th. Religious organization of the corporations, 

Priest of the corporation, Orelli, 4094, 7213. 

Temple, (.)relli, 4133. 

Special divinities, Orelli, 1710, 1711,4122. 

Funerals, Orelli, 4107. 

Banquets, Orelli, 6086. 
7th. Slavery in the corporations, 

Cic. in Pisonem, Cap. IV. 

Digest. Lib. XLVIL, lit. XXII., 1. 3. § 2 ; Lib. XXIX., tit. II., 1. 25 § j. 

Orelli, 7214, 28.S6, and particularly inscrip. No. 6086 where slaves are put on a footing 
of equality with freemen. 

Names of freedmen, Orelli, 3019. 
8th. Civil rights of the corporations, 

Rights of proprietorship. Digest, Lib. X., til. IV., I. 7, § 3. 
Colleges forbidden, at least in principle, to receive legacies, 

Cod. Justin , Lib. VI., tit. XXIV., I. 8. 
Exceptions to the rule, 

Orelli, 4080; Mural., 516, I. 
oth. Various details, 

Common treasury, Orelli, 1702, Digest, Lib. III., lit. IV., Lib. I. 

Special chronology, Orelh, 1702, 820, 3891, 4064. 

Meeting places (Schola:), Orelli, 4088 .... 

.Seals of certain corporations, Orelli, 2395. 

< It was for such cause that the Emperor Honorius made a law against the dendro- 
phori and the cenlonarii which excluded Ihem from Roman society(Cod. 'ITieod., Lib. XVI., 
lit. X., I. 20J. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



221 




Arles (Upper Figure). St. Remy (Middle Figure). Vienne (Lower Figure). 

PLATE XVH, THE ART OF BUILDING AMONG THE ROMANS. 



222 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 




■J-. 

< 
s 
o 

:^ 
W 



Z 

Q 

ai O 

< 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



223 



the famila; publico seemed to consist in the exclusively servile con- 
dition of the meml)ers of the latter body. Moreover, the reasons for 
the division into classes were the same in both cases, and the most 
evident conclusions lead to the supposition that it existed in the cor- 
porations just the same as in the familia publica that is the best 
known to us. 

Is it even necessary to have recourse to the analogy? The wide 
division of functions is written, as might be said, in the structure of 
the edifices. I will take up an example previously cited, the Coliseum 
(Plate XXII). We saw that each part of this gigantic building con- 
stituted a separate piece of construction ; that there were special 
work-yards and different workmen for the body of the walls and the 
pilasters that terminate them ; that a pier of squared stone, placed 
in the rough rubble of brickwork, was built i)y other workmen from 
those that laid the filling of the walh. Sometimes the work of the 
mason and that of the stone-setter were conceived in contrary views ; 
the concrete vaults of Provence, compared with the vaults of cut 
stone, furnish an example of this queer contradiction of principles. 
Moreover, the sharp distinction made by the Romans between the 
structure and the decoration is significant; it evidently corresponds 
to a clearly marked separation between the classes of artisans who 
erected the buildings and those who ornamented them ; perhaps a 
place must be given to the rivalries that are brought about by such a 
system of brotherhoods, and we may see that even the paltry jeal- 
ousies of the workmen of the empire, the least details of their his- 
tory, are marked in the works they bequeathed us. 

The custom of placing the contractors under bond had also 
marked results, so that it is possible to distinguish to-day between 
the works executed by contract and those built directly by the -State 
through its own agents. 

Frontinus insists on this distinction (de Aqua-d., 119) and a sin- 
gle example is sufficient to make it clear. We spoke of the amphi- 
theater of Verona, and cited the incorrectness of details ; among 
others, the flat arches, where the stones, scarcely squared up, show 
everywhere negligence or mistakes ; this is an edifice built by the 
State by means of irresponsible labor; perhaps it was done by cor- 
vees, but it is certain that the amphitheater of Verona was not the 
work of a contractor bound, in return for an agreed sum, to the strict 
application of the rules of his art. Certainly it was not by contracts 
that the Greeks obtained those perfect works whose ruins we still ad- 
mire ; that method was sufficient for the building of the walls of 
the Pireus, but in building the Pandrosium, the State dealt directly 
with each of the workmen it wished to employ on its works.' 
The Romans followed, for their purely utilitarian constructions, the 
same course as the ("»reeks took in building the walls of the 
Pireus ; they simply made one of those contracts of which the cele- 
brated contract of Pouzzoli is the type.- The building was minutely 
described, but the methods to be followed were left to the device of 
the contractor. The construction was entirely under his care, and 
he only could profit by any improvements he should make in it, — an 
important point, for it explains the reason of the personal interest 
which resulted in the introduction of the many ingenious artifices 
that were employed to render the auxiliary work simpler or more 
economical. 

But a detail that was more closely connected with the organiza- 
tion of the corporations had a still stronger and more distinct in- 
fluence on the future of Roman construction ; this was the regulations 
that fixed the methods of the art of building in every corporation, 
and that consecrated, it might be said, all the lessons of the past. 
The corporations were not satisfied in following the regulations of 
order and discipline ; aside from the articles that treated of the 
policing of the associations, the lex collegii comprised technical pre- 
scriptions similar to the statutes that forbade members of our ancient 
guilds following vicious methods, or that rendered certain traditional 
methods obligatory. These ordinances were retained in the corpora- 

'.See Rangabd, Ant. hell., inscrip. No. 771, for the walls of the Pireus, and inscrip. 
Nos. 56 to 60 for the Pandrosium. 
^Orell., 6428. 



tions and, doubtless, were never made entirely public ; so that it is 
■ easier to establish their existence than to determine their details. 
Those that are the best known belong to the corporation of fullones. 
Pliny gives them entire, and adds that they were submitted to the 
sanction of the people and voted as laws of the State. Evidently 
this was not an isolated case; and limiting ourselves to our special 
subject, it is quite reasonable to admit that there were regulations 
relative to construction when we see that the Romans fixed the treat- 
ment of woven goods by law ; furthermore, it is known through evi- 
dence in Frontinus that a law fixed the seasons when works in 
masonry could be carried on, and the season when they should be 
suspended because they could not be executed with success (Front, 
de ."^quad., I 23).'' 

On the whole, these corporations resemble the institutions of 
the middle ages by a remarkable conformity of institutions and cus- 
toms; and, if it were allowable to neglect the part occupied by 
slavery in the ancient corporations, one might say that the ones were 
the likeness and continuation of the others. 

The corporations had under their orders — ^and sometimes in- 
cluded among their members — a large number of slaves; and there 
is no doubt that the cooperation of this class, whom the ancients 
spared but little, aided greatly in making the rude methods of Roman 
construction possible. But the distinction that separated slaves from 
freemen in the corporations must not be exaggerated ; there were, 
perhaps, some reasons to make this distinction sharp in the corpora- 
tions of builders, but in the other corporations they were not so 
great. L'y a privilege that one would little expect to find in ancient 
society, slaves, or foreigners, affiliated to the corporations seem 
often to have been put on an equal footing with freemen or Roman 
citizens ; and on reading some of the regulations of the corporations 
that have been preserved in inscriptions, one is astonished by the 
perfect equality that seems to have existed here between the two 
classes, elsewhere so profoundly separated.'' 

3 This regulation contained three principal parts : 

1st. To commence masonry not sooner than .April i. 

2d. To suspend operations during the great heat of summer, in order to avoid the sud- 
den drying of mortar. 

3d. To finish work before November i. 

The last article calls for a comparison which I think quite useful. Ky a remarkable co- 
incidence it is this same date of the first of November that is indicated in the Lex puteo- 
lana before cited (Corps, inscrip. No. 577), as the date when the work should be completed. 
It is perhaps a fortuitous coincidence, but it seems natural to explain it by attributing a 
common origin to the two documents, which would then be distinct enunciations of the 
same custom to whicli Frontinus alludes, recommendijig it "as an excellent practise, though 
seldom observed in spite of the law that prescribes it.'' 

I do not know whether we should place in the same series the extract from the leges 
operum, given by Pliny (Hist. nat. XXXVI., 55), which forbids contractors from using 
lime less than three months old ; these leges operum — the Lex puteolana is an example 
of them — seemed to have less the character of general laws than of special agreements 
in particular cases. 

For the regulation in form of a law imposed on the collegium fullonum see Pliny, Hist, 
Nat., XXXV., 57, 

*To complete this article a list of the principal corporations that were occujiied in pub- 
lic works is necessary, which is the object of this note. 

1st. We hive first the Collegium structorum. This corporation was composed ex- 
clusively of men working on rubble masonry (struere, structura is never applied to works of 
cut stone without mortar) The Colleg. structorum is mentioned in the following inscrip- 
tions : — 

Gruter, p. mfi. 8 ; 646, 6; 100.^, 1 ; 1 1 17, 10 (?); Orelli, No. 6354; this inscrip. is no- 
ticeable in that it establishes the incorporation of slaves in the Colleg. structorum. 

Spon. Miscell. ant., p. 231. This inscrip. seems to indicate a special category of struc- 
toris parietarii in the Colleg. structorum. The Digest also seems to distinguish the 
arcuarii who constructed vaults from the structoris (lAh. L, tit. V[., 1. 6). 

Privileges: The structores were included in the list of 32 professions that were ex- 
empted from all public charges, and particularly from the corvee by a law of Constantine 
(Cod. Theod., Lib. XIIL, tit. IV., 1. 2). 

2d. With tlie Colleg structorum there may be cited a series of clearly distinct cor- 
porations, comprising the workmen occupied in preparing blocks of dressed stone to be 
used without mortar. With the structores they enjoyed the complete exemption given by the 
constitution of Constantine. Their names were Lapidarii, Maffei, Mus. Veron., 130, i ; 
Orelli, 4208, 4220; Marmorarii, Orelli, 4219, 4220, 7245; Quadratarii ; Godefroy, Cod. 
Theod., commentary on the text cited. 

3d. The group of corporations which we assemble because they are almost invariably 
associated in the texts, the fabri ferrarii, tignarii, centonarii, dendrophori: 

{a) The fabri ferrarii, or simply fabri, worked in metal used in building. 

(i) The tignarii worked in wood, included in the list of exempts (Cod. Theod., Lib. 
XIII.,tit. IV., 1, 2) and to which were attached either as subdivisions or as allied trades 
certain secondary professions, of which a list will be interesting because it gives a measure 
of the division of labor of whicJi we have so often spoken. 

The Clavarii materiarum (Orelli 4164), whose special duty was to prepare the dowels 



224 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The institution of corporations as shown by this summary review 
seems to carry as a consequence these general facts : — 

I St. It should have assured the regular execution of public 
works, but, in return, to have lent itself but little to changes and 
innovations. It is the fate of all systems, where detailed regulations 
are interposed between the agents and the object, to lead quickly to 
formulas, to consecrated types, which may be excellent but which are 
unchangeable. This happened to Roman construction. The mo- 
ment of its taking form was a time of a general overturning of 
ancient institutions, but the period of formation was brief and sud- 
denly the methods became fixed ; and, as we have already had 
occasion to say, they remained invariable for nearly four centuries, 
from the reign of Augustus to the time of the final removal of the 
seat of the empire. 

2d. Corporations such as these, whose membership is heredi- 
tary, who govern themselves, and whose territorial limits are more 
or less narrow, will quickly develop differences in their manner of 
working that will distinguish them from each other. Two corpora- 
tions bearing the same name, in different municipalities are really 
entirely separate and distinct and have each its own traditions; so 
that, in surveying the system of the working classes of antiquity, it 
is less astonishing to find some differences of detail in the methods 
used in different cities than it is to find, in all these methods, a cer- 
tain uniformity that extends from one end of the empire to the other.' 

used in assemblages. The Sectores materiarum fOrelli, 4278), who sawed the timber. The 
I.ignarii (Orelli, 42'i5); and finally, the Fabri intestinarii (drelH, 41X2), who did the lighter 
woodwork for the interior of buildings. 

(r) The two last professions that were part of this group were the dendropiK)ri and 
the centonarii, of whom little is known. 

The dendrophori can be taken either as those employed in taking care of the forests, or 
else in hoisting the timbers used in the scaffoldings. There are two opinions as to the 
functions of the centonarii; one of them holds that they made coarse clothing (vestarius 
centonarus ; Orelli. 4296) from fragments of cloth, or else the thick covers which were used, 
according to Vegecus (Lib. IV., Cap XVII.), to prevent the combustion of engines of war. 
The other opinion, however, recoiling from the idea of associating a corporation of tailors 
with those of the smiths, foresters, etc.. takes it that the centonarii were simply roofers 
whose work of tiles or of shingles had more or less the aspect of that *' cento " or patch- 
work whose name was given to the corporation. (See for the two interpretations, Kabanais, 
Recherches sur les dendrophores ; Serigny. Droit public et adminis. r()main, t. II., p. 336; 
Wallon, Hist, of slavery, etc.) 

Perhaps the word which in Greek corresponds to the centonarius of Latin will help to 
settle the question. There is found in the MS, of the ep^TjeiijuaTa of J. Pollux, which was 
discovered by M. Boucherie,t<» whose kind favor I owe my knowledge of iX,(KtvTpun'opaif)os) 
centronarius (sic). This translation seems a conclusion in favor of the first hypothesis. 

However that may be, it is easy to perceive the reason that led the Romans to group 
together the four i>rincipal professions we have just cited. The ancient authors speak of a 
corporation formed to guard against fires, though the inscrip. make no explicit mention of 
this corporation. Pliny (Kpist., Lib X.. ep. 42 and 43) proposes to 'I'rajan the creation of 
a colleg. fablorum for this object, and how could this corporation be better recruited than 
from the smiths, the carpenters, the navvies, and from the centonarii, whether these last 
were roofers or makers of the " centos " that protected the engines of war from fire .' May 
this not be the origin of the grouping together of all these artisans and the explanation of 
their privileges? Sometimes the dolabrarii and the scalarii were joined with the centonarii, 
which would seem to furnish a further argument in favor of our opinion, which lias, further- 
more, the support of the authority of Heineccius (de Orig. et juve coll. et Corp.). 

4th. We will recall, in terminating this list of the corporations, those we have desig- 
nated as calcis coctores, who prepared the lime for public works, and the vecturarii and 
navicularii, who did the transporting. 

.•\bove, and probably outside of these corporations, we find the heads who directed the 
public works, of whom the principal ones were : — 

The curator operis (Orelli, 24, 1506, 2273, 3264,3265, 3382, 4011), who had the gen- 
eral direction of the works, and who, once they were accepted (opere probato) took on him- 
self the entire responsibility ; it was with the curator alone that the State had any dealings. 
(Dig. Lib. L., tit. X. 1. 2, § i.) 

The contractor fredemptor. or locator operis) of whom we have prex'iously spoken ; it 
seems, from the Digest, where his duties are fixed, that his functions were those of a sub- 
ordinate to the curator. "The curator is responsible to the Slate, the redeniptor to the 
curator." 

The mensoi xdificioruin (Orelli, 3223); the name of the profession and the instruments 
for measuring engraved on the tomb of one who followed this profession are the only indi- 
cations we have of its duties. 

The architect, the technical overseer — who did not, however, always correspond to the 
architect of to-day, for the ancients, and particularly the (ireeks. sometimes gave the name 
of architect to the contractor (Bockh ; Die Staats-haushaltung der .-Xtheiier, Liv. II. Cap. 
X. and XIII.). 

Finally, at the other end of the scale, far below the ordinary conditions of the corpora- 
tions of artisans, was all the class of men who provided the material for public works, and 
who were placed by a closer dependence on the State in a conditiim but little belter than 
slavery, the metallarii (Cod. Theod., Lib. X., til. XIX.). These not only worked in the 
mines, but, with the convicts, tiuarried the stone to be used in construction. (See conslit. 
No. 8, etc., of the tit. cited.) 

' I have previously endeavored to state exactly the degtee of uniformity that is to be 
found in Roman art, as well as the importance of the local deviations. 



This uniformity, which, in spite of the shades of difference, 
dominated the whole system, came from the influence of the examples 
of Rome ; and furthermore, from the control exercised over the works 
executed by the corporations of the provinces by the agent appointed 
by the central administration. The emperors gave to the construc- 
tions of the municipalities a curator whose functions were more or 
less well defined according to the period, but who seems to us to 
represent, to personify, the intervention of the emperors in the pro- 
vincial works. Nothing leads us to believe that each work of public 
utility had a curator thus appointed by the emperor; but at least a 
large number of undertakings were directed in this manner, and it is 
most probable that this control on the part of the central power was 
not without influence in establishing common methods in the differ- 
ent provinces. This was particularly true about the time of Ha- 
drian. - 

Later the curator tended to lose his character as an agent of 
the emperor, to assume that of a municipal magistrate ; and, finally, 
towards the last days of the empire, his office became one of those 
overpowering dignities that were imposed on the rich inhabitants of 
the cities, from which an exemption was considered as a special 
benefaction of a munificent prince. 

Apart from this general direction given to the great works, 
there was another influence that tended to establish uniformity of 
methods throughout the empire; this was the participation of the 
legions in works of public utility. The Roman troops were regularly- 
employed in building, and either alone or with the corporations of 
workingmen worked on the inunicipal monuments. Vegecias insists 
on the organization of a certain corps with this view : "The legion," 
says he, "includes carpenters, masons, wagon-makers, painters, 
etc., " and a law allowed the employment of these soldiers on public 
works, only forbidding their employment in private constructions. 
Another portion of the law authorized the proconsuls, in case of 
necessity, to place the troops at the service of the curator operum 
for the construction of temples and other public buildings. " Minis- 
teria quoque militaria, si opus fuerit, ad curatores adjuvandos pub- 
licis dare.'' ■' 

As for the application, the epigraphic texts not only show us the 
legions assisting in the erection of public buildings, but also repre- 
sent them as being occupied in quarrying the ^tone or making the 
bricks to be used in pravincial works. On every page of the collection 
of the inscriptions of the Rhine are to be found marks of bricks that 
recall the corps that made them. .Sometimes only the number of the 
legion or of the vexillatio is placed on them ; sometimes one can read 
on them even the names of the workmen (figuli ) or of chiefs of the 
military workmen (magistri figulorum) who prepared them.-' 

2 It will be recalled that Hadrian had the first idea of registering the artisans of the 
empire. 1 1 was he who appointed the curators to the baths of Venusia and of Benevento 
(Orelli, 3263, 3264); and it was he who imposed the quinquennials on certain building 
corporations (Orelli, 2163). No ruler seems to have mixed himself up in the details of 
construction in the provinces as much as this emperor-architect. 

^Organizstion of the legion in view of works of construction. 

Veget., Lib. II., Cap. XL 

Prohibition against placing soldiers under the orders of private contractors. Digest. 
Lib. XLIX.. tit. XIV.,1. 12. § 1. 

Troops put under the orders of the curators operum pub. by the proconsuls. Digest, 
Lib. I., tit. XVI., 1. 7, § .. 

In this case the cost of supporting the troops was placed on the province for whose 
profit they worked. This fact is known from a sentence of Philo fadv. Flacc, p. 966), 
where the author shows us the system by citing the abuses to which it gave rise. It is also 
indicated in some inscriptions that can be found in the r&umi of the Corps. Inscrip. 
gracorum. Vol. Ill , p. 314 (Inscrip. yEgupt ., Introd). 

*Iowe all these indications to M. Fr. RiLschl, who kindly pointed out, among the 
documents of his collection of Inscriptions of the Rhine, the following: — 
ist. .Stone quarrying by the legions; 

Corpus Inscrip, Rhen. No. 651 et seq. 
2d. Brickmaking by the legions; 

Corpus. Inscrip. Rhen. No. 223, p. 63, i, 2. 
Mention of the vcxillationi who aided in the brickmaking. 
Corpus. Inscript. Rhen , p 118, d. 3. 

Names of figuli and magistri figulorum, belonging to the army. 
.See the list drawn up by M. Brambach ; Corpus. Inscrip. Rhenan., p. 380. 
3d. M. Ritschl thinks that the Inscrip. of the Corpus Inscrip. Rhen. under the number 
1397, and the three inscrip. 837, 1548, 1554, are relative to the works executed by the 
troops. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



225 



\* *rAy.y. II 



JU- -4 ^ - - -II ^L- <- 




.J^^yc^ .7 a^'^'^^ -'^-)»^' 



COLONIAL DOORWAY, HAKRLSBURG, PA. 



226 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



227 



Fire-proofing Department. 



FIRE-PROOFING UNDER FIRE-PROOFING LAWS. 

THE ideal condition of architecture and structural practise 
would be one which is in the hands of competent, trained 
architects and builders, who so thoroughly understand their business, 
and whose integrity is so above question that municipal regula- 
tions would not be needed for their direction and control, but each 
problem as it arose would be solved in the best manner for the par- 
ticular case, and intelligent preconceived judgment would take the 
place of the arbitary and often irrational laws which, because of our 
human limitations, are necessarily imposed upon the practise and the 
theory of building. Laws which, of themselves, may in a genera! sense 
be commendable, are not always applicable, and there are crudities 
and even absurdities in all of our municipal regulations which, so far 
from attaining the object sought, — namely, a production of the best 
kind of work, — . often through the ignorance of the law makers, if not 
through the carelessness of the executives, will produce a directly 
opposite result. This is especially true, we are sorry to say, in re- 
gard to the specific statutes which are intended to regulate, define, 
and limit the use of the so-called fire-proof construction. 

Every architect and builder knows what first class fire-proof 
construction is. We all admit that iron is absolutely worthless for 
structural purposes unless perfectly protected against intense heat. 
We theoretically know and practically admit that very few mediums 
are efficient to properly protect the steel ; and while a number of 
materials have been tried with varying success, the choice is limited 
within very narrow bounds. We make experiments which deter- 
mine just how far much material can be trusted ; we knovy just what 
should be done for tlieoretical cases; and yet in probably every 
large building which is put up in our principal cities there are weak 
points in the construction, or more properly in the fire-proofing, 
which the law allows and even sanctions in some cases, and yet 
which no one, if put to the direct question, would for a moment 
claim to be efficient or even intelligent. One reason for this arises 
from the workings of the contract system. The architect is ex- 
pected to decide in advance every detail of the construction, and no 
individual architect has yet arisen who is sufficiently all-knowing to 
include everything. Then, in estimating, the builders are obliged to 
figure as closely as they can. The builder cuts prices with the fire- 
proofing contractors, the iron worker cuts with the fire-proofer, the 
general contractor cuts with the whole of them, and the owner keeps 
up with the procession by crowding down the general contractor. 
Then when the building by any chance is caught in a serious con- 
flagration and is partially or totally destroyed, we say that another 
fire-proof building is gone wrong, and we hold up our hands in struc- 
tural horror at the blindness of such and such architect, or such and 
such builder, to permit such scant fire-proofing, when, perhap.=, in the 
very next building we will do just as badly ourselves. We are too 
inclined at the present period to consider cost before efficiency. The 
fire-proofing is hid away from view. After it is neatly plastered over 
no one can tell what is inside; the odds we assume are one hundred 
to one that the building will never be burned down, and we take our 
chances, fortunately, with a very large degree of impunity. In these 
days of the wide dissemination of knowledge through books of all 
sorts there is no excuse for any architect or builder being ignorant 
of proper methods, and the practical theories of fire-proofing as ap- 
plied to large buildings, but we unfortunately encourage cheapness 
rather than excellence. Too many of our architects will bank their 
reputation on the stability of an important structure upon the remote 
chance of the building catching fire, and will not be particular enough 
to insist upon the very best for that part of the work which is never 
seen, is little appreciated, and is often not understood at all by the 
man who pays the bills. There is altogether too much chance enter 
ing into much of our fire-proofing. In these pages we have re- 



peatedly emphasized the value of burnt clay as a fire-resisting medium. 
We cannot afford to take very many chances when so much is at 
stake, and when we know a material will resist a high degree of heat 
it behooves us to be very cautious in tolerating anything else. 

Any one who has passed by a building in process of erection can- 
not have failed to be struck with one or two weak points which seem to 
be neglected. One very frequent lapse of this kind is in the so-called 
fire proofing of external steel beams and columns. According to the 
laws of the city of Boston, which, by the way, are much less exigent 
than those of some other cities, one inch of ordinary plaster is accepted 
as sufficient protection for any structural steel work. We will not 
undertake to discuss the fire-resisting qualities of an inch of plaster ; 
but the so-called inch becomes in many cases barely one sixteenth as 
actually applied, and we have repeatedly noticed instances where a 
coarse mesh of iron wire will be stretched over an iron beam and a 
rough coat of plastering applied thereto, the plastering being so thin 
and crowded so closely against the iron that every mesh of the net- 
ting is visible in the finished plaster. And yet this passes as a fire- 
proofing of the iron beam, when, as a matter of fact, it is doubtful if 
a beam so protected would last five minutes in an ordinary con- 
flagration. 

We know of one instance in a city not more than a thousand 
miles from Boston where the theory of fire-proofing was carried to 
even a more absurd extent. A certain manufacturing company de- 
sired to build an iron truss over its engine room. The statute in 
this particular city distinctly stated that all structural metal work 
must be protected in specific ways; but in another part of the build- 
ing law there was a clause which recognized the value of so-called 
fire-proof paint, and by virtue of this latter ambiguous clause the 
builder was allowed to simply paint the ironwork of the girders 
with one of the whitewashes which passes for fire-proof paint, and 
the work was then accepted and passed by the local inspector as 
being thoroughly fire-proof. This is, of course, an extreme case ; and 
yet in buildings of the first magnitude and importance we have seen 
steel columns intended to support loads running as high as six and 
seven hundred tons, which were protected only by a thin enclosure 
of expanded metal and Windsor cement, which formed both the fire- 
proofing and the finished plaster work, and was so scanty in places 
that a lead pencil was inadvertently punched through the wall and 
through the fire-proofing. When the building was finally inspected 
it was found that the enclosure ran only to the floors, and on ac- 
count of some furring on the ceiling below there was ample chance 
for a draft of fire being carried up in the construction of the column 
itself in such manner as to convert the angles of the column into 
what might easily become a blast furnace. 

The fact is, that notwithstanding the many substitutes which 
have been devised and advocated on the score of economy, there has 
nothing yet been found on the whole so satisfactory, so efficient, and 
so stable in its preserving qualities as terra-cotta. Not terracotta 
one half an inch thick, run out in thin slabs and deeply grooved at that, 
and then stuck up against an iron column with a little plaster of 
Paris, but a good, generous envelope of burnt clay, thick enough to 
act as a real insulator, solid enough to bear considerable jarring, and 
secured in place so strongly that the force of a jet of water from a 
steam hose will not dislodge it and break down the protection. We 
imagine that nine owners out of ten, if asked whether they could 
spare the space equal to four or five inches on the outside of all the 
flanges of isolated steel columns in the first story of a building would 
anxiously say no, that the space was too valuable, and that fire-proof- 
ing must be devised which would not take up so much valuable 
space But it is the province of the intelligent architect and builder 
to decide these questions, not on the score of economy per se, nor of 
renting space alone, but to make his fire-proofing, like Cresar's wife, 
beyond suspicion. The lesson of the Pittsburgh fire is that it is 
perfectly possible to protect steel in a most efficient manner, and we 
cannot afford to take possible chances when it is so easy to make sure. 
An investor, a real estate owner, will very naturally economize in the 
construction in the hidden parts of a building to almost any extent 



228 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



to which an architect will let him, sometimes this economy resulting 
from ignorance, but quite as often from deliberate intent to take 
advantage of a law which is framed in ignorance and allows only too 
many loopholes for inefficient construction. But we believe that 
every one would be better satisfied in the long run if our architects 
and builders would take the stand that they would not for one moment 
countenance experiments in fire-proof construction except when the 
experiments are conducted simply for their own sake; that in a large 
modern building the fire-proofing above all things must be of the best ; 
and fire-proof paint, a light skimming of plaster or a thin furred' 
plaster wall around the column, while having a purpose and perfectly 
proper under some conditions, are totally inadequate as a fire re- 
sistant. The l)est is none too good. We have never been able to 
reach perfection in tliis most uncertain of the applied building 
sciences, and the architect or builder who lends hirnself to the em- 
ployment of anything than that which he knows is going to stand the 
most severe tests is imperiling his own reputation, is preparing the 
way for a possible catastrophe, the evil results of which can hardly 
be measured, and though he may be acting for the seeming benefit 
of his economical client, he is really doing just the reverse. In con- 
struction the architect must take the ground that he knows more than 
the investor, that he himself is the arbitrator of what shall be done, 
and he should make it his rule always to give his client what he 
really wants rather than merely what he thinks he wants. And, 
beyond this, our laws relating to fire proofing should be rigidly revised 
by those who know more about the subject than the average lawyer 
or legislator. 

We have sometimes had a Utopian dream, which at the very 
outset is admittedly impracticable, and yet which is fascinating by 
its simplicity, and that is to abolish off hand ail building ordinances 
which relate to the use of materials, strength, protection, etc., and 
instead of spreading the shield of the law over doubtful interpreta- 
tions and questionable local practises, to put the whole responsibility 
for the success or failure of every building, where by right it belongs, 
on the shoulders of the architect, holding him to the strictest ac- 
countability, and compelling him by severe penalties to build in ac- 
cordance with what in ninety-nine cases out^of one hundred he knows 
is right. Unfortunately, so long as architecture is an open profes- 
sion, such a condition of affairs is impossible, and we can only hope 
that the repeated severe lessons, which we have at times presented 
to us, may be the means of a surer appreciation and a more thorough 
application of the fundamental principles of fire-proof construction. 
We cannot afford to continue to send up millions in smoke, when a 
small percentage of those same millions, if judiciou.sly expended, 
would make our buildings impregnable. 



Mortar and Concrete. 



FIRE-PROOF CONSTRUCTION. 

ONE probable result of the increased duty upon lumber will be 
to increase the number of buildings put up of alisolutely fire- 
proof construction. With this form of building material on the free 
list, the gradual reduction in the cost of steel beams, terra-cotta, 
tiles, bricks, and other non-combustible materials has been sufficient 
to make the cost of an ordinary building hardly more than lo per 
cent, greater, if of fire-proof construction, than if put up in the old- 
fashioned way. But if lumber of all kinds is to have its price in- 
creased, as seems probable, by these tariff changes, then it is not 
unlikely that even this difference will be reduced, so that it may, in a 
short time more, become absolutely cheaper for a person putting up 
a brick or stone building to have the interior built in an absolutely 
fire-proof manner, than it will to have this same interior constructed 
of wood. As to the duration and to the cost of repairs, the advan- 
tages are all on the side of fire-proof construction, while the added 
space obtained is of itself almost enough to justify the change. In 
the matter of speed of construction, recent experience has shown 
that a modern fire-proof building can ordinarily be put up in about 
two thirds the time required to construct one of the old-fashioned 
type.— Boston Herald. 



LIME, HYDRAULIC CEMENT, MORTAK, AND CON- 
CRETE. VII. 

15V CXIKKOKU RICHARDSON. 

THE RO.SENDALE CEMENT INDUSTRY. 

TREATMENT OF BURNED STONE. 

THE burned stone, as drawn from the kilns, is carefully sorted in 
order to reject any partially fused clinker or underburned 
portions. In a carefully conducted works there is but little of such 
material, yet always enough to require careful attention. It should, 
of course, be rejected because of the injury it would do to the quality 
of the ground cement, but it is probably oftener thrown out on ac- 
count of the difficulty of grinding it, because it is so much harder, 
whether over or underljurned, than the properly i)urned stone. With 
some rock, free from magnesia, the overburned material is ground 
by itself and sold as natural Portland cement. 

Depending on the character of the original limestone, the burned 
stone may go immediately from the kiln to the mill for grinding ; or 
if it yields a fiery and too quick setting cement, as many of the 
limestones free from magnesia do, it must either be sprinkled or 
steamed to make the cement slower setting. The object is to slake 
the excess of free lime, which would, in the course of making a 
mortar of the ground cement, raise the temperature so much as to 
cause a too rapid set. This result can also be accomplished by air 
slaking the ground cement, but such a proceeding requires very con- 
siderable storage facilities and much time. It is, therefore, more 
expeditiously brought about by treatment of the burned stone before 
grinding. 

For sprinkling a water-pot is used, and a measured quantity of 
water is carefully dirtributed over the lumps of burned stone as it 
comes from the kiln. The amount necessary for different stones 
must be learned from experience. It is usually from one to two 
gallons for each ton of the burnt material. 

For steaming, the burned stone is dumped into a hopper, or bin, 
with shelving sides, where it is exposed to the vapor from steam 
which enters at the bottom. Such a bin may have a capacity of 
from 2,500 to 3,000 Ijarrels of cement. The burned rock after a suita- 
ble time is drawn off and treated like that which has been sprinkled. 

On reaching the mill it is crushed coarsely in any of the ordi- 
nary forms of rock crusher, or with a spalling hammer. It then 
goes to one of the many forms of crackers, or pot mills, where it is 
reduced to the size of peas, or finer. At this point it may be 
screened or sent to the buhrs, or mills, direct. The former process 
results in a much increased capacity for grinding. The fine powder, 
which is removed, amounts to about 25 per cent, of the stone, and 
is, of course, conducted to the receiver containing the ground cement 
from the mills, and again carefully mixed with it by means of worms. 
The coarser stone, or the entire run of the crushers, goes to the 
grinding apparatus, which commonly consists of buhr stones in their 
many forms. .Mthough they need frequent redressing, every two or 
three days, stone mills have been found more economical for grind- 
ing such a soft material as burned limestone, than any of the forms 
of mill used for Portland cement. One run of stone, depending on 
its size and the degree to which the grinding is carried, will take 
care of from 200 to 150 barrels of cement per day of ten hours. 

It is now customary to grind much finer than several years ago, 
so that as much as 94 per cent, of a high-grade cement will pass a 
sieve of 100 meshes to the lineal inch. The increased cost is found 
to be fully repaid in the improvement in quality of the product. 

The best Rosendale brands now sift as fine as, residue on 200 
mesh sieve, 10 per cent.; on 100 mesh, 6 per cent.: on 50 mesh. 2 per 
cent. ; but ordinary natural cements average 15 per cent, on the 100 
mesh sieve. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



229 



From the mill the ground cement generally goes to a large ware- 
house or bin, being thoroughly mixed on the way, so that there shall be 
no segregation of the harder and softer or coarser and finer particles. 
From storage it is drawn off by special apparatus and packed in 
either barrels, coopered near at hand, or in bags. The cement is 
compacted in the barrels by a shaking machine, or jig. The amount 
is carefully weighed to 300 lbs. in Ulster County, N. Y., and on the 
Potomac, but in the West it frequently falls as low as 260 lbs., ow- 
ing to the smaller volume weight of the Western cements. When 
properly labeled with brand and date of packing it is ready for the 
market. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OK NATURAL 

CEMENTS. 

Color. The numerous natural cements of the United States 
differ in appearance very decidedly, varying in color from the very 
pale and light buff of the magnesian Potomac and some Western 
cements, through a gray color, resembling Portland, to the dark 
brown of the Rosendale brands. The color is due to the oxides of 
iron, manganese, etc., and the varying proportions and forms in 
which they are present. The value of the material as a hydraulic 
cement is not, however, at all affected by its color. 

Specific Gravity. The specific gravity of natural cement varies 
with the rock from which it is made ; the denser the rock, the denser 
the cement. Some well-known brands have the following specific 
gravities : — 

Brand. Rock. Cement. 

Rosendale .... 2.84 3.04 

Round Top . . . 2.73 2.84 

Minnesota .... 2.74 2.81 

Fort Scott, Kans. . 2.72 2.79 

Utica, 111 2.67 2.70 

These specific gravities are, however, for freshly burned cement. If 
cement has been exposed for some time and absorbed water and 
carbonic acid its specific gravity becomes much less, falling in one 
case from 2.84 to 2.57 after a year. 

Weigh/. The volume weight, or density of a natural cement 
may be roundly expressed as 1.28, water being unity, when packed 
as ordinarily found in the East in barrels of 3.75 cu. ft. capacity and 
300 lbs. weight. A cubic foot in this condition weighs So lbs., and a 
struck bushel 100 lbs. With cements not so dense 300 lbs. may 
require a barrel of considerably larger capacity and the volume 
weight be considerably less. When very coarsely ground all cements 
will, of course, weigh more per given volume than when fine. 

COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF NATURAL HYDRAULIC CEMENTS. 

From what has been already said of the variation in the com- 
position of the hydraulic limestones in different localities, and even 
in the same quarries, it is evident that great difference in the com- 
position of the resulting cements and in their properties must exist 
as well, and that there is no such uniformity in their composition as 
is the case with Portland cement. That this is so appears from 
analyses, which are given in the following table, of most of the well- 
known brands of natural cements, as they are found in the market. 

o 1 Loss 

T ;■„» Mag- Silica Alum- Iron Pot- 'u." ;_ on ig- Sili- 

^ /^' nesia. Comb. ina. Oxide. Soda. ash. 'v' ;j nition. cates 

^*'-' MgO Si02 AbOjFezOs Na2()K20 y,', C02-f- undec. 

•^>'3 H2() 
Rosendale. 

Hoffman, 1897 34.64 14.82 16.49 'oq6 4-6** -55 '-25 '-"4 4 5° '2-42 

Hoffman, 1890 35.84 14.02 18.38 15.20 .93 3-73 n^'' 

Hudson River 36.67 14.35 "S-'? "-So '-32 4-27 'i" 

New York & Bridge 33.18 19.61 11.28 9.40 4.40 14.64 

Newark & Rosen .:ale 34.14 19.61 24.43 8.68 .23 1.39 3.57 635 

Rock Lock 35.35 14.75 '482 17.50 1. 41 4-68 12.18 
New York — Westekn. 

Akron Obelisk 37-54 26.14 13.94 10.02 .52 1.60 4-5'^ f'-**" 

Star 41.60 22.24 16.20 4.40 2.80 .23 1.39 2.06 6.90 4.00 

Buffalo 39.20 26.52 13.24 4.40 2.00 .41 1,44 1.39 6.80 3.24 
Pennsylvania. 

Siegfried 45.95 11.53 5.78 6.86 .69 26.17 13.83 

Milroy 41.90 29.73 13.56 5.00 .74 6-4° 4-68 



Western. 

Sellersburg, Ind. 
Anchor. 

Milwaukee 

Louisville 

Utica, 111. 

Kansas. 

Ft. Scott 

Minnesota. 

Mankati) 

Potomac. 

Shepardstown 

.Antietam 

Lime Cements. 

Round Top 

Cumberland & Po- 
tomac 

Cumberland 



Lime. 
CaO 



38.28 
33'40 
46.64 
29.99 

49.80 



Sul- 



Loss 



Mag- Silica Alum- Iron g^ i'"'" phuric °.';. ■§- Silicates 
nesia. Comb. ma. Oxide. ^^^^ ash \^.^^ nmon. ^„^^^_ 



MgO Si02 AI2O3 Fe203 



K2O 



SO3 



CO2+ 
H2O 



11.94 
22.60 



18.52 4.78 
13. .So 4.00 



12 00 20.42 4.76 



19.79 
12.16 



9.58 2.76 
17.60 4.00 



3-24 
2.80 

3-40 
2.16 



1.64 
.26 



1.97 
2.59 
2-57 
■•35 



10.39 
9.50 

6.75 

15.96 



6 24 
1 1.20 

3-74 
17.42 



45.51 15.02 16.30 3.34 



1.94 10.00 5.06 



34.83 
29.38 



■1.33 
■3.37 



22. 89 
14.54 ic 



9-36 
■44 3-25 



1.49 
1.15 



5.13 
7.15 



13.62 
18.96 



45.66 2.86 21.68 8.34 



39-54 

41.96 



3.80 20.42 

3.19 20.25 



8.38 

14.76 



4.14 

5-3.8 



1.31 8.13 7.96 



10.20 
7.97 



9.80 
94' 



Among these cements the following extremes of composition are 
to be seen : — 



Highest 
Lowest 



Total 
Lime 
and Lime. 

Mag- 
nesia. 

(iS-^A 4Q.80 
42.75 29.38 



Mag- 
nesia. 



29-73 
2.86 



Silica 
com- 
bined. 

24-43 
5.78 



..\lum- Iron 
ina. Oxide. 



10.44 5.08 

4.92 



.Soda. 



164 
.23 



Sul- Loss Sili- 
pluiric on ig- cates 
.'\cid. nition. undec. 



2.59 
.93 



26.17 
4.20 



17.42 
3 24 



Tlie differences are very great. If, however, the inferior brands 
are excluded and only those considered which are standard, such as 
Hoffman Rosendale, Milwaukee, Louisville, Round Top, and Fort 
Scott, the following figures are obtained: — 





Total 




















Silica 
and 
Mag- 


Lime. 


Mag- 
nesia. 


Silica 
com- 
bined. 


Alum 
ini. 


Iron 
Oxide. 


Sul- 
phuric 
Acid 


Loss 
on ig- 
nition. 


Sand 




nesia. 


















Highest 


61.96 


49.80 


22.60 


21.6S 




5.20 


2.59 


9.50 


11.46 


Lowest 


48.52 


33-40 


2. 86 


13-80 


4.00 


2.80 


■93 


3.73 


3.74 



Among these standard brands there is still, however, a great 
diversity of composition, and each seems to be more or less a type 
in itself. 

The results of these differences in composition, of course, affect 
the hydraulic value and other physical properties of the cements. 



THE USE OF WET SANU IN THE MAKING OF 
MORTARS.' 

HV P. HERVIEU. 

THE influence of the degree of dryness of sand upon the setting 
of mortars is well known ; it suffices to say that, without hav- 
ing any very serious effect upon lime or slow-setting cements, wet 
sand can, with rapid-setting cements, retard the setting by inducing 
the formation of aiuminate of lime. Otherwise, the resistance of 
mortars does not appear to be diminished, to judge from the experi- 
ments of Candlot. 

More or less water in the sand used has another consequence, 
equally well known, but which has not received the attention that it 
merits; /. c, the difference of volume which exists between dry and 
wet sand. 

The following table gives the results of experiments made by 
Candlot. 



Kind of 
Sand. 


Weight of 1 Liter of 
Sand Measured 
without Packing. 


Loss of 
weight due 
to humidity. 


Observations. 




Dry. 


Wet. 




Rounded 
Quartz (;rains. 

Angular 
Quartz Clrains. 


Crams. 
.4.8 

1300 
1560 


Grams. 

1170 

1019 
114S 


Grams. 

248 

281 
412 


I Average sand: grains pass 
) through No. 2oscreen (19 meshes 
\ to an inch), and remain upon 

y No. 30 (28 meshes per inch). 

1 Mixture of six sizes of sand 
< passing through screens No. 50, 
1 30, 20, 12, 6, and 2. 



' Translated from Nouvelles Aymales de la ConslrKction, August, 1897. 



230 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



This is for average sand ; it increases to 300 grams for_very 
fine sand, and descends to 25 grams for large particles : the maximum 
was attained with a mixture of different sizes. 

These diminutions in weight are naturally accompanied by a 
proportional increase in volume; thus, in the examples in the table, 
the volume of wet sand increased j'^th, ^l,;th,and 3!,,th,of that of the 
dry sand ; inversely, the dry sand is 0.825, 0.784, and 0.736 of the 
volume of wet sand. 

These results have been confirmed by experiments which we have 
made and which it is easy to repeat : 

1. A liter of river sand thrown upon a platform in the ordinary 
condition of wetness, exposed to the sun, was reduced, after appar- 
ently completely drying, to 0.7S2 liter. 

2. A liter of the same sand, dried upon a heated iron plate, was 
reduced to 0.761 liter. 

These figures approach quite closely to those of Candlot. 

Variations in volume increase for the same sand with the degree 
of wetness up to a certain limit only ; in fact, it diminishes when the 
sand is soaked and disappears when the sand is entirely immersed. 

We will not attempt to explain these facts, as such discussions 
will be found in all works on the subject, but we will show the effects 
by an example. 

Suppose a cement mortar is to be made composed of 300 kg. per 
cubic meter (500 lbs. of I'ortland cement per cubic yard of sand) mixed 
in a box graduated to secure this proportion (generally it is more con 
venient to mix half this quantity of mortar). The volume of dry sand 
will be exactly i cu. yd. and the proportions exact ; with wet sand the 
real volume will not be more, but by reason of the moisture there will 
be less dry sand, making the relative proportion of Portland cement 
394 instead of 300 kg. per cubic meter (650 instead of 500 lbs. per 
cubic yard of sand). It will hence be necessary to take 500 X 0.782 
=390 lbs. of cement to add to the wet sand, a difference of 650 — 
500 = 150 lbs., which at 64 cents per 100 lbs. (price at Paris) corre- 
sponds to an extra expense of 96 cents per box of mortar. Lime 
and cement can l)e readily weighed before mixing, but it is incon- 
venient to weigh the proportions of sand. 

On the other hand, river sand, which is more frequently used, 
is often brought directly by boats from where the dredge had taken 
it ; it is hence very wet when placed in the mortar boxes, and to 
obviate this i)y artificial drying is not to be thought of. 

It is a question as to whether dry or wet sand should be con- 
sidered as the type. It is doubtful whether dry sand alone can be 
considered as such. 

The proportions adopted in each case for mortars is fixed by 
the results of tests made on small specimens. To compare these 
tests in order to arrive at definite conclusions, it is necessary to use 
material not only identical in nature, but in the same physical condi- 
tion also at the time when it is used ; that is to say, the sand should 
not be taken for this purpose as it comes, but should be dried in such 
a manner as to render the samples as nearly uniform as possible, in 
order to be able to evaluate their influence correctly in the finished 
briquette. 

Then a mixture of 500 lbs. of cement to i cu. yd. of dry sand would 
be considered as the normal, and it would simply remain to find what 
proportion of wet sand should be used. The most simple method 
of doing this is to shake up the sand measure in such a manner that 
the wet sand will be of the same volume as drj- sand ; this cannot be 
done exactly, but the difference will be small. One liter of sand, 
the same as was used in the preceding experiments, has been brought 
by shaking to 0.808 liters, exceeding sun-dried sand by 0.0 iS liters. 
But such shaking up or settling is not possible on all public work, 
and the measuring devices are not adapted to it. It has, however, 
been thought well to call the attention of engineers to this fact in 
order to prevent serious mistakes in proportioning mixtures. No 
rule could be made which would be universally applicable, but each 
one must use his own judgment and experimental data. If it is 
important that a definite mixture should be specified, it is equally so 
that methods be employed to carry out the specifications rigidly. 



PRODUCTION OF HYDRAULIC CEMENT IN 1S96 IN 
THE UNITED .STATES. 

THE reports upon the production of Portland and natural ce- 
ments in the United States in 1.S96, by Spencer B. Newberry 
and Uriah Cummings, for the Annual Report of the Director of the 
Geological Survey for 1896-97, Part V., Mineral Resources of the 
United States, have been recently made public, and contain much in- 
formation in regard to our cement supply that is of interest. 

The production of American Portland cement reached 1,543,023 
bbls., in 1S96, as compared with 990,324 in 1S95, an increa.se of 
nearly 56 per cent, over the previous year. This increase was most 
marked in the Lehigh Valley region, the largest producing center in 
the country, where five plants yielded 1,048,1 54 bbls., or 68.1 per cent, 
of our entire supply, as compared to 485,329 bbls., or 61.2 per cent., 
from the same source in 1894. New York and Ohio were the only 
other localities where a steady and considerable growth occurred, 
the remainder of the countrj' .showing a decline. 

The imports of Portland cement were 2,989,597 bbls. in 1896, 
which is a slight decrease over those of 1895, but the amount im- 
ported annually during the past six years has been very uniform. 
Over 40 per cent, of the imported cement was German, the propor- 
tion having gradually increased, with a diminution in the amount 
received from Great Britain, owing to the increased appreciation of 
the character of the German cements, and the more careful methods 
employed in the German factories, the English manufacturers cling- 
ing, until very recently, to the old methods, and being, in consequence, 
not up to modern requirements. 

The imports of Belgian cement were equal to those of English 
brands, but their character was inferior. They consist largely of 
so-called natural Portland cements made by burning, at the tempera- 
tures usually employed for the production of Portland cement, a 
natural hydraulic limestone which approximates the composition 
requisite for a high-grade Portland cement. 

The production of Portland cement in the United States was, in 
1896, 34.7 per cent, of our entire consumption, where it was only 
13.2 per cent, in 1891, and 25.3 per cent, in 1895, so that, while the 
importations have not increased, the factories of this country have 
tripled their output. The prospects of the industry, therefore, seem 
to be good, especially as the high character of the best brands is 
recognized. The price of .American Portland is, however, much below 
that of the imported article, with the duty included, owing to the sharp 
competition among the leading manufacturers, so that a difference 
of price at from 30 to 50 cents per barrel between the two may occur. 

By far the largest amount of American Portland cement is 
made from limestone, eighteen factories using this substance as com- 
pared to eight which use marl, while the use of rotary furnaces, 
instead of vertical kilns, is also increasing relatively. 

Attention may also be called to the fact that our markets, 
probably in response to a demand for cheap cements, is filled at the 
present time with very inferior second and third grade material, 
which is called Portland cement, and which consists of either over- 
burned natural cement rock, improperly burned cement clinker, or 
some mixture, such as a good Portland cement intimately ground with a 
large proportion of sand or limestone, which, while in itself perfectly 
suitable for use under certain conditions, should not be sold as Port- 
land cement and at a price which is relatively much too high. 

The production of natural cement increased slightly in 1896, 
accompanied by a very slight rise in value. The total output is 
stated to be 7,970,450 bbls., of which Ulster County, N. Y., produced 
3,426,692; New York State, 4,181,918; and Indiana and Kentucky, 
1,636,000: while the output in pounds /fr capita of our population 
was 33.93 as compared to 13.04 in 18S0. For much masonry, which 
was formerly laid with lime, natural cement is now used. 

Attention is called by Mr. Cummings to the differences in the 
standard of weight in a barrel of natural cement in the East and 
West, in the former case 300 lbs. constituting a barrel, and in the 
latter 265 being considered one. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



231 



The Masons' Department. 



SOME REASONS FOR ARBITRATION. 

CONSIDERING the fact that almost every building contract 
contains a clause providing that, in case of difference of opin- 
ion regarding the value of extra work or work omitted the matter 
shall be settled by arbitration, it seems rather strange that we hear so 
comparatively seldom of disputes of this kind being adjusted in such 
a way. In discussing the difficulties attending the accurate valuation 
of work attention has been called to the fact that it is almost impos- 
sible for an architect to do better than approximate the cost of labor 
and materials, and the results which he obtains, it must be admitted, 
are often unreliable and inaccurate. What the architect wishes to 
determine in cases of dispute over the value of work is what is fair 
and reasonable, but under existing conditions it seems practically 
impossible for him to obtain such information, for the simple reason 
that he cannot get at the bottom facts. The natural conclusion to 
draw from such conditions is that contractors are unwilling, as a 
rule, to let an architect know the true value of work and materials, 
which, in turn, shows one of two things ; either that the contractor 
feels that the architect will misuse such information if he is allowed 
to have it, or that the contractor, for certain reasons, does not care to 
have it known where his profit is made. After making all due 
allowances for the shortcomings of the profession, it can hardly be 
claimed that the first-named reason is a just and valid one. On the 
other hand, it is usually admitted by a contractor that his profits are 
both irregular and uncertain ; that is to say, while the totals on a given 
piece of work may be very close, detailed estimates would show wide 
variations. While such a state of things exists both architects and 
contractors must work more or less in the dark so far as their knowl- 
edge of the actual value of certain work and material is concerned. 
The way to have such matters definitely determined is to have a cer- 
tain number of experts, with opportunities for knowing all the facts 
of the case, sit down together and, after a discussion of the question, 
both in general and detail, figure the cost of the work individually, 
and after a comparison of the different results, agree finally on a cer- 
tain definite sum as representing as nearly as possible the true value 
of the work and materials. After a certain number of cases had 
been settled in this way, they would constitute valuable precedents 
which could be referred to as a basis for setting a fair price on simi- 
lar work. It is true that, as no two buildings are alike, the cost of 
the labor and materials necessary to perform a given piece of work 
varies also. But with a reliable unit to start from, it is comparatively 
easy to approximate with a considerable degree of accuracy the value 
of work which is similar in character to that of which we have a pre- 
cise and definite knowledge. There seems to be a decided inclina- 
tion on the part of contractors in this country to keep from the 
architects the true cost of the various things which enter into the 
construction of a building. As has already been stated, unless there 
is reason to believe that the architect will misuse his knowledge of 
prices, there is really nothing to be gained by keeping him in the 
dark on matters of this kind ; for, without any definite basis upon 
which to found his opinion, he naturally inclines to under rather than 
over estimate values, and, of course, the contractor suffers to what- 
ever extent this is done. To show that the architect can be trusted 
with a knowledge of prices we need only to refer to the English prac- 
tise, where, before a contract is signed, the builder is required to de- 
posit with the architect a detailed bill of quantities with the prices 
for each different kind of work and materials stated. Attention has 
been called to the fact that if contractors could be compelled to 
depend on what may be called legitimate profits, building contracts 
would be awarded more fairly than at present; for upon this basis an 
estimate would include the fair profit to which the builder is justly 
entitled, and he would not dare to run the risk of taking the work at 
cost or less, and depending on changes for which he can charge a 
price wholly out of proportion to the true value of the work. 



Unless we can introduce the English method of estimating, 
which seems for the present impossible, the only way for the archi- 
tects to learn definitely the value of work and materials is in the 
line of arbitration. In point of fact it would seem desirable in many 
ways to have some permanent board of arbitration, under the con- 
trol of the architects' and builders' associations, whose duty it 
should be to settle all disputed claims arising between members of 
either of these bodies. 

HOW TO BUILD A CHIMNEY. 

THERE are floating through building literature a thousand 
and one remedies for curing smoky chimneys, but very few 
methods suggested of " how to build a chimney that will not smoke." 
This, of course, is a pretty difficult task, particularly if the chimney 
is placed in a multi-gabled house, or near other buildings, trees, or 
hills. Yet fairly good results can be obtained by the scientific 
builder if he follows certain given rules. If a chimney is intended to 
carry smoke from an open fireplace it is a good plan to make the 
throat not less than 4 ins. wide and 16 ins. long, which will give an 
area at that point of 64 ins., — of course something will depend on 
the size of grate, — then the flue should be abruptly enlarged so as to 
nearly double the area, and so continue for a foot or more ; then it 
may be tapered off gradually until the desired area is obtained. 
The inside of the chimney should be " parged " or plastered through- 
out its entire length, and made as smooth as a trowel can make it, 
and the mortar used should be the very best so that it will harden 
with age. No flue should contain less area than 60 sq. ins. The 
best shape for a chimney flue is circular, or many sided, as giving 
less friction. Brick is the best material for the purpose, as it is a 
nonconductor. The higher above the roof a chimney rises the 
better. When expense is no object, S in. drain tile (glazed), built in 
the chimney, makes the best flue known, if properly jointed. — Cana- 
dian Architect. 

THE ENGLISH METHOD OF BUILDING CEMENT 
SIDEWALKS. 

EXCAVATE the ground to a depth of about 5 ins. below the 
finished level, and upon this lay about i in. thickness of cin- 
der or gravel ; upon this lay a layer of clean, hard stone, or other 
suitable material, broken so as to pass through a 3 in ring, well 
watered and rolled, filling up inequalities and leaving the surface 
about 2 ins. below the level of the footway (sidewalk). Divide into 
bays (sections about 6 ft. in width, with battens of soft wood), and 
complete each alternate bay by laying stone foundation carefully pre- 
pared concrete composed of one part Portland cement, two parts 
coarse, clean gravel, or other suitable procurable material, passed 
through a i in. screen, and two parts clean, sharp sand, which must 
l3e well beaten or rolled into place; and before it is set a finishing 
coat I in. in thickness of a finer and richer concrete to be added and 
brought up to the finished surface of the footway, and well troweled 
and smoothed into place. This finishing coat may be composed of 
one part Portland cement to two parts granite chippings, three parts 
gravel, or other suitable material, which will pass through a % in. 
sieve. As the work is finished the battens may be removed and the 
joints filled with fine sand. — Carriage and Footway Construction. 



THE LAW. 



Whekk lots have been conveyed subject to a covenant that no 
buildings shall be erected on the same within a certain distance of 
the street, such covenant is enforceable, though the streets on which 
such lots abut has changed from a residence street to a business 
street. Superior Court of New York. 

Where a contract for the sale of real estate provides for a 
variance in the dimensions of the premises of one inch in width and 
depth, the purcha.ser will be relieved from the contract if the building 
on the premises encroaches more than one inch on the adjoining 
premises. — Superior Court of New York. 



232 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Recent Brick and Terra-Cotta 

Work in American Cities, 

and 

Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — Nothing of great importance has occurred 
during the past month in building and real estate circles, 
although the aggregate has l^een important enough to fulfil predic- 
tions of a prosperous winter, and places September among the 
successful months of the yeat. There appears to be no cessation to 
the building of homes in the metropolis, as the reports of building 
enterprises show. There seems to be an endless supply of apart- 
ment houses in the city for people of every class, and fortunately the 
demand is equal to it. After the first of January there may be many 
radical changes made in the building laws, owing to the new building 
department, which will have complete charge of the building inter- 
ests of the greater city, 
according to the new 
charter. This event will be 
awaited with great interest 
by architects and builders 
especially, and we can con- 
fidently look for great im- 
provements. 

Cady, Herg & .See, ar 
cliitects, have prepared 
plans for an interesting 
building to be used for 
public baths. The build 
ing will be three stories in 
height, of brick and terra- 
cotta. It is situated on 
Rivington Street, and $7^,- 
000 is to be e.xpended. 
This venture will be con- 
siderable of an e.vperiment 
for New York, but promises 
to be successful if popular 
interest and public opinion 
are any criterion. Great 
credit is due to the Cosmopolitan, which drew attention to the subject 
by a competition several years ago, in which the scholarly designs of 
Mr. John Galen Howard were placed first. 

The most important large work in contemplation is the new 
home for the Geographical Society of New York, for which purpose 
a fund of ^400,000 is already on hand. The site has not yet been 
chosen nor plans selected. Judge Charles P. Daly is president of 
the society, a position which he has held for the past thirty-three 
years. Its first president was George Bancroft, the eminent his- 
torian. 

George Crocker, the Caiifornian millionaire, has purchased the 
old Knickerbocker mansion, corner of Fifth Avenue and 64th Street, 
at a cost of :j25o,ooo. He intends making improvements which will 
cost as much as the site. 

Louis H. Sullivan, architect, has drawn plans for a twelve-story 
office building to be erected at the corner of Bleecker Street and 
Broadway. Cost, $400,000. 

Edward Wenz, architect, has planned two five-story brick flats 
to be built on 1 1 2th Street, near Lenox Avenue. Cost, $38,000. 

R. H. Robertson, architect, has prepared plans for a four-story 
brick and stone dwelling for Mr. George Sherman, to be erected 
on 55th Street, near P'ifth Avenue, at a cost of $65,000. 

John Hauser, architect, has planned four five-story brick flats to 
be built on Madison Avenue near loist Street. Cost, Sioo.ooo. 



Henry Anderson, architect, is making plans for the new Lu- 
theran church on 140th Street, corner Edgecombe Avenue. It will be 
a brick building, and will cost $60,000. 

John Woolley, architect, has planned four five-story brick flats 
to be built on 67th Street, near Amsterdam .Avenue. Cost, $72,000. 

W. C. Dickerson, architect, has planned four five-story brick 
flats to be built on 1 1 7th Street, near Lenox Avenue. Cost, $80,000. 

George F. Pelham, architect, has drawn plans for four five-story 
brick flats to be built on 103d Street, near St. Nicholas Avenue. 
Cost, $1 25,000. 

Brazier & Simonson, architects, have drawn plans for a brick 
warehouse to be built on Center Street, near Elm Street. Cost, 
$So,ooo. 

Lamb & Rich, architects, have planned a new brick edifice for 
the Washington Heights church at 145th Street, corner Convent 
Avenue. Cost, $So,ooo. 




K1-;SUJI-:.NIE, .MUKRISTOW.N, .\. J. 
Built of mottled brick furnished by the Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Company, 874 Broadway, 

New \ .irk City. 



CHICAGO. — Building operations in Chicago are not large 
enough to attract much attention, unless we except the high 

board fence which the government has extended entirely around the 

block comprising the site 
of the new post-office. An 
advertising company will 
make beautiful this lofty 
screen. Think of 1,600 
lineal feet of soap and 
breakfast food advertise- 
ments 12 ft. high shutting 
out the curious eyes of all 
the citizens who are patri- 
otically anxious to .see that 
all the pile foundations are 
pro|)erly driven I 

While building statis- 
tics show an average of 
greater value as compared 
with the activity a year 
ago, yet business is slow. 
In the long list of Chicago 
building permits issued 
during a period of two 
weeks only three items 
were for buildings exceed- 
ing $14,000 in value, and 

only one was above $20,000. This latter was a street railway 

power house, by D, H. Burnham & Co., the cost being given at 

$65,000. 

A new building project is a large factory for the New York 

Biscuit Company, The improvement, it is said, will amount to 

$250,000. Mr. S, A. Treat is the architect. 

The school board, as usual, has some new school buildings 

under way ; W. S. Fatton, architect. 

A fire-proof apartment building, to cost $125,000, has been 

reported. Mr. August Brosseau is named as the owner, who is 

having the plans made. 



g.,.. 



LOUIS. — There is evidence of continued improvement in 
the building line in this city, and the outlook for the future is 
improving. The opinion seems to prevail, even among the most 
conservative, that the coming year will be the commencement of an 
unprecedented building era, and the number of investments being 
made by outside capitalists in the manufacturing and wholesale dis- 
tricts, and the large number of factories coming here from other 
cities, or being inaugurated among our own people, lends a color of 
truth to the prediction. 

Only recently the Liggett-Myer Tobacco Company, finding it 
advisable to concentrate their business, erected in Dundee Place per- 
haps the largest tobacco manufactory in the world. The site is quite a 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



233 




RESIDENCE FOR R. FULTON CUTTING, ESQ., 67TH STREET ANI/ MAUISON AVENUE, 

NEW YORK CITY. 
Ernest Klagg, Architect. 



also building a 60 by 130 ft. addition to the 
Christian Orphans' Home on Auburt Avenue. 

There has been another effort made to 
improve the northeast corner of Pine and 9th 
Streets, and it is to be hoped that better 
success may attend the effort than heretofore. 
This corner has had a peculiar history, two 
prominent citizens identified with schemes for 
its improvement having taken their own lives. 
,^fter numerous failures by others, the owners 
undertook the erection of a ten-story building, 
but about the time the foundations were 
finished the stringency in financial circles 
caused a suspension of work, which has just 
been resumed again. The original idea of 
making the building ten stories will not be 
carried out at present, but seven are to be 
finished now, and later on it is expected that 
the other three stories will be added. Brick 
and terra-cotta will be used for the street fronts, 
while the construction will be of steel. About 
#150,000 will be expended. 

The beautiful club house of the .St. Louis 
Country Club, at Claton, which was destroyed 
by fire a few weeks ago, is to be rebuilt on a 
grander scale, and .Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 
have the plans about completed for same. 

The same firm is also building a residence 
in Portland I'lace for Mr. J. H. Holmes, which 
I'ill cost ^(65.000. 



distance from the business portion of the city, and at the time of its 
commencement was in a comparatively unsettled part of the city. 
The plant itself cost upwards of one and a half million dollars, and 
equally as much more has been expended in the immediate neighbor- 
hood in providing homes for the employees, etc. 

In addition to this, the same architect, Mr. Isaac Taylor, 
has just awarded the contract for another tobacco factory in the 
same vicinity, being on Park Avenue and Lawrence Street. The 
building is for the VVellman-Dwire Tobacco Company, who intend 
moving here from Quincy, 111., and is five stories high and 300 ft. 
long. The cost will be #100,000. 

Eames & Young have let the contract for a five-story, slow-com- 
bustion building for the 
Cupples Real Estate Com- 
pany. The building is one 
of the large number of 
buildings built by this com- 
pany within the last few 
years at what is known as 
Cupples Station, the heaviest 
wholesale district in the 
city. 

Another long-felt want 
is about to be provided in 
the erection of a passenger 
station at Vandeventer Ave- 
nue by the Wabash Railway. 
Architect A. M. Beinke's 
plans call for a building 100 
by 350 ft., with Bedford 
stone for the basement, while 
granite brick and white 
terra-cotta will be used in 
the superstructure. 

The same architect is 



B 



UFFALO. — - The better feeling amongst 
builders, which was noticed some two 
months ago, is pushing itself forward, and though, so far as large 
buildings are concerned, there is not a great deal of show, the build- 
ing trade generally shows unmistakable signs of returning prosperity. 
There is already a slight rise in prices, which, it is to be hoped, will 
continue. 

Last month the specifications for the new armory for the 74th 
Regiment, N. G. N. Y., were issued, and bids were asked for, with 
the result that the lowest bid was close on to $125,000 higher than 
the amount appropriated by the legislature. Naturally, there were 
only two courses before the commissioner, viz., either to take the 
lowest and finish the building as far as possible and trust to another 
appropriation, or to so modify the plans that the building might be 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 
RESIDENCE FOR R. FULTON CUTTING, ESQ., 67TII STREET AND MADISON AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY. 

Ernest Klagg, Architect. 
Elevations shown in plates 85, 86, and 87. 



234 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




KIC.SIIJKX< K, EUGKWATEK, II. 1-. 

(ieorge W. Maher, Architect. 

Roofed with .Spanish A tile. Manufactured by the Chicago Terra-Cotta Rooling and Siding 

Tile Company. 

completed within the amount, 5375,000. The latter course prevailed, 
and the State architect i.s now working hard on the plans, etc., in 
order to bring about the desired result. Captain Lansing, the resi- 
dent architect, sajs that it is altogether likely that the building, 
instead of being built of stone, will be brick, though he thinks that 
the specifications could be cut down so as to leave the outer shell of 
stone, whilst altering the interior so as to bring the cost down to the 
required figure. 

Phillips & Graves have prepared plans for a four-story brick 
and stone flat building on the corner of Main and Balcom Streets, to 
cost $50,000. 

Architect Coxhead has made drawings for a new Roman Catho- 
lic school for the parish of St. Hridget's. It is to l)e built of 
brick with terra-cotta trimming, at a cost of $40,000. 

Pentecost & Haggaley have filed plans for a five-story brick flat 
building, ten families, for Mr. W. Larkin, at 74 Day's Park. It will 
be practically fire-proof, and will have every convenience, including 
electric elevator. 

Lansing & Reierl have deposited plans with the Bureau of Build- 
ing for a Roman Catholic church on the corner of Alabama and 
Sandusky -Streets. It will be built entirely of un.lressed stone, and 
will cost, exclusive of the interior fitlirgs, about $40,000. 

The new Federal building is beginning to look as though some 
thing were lieing done. The walls are now up to the second-storj' 
joists, and if the remainder of the work can be judged from present 
appearances, the building will be a credit to the contractor, and a 
decided acquisition to the architecture of Buffalo. 

The competitive designs prepared by the eight selected local 
architects for the new banking premises for the Buffalo .Savings Bank, 
to be erected on the corner of .Main and Huron .Streets, have been 
sent in, but it is not at all likely that any decision will be arrived at 
in the near future, as it has been decided not to start on the building 
until next spring. 



BOSTON. — ^ During the past tiiirty days there seems to have 
been a decided improvement in the condition of affairs as re- 
gards the building business in this city, and extending generally 
throughout -New England. There are rumors of a number of large 
building operations that will in all probability come into the market be- 
fore the first of the year. 1 n the meantime contracts are being awarded, 
or at present being filled, on some fair-sized work, the plans of which 
have recently been completed. There is certainly considerable activity 
in the building of apartment houses in Boston and in the outlying sec- 



tions. A larger number of these are being constructed of brick in 
preference to other materials than have been heretofore, which is 
encouraging evidence as to the increased popularity of well-con- 
structed brick buildings, as compared with the flimsy wooden struc- 
tures that in years past have been erected in sections where the law 
permitted. 

.'\mong the new buildings either now under jjrocess of con- 
struction or on which work will shortly be begun may be mentioned 
a large business block on India and Sears Streets, Hon. John D. 
Long, owner; Rand & Taylor, Kendall & Stevens, architects; to be 
constructed of brick. A $75,000 apartment house, corner of Brim- 
mer and Pinckney Streets, John W. Bemis, architect, with Cabot, 
Everett & Mead, Boston; to be constructed of brick and limestone. 
The Boston Eye and ICar Infirmary's new hospital on Charles Street, 
.Shaw & Hunnewell, architects. A $200,000 office building on India 
Street, Charles M. Dean, owner; Hartwell, Richardson & Driver, 
architects; George A. Fuller & Co., contractors; to be constructed of 
brick. New engine house for the Grove Hall district, Boston, Per- 
kins & Betton, architects; L. K. Marston, contractor; to be con- 
structed of brick and terra-cotta. The new building for the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (plans for which were pre- 
pared last year), to cost $150,000, Professors Chandler & Homer, 
architects; to be constructed of brick and terra-cotta. City Laun- 
dry Building, Wheelwright & Haven, architects ; to be constructed 
of brick. New car house for the West End Street Railway, at For- 
est Hills, Boston ; to be constructed of brick. P'ree Baptist Church, 
Warren Street, Roxbury, Mass., A. L. Darrow, architect; to be con- 
structed of brick. New Catholic Church, to cost $100,000, at Whit- 
insville, Mass., for the .St. Patrick's Catholic Parish, Charles D. 
Maginnis, architect, Boston; to be constructed of brick and stone. 
$200,000 building for the Hartford Brewing Company, Hartford, 
Conn. Adam C. Wagner, architect, Hartford; to be constructed of 
brick. $50,000 business block. Maiden, Mass., Tristram Grifl^n, 
architect, Boston; to be constructed of brick. $150,000 hotel at 
Pittsfield, Mass., Samuel W. Bowerman, owner, Pittsfield, H. Neil 
Wilson, architect, Pittsfield ; to be constructed of brick and stone. 
Society hall and dormitory at New Haven, Conn., Brite & Bacon, 




RESIDENCE, COMMO.N WEAMH AVENUE, BOSTON. 
McKim, Mead & White. .■Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



235 




EXECUTED IN TERRA-COTTA FOR THE ERIE LIBRARY, ERIE, PA. 

Alden & Harlow, Architects. 

Uy the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 

architects. New York City ; to be constructed of brick. New high 
school at Brockton, Mass., C. L. Mitchell, architect, Brockton. New 
school, Fall River, Mass., L. G. Destremps, architect, Fall River; to 
be constructed of brick. 



ble ventilator is an open fireplace. With the coming of the hot-air 
furnace the fireplace passed into disregard. For many years its vir- 
tues were ignored and its artistic possibilities lost sight of. Com- 
paratively very few of the new houses then erected embodied the 
fireplace in their construction, while most of those that existed in 
the old habitations were sealed from use. Within the past few 
years all this has changed ; the claims of the open hearth to popular 
favor are once more recognized and far better understood. At 
present there is hardly a structure built for residential purposes but 
that contains its open fireplace, no matter how inexpensive is the 
dwelling. 

In connection with this subject an interesting and instructive 
volume has reached our table, which we earnestly recommend to the 
attention of our readers. This work is entitled " The Open Hearth," 
and is issued by Fiske, Homes & Co., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston, 
for distribution among the architects and builders. While this work 
is published with the objective view of bringing to the attention of 
the architectural profession the large assortinent and artistic beauty 
of the line of fireplaces which the firm manufactures, yet in its com- 
pilation they have gone far beyond the standard of a mere catalogue, 
and have amassed together such material as make it of real interest 
to the architect, by virtue of the many valuable suggestions therein 
contained. 

There are some thirty full-page illustrations of the different 
styles of fireplaces that the firm carry in stock, facing which, on the 
opposite page, is a full description of the fireplace illustrated. These 
designs embrace a wide range of patterns, each being especially 
adapted to harmonize with the particular requirements of various 



NEW TRADE LITERATURE. 

The disposition to freely introduce the open hearth as an essen- 
tial and important feature in the construction of the modern dwelling 
is certainly a ten- 
dency in the right 
direction, and one 
that deserves every 
encouragement. 

Viewed both 
from an artistic 
and sanitary stand- 
point, the general 
adoption of the 
open fireplace in 
the living and 
sleeping rooms of 
our habitations is 
most desirable and 
should be strongly 
urged. No part of 
our home contrib- 
utes more to the 
comfort and health 
of the inmates 
than the chimney 
corner. Its quiet 
influence of good 
cheer is impressive 
and restfully effec- 
tive, while the 
peaceful charm of 
its bright circle 
lends contentment 
to the mind. 
Taken from a san- 
itary standpoint, 
the open hearth 
has much to rec- 
ommend it. Per- 
fect ventilation is a 
necessity for any 

. BRICK AND TERRA-COTTA FIREPLACE MANTEL, DESIGNED FOR FISKE, HOMES & CO., BOSTON. 

•' ' Built of $14 by z'/z in. bricks, with a border and shelf course enriched by leaf and bead and reel moldings. Height, 57 ins. ; height of shelf, 50 ins. ; projection gf 

and the best possi- shelf, 7'A ins. ; width, (,4 ins. 




2T,6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



rooms, from banquet hall to bath room, and range in price from the 
most expensive of patterns to those of a surprisingly low cost. 

We certainly recommend to our readers a careful perusal of 
" The Open Hearth," a complimentary copy of which may be had 
by addressing Fiske, Homes & Co., i66 Devonshire .Street, Boston, 
Mass. 

We are in receipt of a very interesting catalogue from the 
LehmannKohlsaat Clay Works, Chicago, that explains in a most 
comprehensive way a number of new and special features which the 
firm are introducing in a line of clay products now being placed by 
them upon the market. A very complete set of over seventy illus- 
trations serve to make the purpose of these features easy to com- 
prehend. 

Special attention is called to what they term their "Angle Iron 
Fire-proofing Construction, Wall, Floor, Ceiling, and Roof, all made 
of the same tile in connection with angle iron, which offers a perfect 
protection of the iron and wood construc- 
tion, combines lightness with strength, and 
can be constructed with ease and economy." 

The particular feature of this invention 
is the embedding entirely of the angle iron 
between the tiles. 

Now that the subject of the best and 
most approved methods of fire-proofing is 
justly receiving so much attention, it would 
not be amiss for such of our readers as are 
interested in the question to obtain a copy 
of this catalogue. Address Lehmann-Kohl- 
saat Clay Works, Chicago, III. 



ITEMS OF INTEREST AND 
VALUE. 

The contract for the buff terra-cotta 
for Everett, Mass., grammar school has 
been awarded to Waldo Brothers. 

T. W. C.ARMicHAEL, manufacturer of 
clay steamers, has removed from Wellsburg, 
W. Va., to Clarksburg, W. Va. 

The white terra-cotta to be used in the 
new Casino and I'ergola for Hon. Charles 
F. Sprague, Hrookline, Mass.. will be fur- 
nished by W'aldo Brothers. 

T. W. Carmichael reports the sale of 
his fifteenth clay steamer for the season, 
the purchaser being the Clarksburg High- 
Grade Shale Brick Company, Clarksburg, 
W. Va. 



wood Avenue Bridge, Boston, furnishing Atlas Portland and Hoffman 
Rosendale ; Woodbury iS: Leighton, contractors. 

The Conkling, Ak.mstko.ng Terra-Cotta Co.mpanv have 
secured through their New England agent, Charles E. Willard, Bos- 
ton, the terra-cotta on the St. John's Parish Church, East Boston, 
Mass. 

Waldo Bkothers have the contract for furnishing the white 
terra-cotta for new Telephone Building, Newport, R. I.; Perkins & 
Betton, architects, Boston. Elaborate modeling will be used. 

The Mount Sava(;e Enameled Brick Company, .Mount 
Savage, Md., have secured through their New England agents, G. R. 
Twichell & Co., Boston, the contract to supply the enameled brick 
to be used in a residence at Somerville, Mass. ; Samuel D. Kelley, 
architect: D. W. Welch, builder; also a residence in Readville, Mass. ; 
Karl. Zerrahn, architect; Mitchell & Sulli- 
van, builders. 

Charles E. Willakd, Boston, has 
secured the contract to furnish the white 
brick to be used in a large business block 
in Worcester, Mass., also the fire-proofing to 
be used in the h. W. Bessee Block, Spring- 
field, Mass. 

The Ridgway Pressed Brick Com- 
pany, Ridgway, Penn., have secured 
through their New England agents, G. R. 
Twichell & Co., the contract to supply the 
gray brick to be used in the new Catholic 
Church, at Jamaica Plain, Mass. ; P. W. 
Ford, Boston, architect. 

The Shawmut Brick Company 
have secured through their Boston agent, 
Charles E. Willard, the contract to furnish 
the buff brick on the Moriarty Block, Water- 
bury, Conn., and in the residence for the 
Sisters of the Sacred Heart, Jamaica Plain, 
Mass. 

G. R. Twichell & Co., Boston, have 
secured the contract to supply the brick to 
be used in the new car house for the West 
End Street Railway, at Forest Hills, Mass.; 
also for a new schoolhouse, at Dedham, 
Mass. 



The Gale Automatic Safety Sash Lock 
will be used in the Dun Building, at the 
corner of Broadway and Reade Street, New York City 
Gooch. architects. 



terra-cotta mullions, showing face and 

re\eal, store front, chestnut street, 

philadelphia, pa. 

F. R. Watson. Architect. 
Made by tlie Conkling, Armstrong Terra-Coiia Company. 



The Werster Brick Co.mpany, South 
Webster, Ohio, have secured through their 
New England agent, Charles E. Willard, 
Boston, the contract to furnish the mottled 
brick in the Standhope Building, Provi- 
dence, R. I. 



Harding & 



Waldo Brothers are furnishing Alsen Portland and Hoffman 
Rosendale cement to Norcross Brothers for Congregational Build- 
ing, Beacon Street, Boston. 

G. R. Twichell & Co., Boston, have secured the contract to 
supply the buff brick to be used in eight apartment houses on 
Washington Street, Brookline, ^L-^ss. ; also four apartment houses at 
Allston, Mass. 



It will interest those using Portland cement to learn that the 
N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R. Company has just executed a contract to 
use Alpha Portland cement stone entirely in the erection of the 
new (Irand Central Station, 42d Street and Vanderbilt .Avenue, New 
York City. 

A CONTRACT has just been closed by Edward R. Diggs & Co., 
for placing nearly five hundred of the Bolles' Sliding and Revolving 
Windows in the new office building of the English-American Loan 
and Trust Company, of Atlanta, Ga.; Bradford L. Clilbert, architect, 
of New York. 



Waldo Brothers have secured the cement contract for Long- 



The Sayre & Fisher Company have secured through their 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



237 



Boston agent, Mr. Charles Bacon, the contract to supply the gray 
mottled brick to be used in the new Terminal Station, at Boston ; 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects ; Norcross Brothers, con- 
tractors. These bricks are of a special color, and of Norman shape 
(dimensions, 12 by 4 by z% ins.). 

Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., New York City, have, 
since May i, 1897, sold over eight million paving brick for the 
Eastern Paving Brick Company, for whom they are Eastern selling 
agents. Their last contract, recently closed, calls for six million 
bricks to be supplied the town of Jamaica, N. Y., which will be used 
in gutters on forty miles of street improvement, the roadways being 
macadamized. This is one of the very largest, if not the largest con- 
tract for paving brick ever closed in this country. 

The Ridgway Pressed Brick Company, Kidgway, Penn., 
have secured through their Boston agents, (\. K. Twichell & Co., 
the contract to supply the 
gray brick in the Free Bap- 
tist Church, Roxbury, Mass.: 
A. L. Darrow, architect, 
Boston ; also the gray brick 
to be used in eight apart- 
ment houses, corner of Co- 
lumbus Avenue and North- 
ampton Streets, Boston ; U. 
D. Kerns, architect ; also 
the gray brick to be used in 
the apartment houses on 
Northampton Street; T. A. 
Tracey, architect. 

The American Enam- 
eled Brick and Tile 
Company are supplying 
their patent interlocking tile 
for the halls of the College 
of History, American Uni- 
versity, Washington, D. C. ; 
James L. Parsons, builder ; 
also the elevator shafts in 
the. Gatlin Building, Hart- 
ford, Conn. ; Hopkins & 
Roberts, builders. They 
are also making a large de- 
livery on contract closed 
three months ago, to supply 
semi-glazed front brick for the new Dun Building, Broadway and 
Reade Streets, New York City; W. A. & F. I. Conover, builders. 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta Company have recently supplied 
their roofing tiles on the following work : Residence, W. B. Snyder, 
Newark, N. J., buff Conosera; Thomas Cressey, architect. Resi- 
dence, W. H. Lawrence, Cleveland, Ohio, red Conosera; Coburn & 
Barnum, architects. Passenger station, Illinois Central Railroad, 
Springfield, III., red closed shingle; F. T. Bacon, architect. Cate 
lodge. National Soldiers' Home, Dayton, Ohio, brown Conosera ; 
Peters, Burns & Pretzinger, architects. Gate lodge, Woodlawn 
Cemetery, Everett, Mass., red open shingle; Wm. Hart Taylor, 
Boston, architect. 

The Ohio Mining and Manufacturinc; Company, makers 
of the " Shawnee" front brick (works at Shawnee, Ohio), have sent 
us four samples of their product, which we are glad to recommend as 
being a splendid brick in every particular. 

The colors are a light mottled buff, a dark mottled buff, a cream 
white, and a chocolate brown. The surface texture of the bricks is 
fine, and the sharp metallic ring which they give when struck with a 




TERRA-COTTA CAP 



hammer shows that the clay has been well burned, which is one of 
the principal requisites of first-class brick. 

" People have gone wild on the reports of rich gold finds in 
Alaska, and are willing to undergo the perils and discomforts of 
the frigid North to extract from its frozen soil the nuggets which 
will bring them wealth. You don't need to go to Alaska ! There 
is a ' golden opportunity ' right here at home. It lies within your 
power to extract from the earth around you ' golden bricks,' " says 
the American Clay-VVorking Machinery Company, on an attractive 
novelty advertising card which they have recently sent out. " Your 
clay with our machinery will bring you gold without the privations 
of Alaska. The demand for good brick and other clay products is 
going to be heavy; get ready to meet it." 

A NOVEL application of the Mason Safety Tread has recently 
been completed in New York, which attracts the notice and elicits 

the commendation of pedes- 
trians. Set in the sidewalk 
in front of the office of the 
New York World is an im- 
mense iron circle represent- 
ing the globe. As the 
sidewalk toward Frankfort 
Street has a decided pitch, 
this circle, worn to a polish 
by the great amount of 
traffic, became a source of 
constant danger, especially 
in wet weather. With its 
smooth outlines and zones 
covered with stripes of the 
Mason Safety Tread, the 
danger of slipping is re- 
moved, and the illustrative 
effect of the great globe is 
intensified. 

We would call the at- 
tention of those of our read- 
ers who are interested in 
the manufacture or sale of 
clay products, to the partic- 
ularly desirable property 
which is offered for sale on 
page xxxvii of this issue. 
This property is located in 
the northwestern portion of Pennsylvania, and is so situated as re- 
gards shipping facilities as to have cheap and easy access to the 
markets of the Middle and New England States. The property is 
said to contain twelve different kinds of fire-clay and shale in inex- 
haustible quantities, which burn white, buff, pink, salmon, and red in 
color. These clays are of such a quality as to be particularly suita- 
ble for the manufacture of all kinds of brick and terra-cotta products. 
The fact of the extreme cheapness of fuel in this section is an item 
of considerable importance in the cost of manufacturing. 

The Chicago Terra-Cotta Roofing and Siding Tile Com- 
pany report the following buildings completed last month on which 
their goods were used for roofing : — 

Woodmere Cemetery Gate, Detroit; Donaldson & Meier, 
architects; house and barn, F. B. Stevens, Detroit; Donaldson & 
Meier, architects; depot, Kansas City, Pittsburg & Gulf Railroad, 
Point Arthur, Texas ; George Matthews, Architects ; residence for 
P. Wheeler, Mr. Pruyn, architect ; office East End Avenue, Chicago, 
building, Battle Creek Steam Pump Company, Battle Creek, Mich.; 
R. T. Newberry, architect ; residence, Michigan Avenue, Chicago; 
Charles S. Frost, architects; two houses for Mrs. Fellows, Chicago; 



TO column, interior of entrance, SYRACUSE UNIVER 
SITY, SYRACUSE, N. Y. 
C.reen & Wicks, Architects. 
Made by the Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 



238 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




Savkf. & FisHEK COiMPANV have secured the con- 
tract through their Boston agent, Mr. Charles Bacon, to 
supply the enameled brick to be used in the interior of the 
new engine house now being built at (;rove Hall, Boston; 
I'erkins & Betton, architects, L. R. Marston, contractor. 

O. W. Peterson & Co. are supplying the dark speckled 
buff brick for the St. Alphonso Hall, Koxbury ; F.Joseph 
L'ntersee, architect. 

Charle.s E. Wii. lard is supplying the old-gold mot- 
tled brick that is lieing used in the Macabe 15uilding, New 
liritain. Conn.: W. H. Cadwell, architect, New Britain, 
O. W. Curtis, contractor. 

The .Standard Terra-Cotta Company are supply- 
ing, through their New England agents, O. VV. Peterson & 
Co., the terra-cotta for a new hotel at the corner of Snow 
and Weybosset Streets, Providence, R. I. ; W. R. Walker & 
Sons, architects, Providence, M. J. Houlihan, contractor. 



residence at PORTSMOUTH, N. H. 
Hall 8: Dabney, Architects. 

Cowles & Ohrenstein, architects : residence, (irand Boulevard, Chi- 
cago ; J. F. & F. P. Doerr, architects: residence, Sullivan. Ind.; 
Wing & Mahurin, architects; carriage house for E. S. Pike, Beverly 
Hills, 111.; H. H. Waterman, architect; apartment building, Chi- 
cago ; J. F. & F. P. Doerr, architects : three-apartment building, 
Chicago: Burtar & Gassman, architects. 

The Boston Fire-proofing Co.mpany are furnishing the terra- 
cotta fire-proofing on the following large buildings : The new Con- 
verse Building, corner .Milk and Pearl Streets, Boston; Winslow & 
Wetherell, architects, L. P. Soule & Son, contractors. Puritan 
Brewery, Charlestown, Mass.; Hettinger & Hartman, architects, 
.Mack Brothers, contractors, Salem. Jewelers' Exchange, Brom- 
field and Washington Streets ; Winslow & Wetherell, architects, 
(ieo. A. Fuller & Co., general contractors. 



For Sale. 



Brick Plant and Clay Farm in Sayreville Town- 
ship, Middlesex Co., N.J., on Raritan River, about 
3 miles above South Amboy. 282 acres rich de- 
posit of Terra-Cotta, Fire, Red, Blue, and Burt" 
Brick, and Common Clays. Facilities for ship- 
ping by Water or Rail. Fully equipped Factory, 
Dwellings, Office, Store, etc., etc. For further 
particulars apply to W. C. Mason, 272 Main St., 
Hartford, Conn., or \\\ Mershon, Rahway, N. j. 




Want One ? 

If you want a Fireplace Mantel don^t take the first 
thing you see. Be sure and get the right kind — 
the best kind. Be sure and get one of ours made 
of Ornamental Brick. They are the newest and 
best — the most appropriate and durable. They 
don^t cost any more than other kinds^ and are 
easily set up by local brick-masons. Our designs 
are artistic and correct. Each one was prepared 
by a noted architect. Don't order a mantel before 
you have learned about ours. Send for our Sketch 
Book of 52 designs of mantels costing from $12 up. 

PHILA. & BOSTON 

FACE BRICK CO., 

J 5 LIBERTY SQUARE, BOSTON, MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



XXXI 



INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS. 



ADDRESS. 

ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

New York Agents, Pfotenliauer & Nesbit, Metropolitan Building, New York City. 
The Grueby Faience Company, 164 Devonshire Street, Boston .... 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, 24 So. 7th St. 

New York Agent, 287 Fourth Ave. 

Chicago Agent, C. T. Harris & Co., Marquette Bldg. 

ARCHITECTURAL INSTRUCTION. 

Correspondence School of Architecture, Scranton, Pa. ..... 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Co., Burlington, N. J. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 105 East 22d St., New York City 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ..... 

New York Office, Charities Building, 289 4th Ave. PhiladelphiaOffice, 24 South 7th St. 
Indianapolis I'erra-Cotta Co., Indianapolis, Ind. ..... 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 38 Park Row, New York City 

New England Agents, Kiske, Hotnes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

Philadelpliia Office, t34i Arch St. 

New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, 108 Fulton St., New York City 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Ofifice, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 102 Milk St. 
Standard Terra-Cotta Company, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City 

Boston Agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., John Hancock Building. 

Philadelphia Agent, W. L. McPherson, Building Exchange. 
The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Room 11 18, The Rookery, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, i 56 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Winkle Terra-Cotta Co., Telephone Building, St. Louis, Mo. .... 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Pressed and Ornamental). (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 

Brush & Schmidt, Office, 2 15uilders' Exchange, Buffalo, N. Y. . 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio 
Day Brick Company, Belleville, 111. ........ 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ..... 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. 

Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Harbison & Walker Co., The. Office, 22d and Railroad Sts., Pittsliurg, Pa. 
Hydraulic-Press Brick Co., The ........ 

Home Office, (-)dd Fellows Building, St. Louis, Mo. 
Ittner, Anthony, Telephone Building, St. Louis, Mo. ..... 

La Salle Pressed Brick Company, La Salle, 111. ...... 

National Brick Co., Bradford, Pa. ........ 

New York and New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York Cit 
Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co.: Office, 41 Wall St., N. Y.; Works, Shaw- 
nee, Ohio ............ 

Oliphant, Pope & Co., Trenton, N. J. ....... 

Pennsylvania Buff Brick and Tile Co., Prudential Building, Newark, N. J. 
Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, Builders' Exchange. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 88 Water Street. 

Philadelpliia Office, 1044 Drexel Building. 
Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick Co., 4 Liberty Sq., Boston . 
Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. .... 

Ralston Brick Co., Ralston, Lycoming Co., Pa. ..... 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 
Ravenscroft, W. S., & Co., Office, Ridgway, Pa. : Works, Daguscahonda, Pa. 
Ridgway Press-Brick Co., Ridgway, Pa. ....... 

New England Agents, G. R. Twichell ^ Co., 19 Federal St., Boston. 

New York Agent, O. D. Person, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Shawmut Brick Co., Cartwright, Pa. ........ 

General Sales Agent, C. E. Willard, ni Devonshire St., Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 

Eastern Agent, James L. Rankine, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Williamsport Brick Co., Williamsport, Pa. ....... 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Enameled). (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 14 East 23d St., New York. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 

Grueby Faience Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

Hydraulic Press Brick Co., The 

Home Office, Odd Fellows Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mt. Savage Enameled Brick Co., Mt. Savage, Md 

Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 

Eastern Agent, James L. Rankine, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

BRICK PRESERVATIVE AND WATER-PROOFING. 

Cabot, Samuel, 70 Kilby St., Boston 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York 



y- 



CEMENTS. 

Alpha Cement Company, General Agents, Wm. J. Donaldson & Co., Bourse 
Building, Philadelphia 

New England Agents, James A. Davis & Co., 92 State St., Boston. 
Alsen's Portland Cement, 143 Liberty St., New York City .... 

Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston 

Commercial Wood and Cement Company, Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Office, 156 Fifth Avenue. 
Cummings Cement Co., Ellicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. . 
French, Samuel H., & Co., York Avenue, Philadelphia. Pa. 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York 

Lawrence Cement Company, No. i Broadway, New York City . 

Lesley & Trinkle, 22 and 24 So. 15th St., Philadelphia .... 

Manhattan Cement Company, 15 to 25 Whitehall St., New York City 

New England Agents, Berry & Ferguson, 102 Sute St., Boston. 
Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York .... 



IX 
XXX 



XXV 

xlii 

xi 

ii 
xxiii 

XV 
XXV 

ii 
xxiii 
xviii 

vi 



238 

iii 

li 

xvii 

xxiv 

xxiv 



XIX 

xxi 

xviii 

ix 
xxiii 



IX 

vii 

ix 
xlii 

XX 

xviii 
xvii 
xix 

xviii 



xxxv 
xxxiv 



xxxii 

xxxii 

xxxiii 
xxxiii 

xxxii 
xxxiii 
xxxiv 
xxxiii 
xxxiv 
xxxiv 

xxxiii 



ADDRESS. 

CEMENTS Continued. 

New York & Rosendale Cement Company, 280 Broadway, New York City 

New England Agents, \. W. Pinkham & Co., 188 Devonshire St., Boston. 

James C. Goff, 31-49 Point St., Providence, R. L 

J. S. Noble, 67-69 Lyman St., Springfield, Mass. 

Lord Bros. & Co., Portland, Me. 

Thiele, E., 78 William St., New York City 

Union Akron Cement Company, 141 Erie St., Buffalo, N. Y. . 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston ....... 



XXXll 

xxxii 
xxvii 



XVll 

iii 

xxiii 

iii 

xxvi 

xxii 

xxiii 

ii 

xxvii 

xxi 



xxxix 

xl 

xl 

xli 

xli 

xxxix 

xxxix 

xxxix 

xli 
xxxvi 



CLAY MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS. Brick (Front Enameled and Ornamental), 
Terra-Cotta, Architectural Faience, Fire-proofing:, and Roofing Tiles. 

Black, John H., -^t, Erie Co. Savings Bk. Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y 

Ketcham, O. W., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia ..... 

Lippincott, E. P., & Co., 24 Builders' Exchange Baltimore, Md., and 808 F St., 

N. W., Washington, D. C 

Mayland, H. F., 287 Fourth Ave.. New York City ...... 

Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., 14 E. 23d St., New York City 

Peterson, O. W., & Co., John Hancock Building, Boston ..... 

Thomas, E. H., 24 So. 7th St., Phila., Pa., 874 Broadway, New York 
Twitchell, G. R. & Co., 166 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 

Willard, C. E., 171 Devonshire St., Boston 

CLAYWORKERS' CHEMICALS AND MINERALS. 

F. W. Silkman, 231 Pearl St., New York 

CLAYWORKING MACHINERY. 

American Clay Working Machinery Co., Bucyrus, Ohio ..... 

CariTiichael Clay Steamer, Wellsburg, W. Va. ....... 

Chambers Bros. Company, Philadelphia, Pa. ....... 

Chisholm, Boyd & White Company, 57th and Wallace Sts., Chicago 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... 

Simpson Brick Press Co., 41 5 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, 111. 

Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

The F. D. Cummer & Sons Co., Cleveland, Ohio ...... 

The Wallace Manufacturing Co., Frankfort, Ind. ...... 

ELEVATORS. 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... 

Moore & Wyman, Elevator and Machine Works, Granite St., Boston 

ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS. 

Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York ..... 

FIRE-PROOFING MATERIAL MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents. 
Boston Fire-proofing Co., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston ..... 

Central Fireproofing Co., 874 Broadway, New York ...... 

Empire Fireproofing Co., 1301 Monadnock Block, Chicago .... 

Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Co., 104 South 12th St., Philadelphia 

Boston Agent, James D. Lazell, 443 Tremont Bldg. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

Guastavino, R., 9 East 59th St., New York 

Boston Office, 444 Albany Street. 
Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co , 14 E. 23d St., New York City 
Maurer, Henry, h Son, 420 E. 23d St., New York City ..... 
New York & New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Co., 1545 So. Clark St., Chicago 
Pittsburg Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, Carnegie Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 

New York Office, Metropolitan Building. 

Western Office, 5 Parker Block, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... iii 

Standard Fireproofing Co., 11 1 Fifth Ave., New York ..... xv 

GRANITE. 

Gilbreth Seam-Face Granite Co., 85 Water St., Boston xxxviii 

KILNS. 

Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. . . , xxxix 

MAIL CHUTES. 

Cutler Manufacturing Co., Rochester, N. Y ii 

MASONS' SUPPLIES. 

Gilbreth Scaffold Co., 85 Water St., Boston ....... xxxviii 

Hamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass. .... . . xxxvii 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston ........ xxvii 

MORTAR COLORS. 

Clinton Metallic Paint Company, Clinton, N. Y. . 

French, Samuel H., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. ...... 

MOSAIC WORK. 

The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio ....... 



XI 

xiii 

xvii 

xii 

vii 
xiv 

xxvi 
xvi 

XV 

XV 

xvi 



XXXV 

xxxiii 



ROOFING TILES MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 

Chicago Terra-Cotta Roofing and Siding Tile Co., 1122 Marquette Building, 

Chicago, 111. ............. xxviii 

Harris, Charles T., lessee of The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Limited. . . xxix 

Main Office and P'actory, Alfred, N. Y. 

Chicago Office, Marquette Building. 

New York Office, 1120 Presbyterian Building, New York City. 

SAFETY TREAD. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Co., 40 Water .St., Boston .... xxxvi 

SASH LOCKS. 

Gale Sash Lock, Rufus E. Eggleston Manfr., 575-576 Mutual Life Bldg., Phila, Pa. 

253 Broadway, New York City ......... ii 

SNOW GUARDS. 

Folsom Patent Snow Guard, 178 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. . . . xxxvii 

TILES. 

The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio ........ xxviii 

VENTILATORS. 

Pancoast Ventilator Co., The. 3(6 Bourse Building, Philadelphia, Pa. . . xxxv 
WALL TIES. 

Hamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass. ...... xxxvii 

WINDOW SASH. 

BoUes' Sliding and Revolving Sash ........ xxxvi 

General Agents: Edward R. Diggs, Builders' Exchange, Baltimore, Md.; Rufus E. Eggleston, 
575 Mutual Life Building, Phila., Pa. 



XXX 11 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



DYGKERHOFF PORTLAND CEMENT 

Is superior to any other Portlaiul cement made. It is very finely ground, always uniform and 
reliable, and of such extraordinary strength that it will permit the addition of 25 per cent, more 
sand, etc., than other well-known Portland cements, and produce the most durable work. It 
is unalterable in volume and not liable to crack. 

The Dyckerhoff Portland Cement has been used in ihe Metropolitan .Sewerage Construc- 
tion, Boston, and is now being employed in the construction of the Boston Subway, Howard 
A. Carson, ( hief Engineer. 

Pantf-hlet with directions firr its empioymefit^ testimofiinis, and tests, scut on af'plication. 

HAM & CARTER, E. THIELE, 

560 Albany Stkef.t. BOSTON. 7S Wim.iam Stkhet, NEW YORK. 

Sole .Agent. United .States. 




" With a true sense 01 economy we would buy nothing in Europe 
hut of necessity. The Hold reserves of our government and individ- 
uals would then increase without even the intervention of tariffs." 

Alpha Portland Cement 

is the most economical. It is the finest ground cement on the market. For that 
reason it will take more sand and broken stone than any other cement in existence. 
To-day our best contractors and engineers consider it superior to any imported 
cement on the market. We guarantee every barrel of the " Alpha " to be uniform 
in quality, and to pass any requirement yet demanded of a Portland Cement. 



WM. J. DONALDSON, 

General Agent, 
Betz Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 



TAMES A. DAVIS & CO. 

Sole N. E. Agents, 
92 State Street, Boston. 



Union Akron Cement Company, 



SOLE MANUFACTURERS 
OF THE 



The Strongest Natural Hydraulic Cement Manufactured 

in America. In Successful Use for the 

past Fifty Years. 

CAPACITY OF WORKS 2,000 BARRELS DAILY. 



Akron Cement, 



OFF^ICE, 141 ERIB ST., 



(STA.ie :Bi«A.ivr>.) 

BUFFALO, N. Y. 



ALSEN'S PORTLAND CEMENT. 



143 LIBERTY STREET 

WALDO BROS., 



The strongest, finest ground, and most uniform Cement 
in the world. Permits the admixture of more sand than 
any other, and is the best for mortar or stuccoing. 
- - - - NEW YORK, 

102 Milk St., Boston. 



AGENTS FOR NEW ENGLAND. 




ESTABLISHED 1854. 
URIAH CUMMINGS, President. PALMER CUMMINGS. Treas. & Gen'l Mgr. 

HOMER S. CUMMINGS, Secretary. RAY P. CUMMINGS, Vice-President. 

Stamford, Conn. Buffalo, N. Y. 

The Cummings Cement Co. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Hydraulic Rock Cement and Portland Cement, 

Gen'l Offices : Ellicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 
New England Office: Stamford, Conn. 

Cement Works at Akron, N. Y. The largest in the United States. 



1 



THEBRICKBUILDER. iii 



THE PLANT OF 

The Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Co., 

AT RICHMOND, VA., 



Will in the future be given up 
entirely to the manufacture of 



Cream White Bricks 



Many leading architects and their buildings will testify that these bricks have no equal. 



Through our sales agency, located at TOWNSEND BUILDING 

25th ST. and BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY, F. H. S. MORRISON, Manager, 

we have arranged to handle the product of the 

Jarden Brick Co., for the cities of new york and Brooklyn. 
O. W. KETCHAM, ^ena^Cotta, 

Builbecs' fi:\V^ jftOnt anb 

Supplies r\V 



OFFICE: 



v»0 lEnameleb 

Builders' Exchange, t^^^^C H^Vt^fc 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. ^ 4^ W O* J«t ICK* 



^\<^ 



Every Description. 

•ephone, 2163. 

H. F. MAYLAND <St CO., 

MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS AND 
DEALERS IN 

FRONT AND SHAPE BRICK IN ALL COLORS. 

Telephone, 614 I8th St. 287 FOURTH AVENUE, Room 616. 

NEW YORK. 



IV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



EXCELSIOR TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



Manufacturers of 




Architectural 
Terra-Cotta. 



^# 



^o^ 



#% 



These figures, over ten feet in height, were executed in light gray Terra- 
Cotta for the Smith Building, Market Square, Washington, D. C, Mr. 
T. F. Schneider, Architect, by 




1 



Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 



Works : Rocky Hill, N. J. 



105 East 2 2d Street, N. Y. 



Boston Representative: CHARLES BACON, 3 Hamilton Place. 



I 

I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Conkling, Armstrong 
^ *^ Terra-Cotta Co. 



.^ 



l3i 



'/7 



^. 



»Jil 



*i 3K :3ii =^i • i ^ ^ 






iilti 



^a 



Wl 



BOWLING GREEN OFFICE BUILDING, NEW YORK, 
CONTAINS A LARGE AMOUNT OF OUR TERRA-COTTA. 



. . Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior Quality 



WORKS: OFFICES: 

Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, 

PHILADELPHIA. PHILA. TELEPHONE CALL 9005. and 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 



VI 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co^ 



Perth Amboy, N, J» 



....Manufacturers.... 



Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

160 Fifth Avenue, 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros*, 102 Milk Street* 



STANDARD TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 



PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue. 



BOSTON OFFICE: 

John Hancock Building, 

O. W PETERSON & CO., Agents. 



WASHINGTON OFFICE 

Builders Exchange, 
WM. C. LEWIS, Agent. 



PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: 

Builders Exchange, 
w. LINCOLN Mcpherson, Agent. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 



vn 



Something New 

In Brick and Terra -Cotta Fireplace Mantels. 




Designed by J. H. RITCHIE. Del. by H. F. BRISCOE. Modeled by TITO CONTI. 



We are now prepared to furnish an entirely new and complete line of Fireplace Mantels 

!^C8lQnC0 in classical style to produce rich, yet dignified ilSSCtTlDlCO from standard interchangeable pieces in 



architectural effects 

ifljOOClCO entirely by hand in the highest perfection 
of the art. 



any desired combination, thus giving a 
great variety of size and detail with no 
additional cost. 



iprCSSCb with great care to give clear-cut outlines and Tttl gCHCtHl producing all the desirable effects of special 



smooth surfaces. 



JoUtnCO in a suitable variety of soft, rich colors. 



mantels, made to order, without their 
excessive cost, or their uncertainty of 
manufacture. 



166 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dealers also in Architectural Terra-Cotta and Building Bricks in all colors known to clay working. 

Fire-Proofing and General Building Materials. 



\MII 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 



K, MATHIASEN, President. 




NINTH PRECINCT POLICE STATION. NEW YORK CITY. 

JOHN DU PAIS, Architect. 

Architectural Terra-Cotta executed by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Go. 



Office: 108 Fulton Street, 



New York City. 



Works : PERTH AMBOY, N.J. 



Sales Agents for New England, G"* IV* 1 WichcU & CiO*^ J 9 Federal Street, Boston. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XI 




THE WINKLE TERRACOTTA CO., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra- Cotta 



IN ALL COLORS. 



WORKS: 

Cheltenham, St. Louis. 



OFFICE: 

502-503 Century Building. 



AN ENTRANCE IN TERRA-COTTA, UNION TRUST BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

LOUIS H. SULLIVAN, ARCHITECT. 

Tebra-Cotta Executed by THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 




Boston Fire-Proofing Company, 



D. McINTOSH, Proprietor. 



i66 DEVONSHIRE STREET, 



BOSTON, MASS. 



Fire-Proof 



Building 



Material. 



'< Porous Terra-Cotta stands fire and water." 



EXCHANGE CLUB BUILDINQ, Boston, Mass. 

BALL & OABNEY, Architects. 
Fire-proofed by the Bo.ston Fike-Pkooking Co. 



Xll 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Building Company, L't'd. 



Patents in England, Belgium, Franee, United States. 



ADVANTAGES OF OUR SYSTEM. 

The Only System that Provides an Absolutely Scientifie Safeguard A«;ainst Fire. 



I. Fireproof (^ai.ity. 

2. Sanitary Value. 



Adopted by Architects and Engineers on Account oi 

3. Lkjhtxess. 5. Ease and Qiickxess of Construction. 

4. Strength. 6. Cheapness. 



In these Six Main Advantages The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Floor Excels all Other. 




PROBATE COURT BUILDING, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. Olin W. Cutter, Architect; Thomas H. Cunnell, Contractor 

The tireproofing and steel work furnished by 

THE FAWCETT VENTILATED FIREPROOF BUILDING COMPANY, L't'd., 

Main Office, 448, 449, 450, and 451 Philadelphia Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sales Agent for the New England States, 
JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 Tremont Building, Boston, Mass. 

Sales Agent for New York, 
A. J. COFFIN, 412 Presbyterian Building, Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 



f 



THE BRICKBUILDER. xni 



C entral Fireproofing 
Company, 



HENRY M. KEASBEY, 

President 



Manufacturers 
and 

Contractors 
for 
the 

Erection 
of 

Hollow 

Tile 

and 

Porous 

Terra- 

Cotta 



Fireproofing. 



874 Broadway t New York^ 



XIV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



R. GUASTAVINO CO. 



Firc=Proofing. 




ROOF OF HARVARD SQUARE POWER STATION, WEST END STREET RAILWAY COMPANY, BOSTON. AREA, 20,000 SQUARE FEET. 

DESIGNED BY C. F. BAKER, MASTER MECHANIC. 



BOSTON OFFICE: 

444 ALBANY STREET. 



NEW YORK OFFICE: 

1 1 EAST 59th street. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XV 



Pioneer Fire- Proof Construction Company , 

1545 So. Clark Street, Chicago. 



The Only System 
of 
Fire-Proofing 
Awarded a 
Medal 
and Diploma 




fLASFERINO 



DETAIL DF I5"ARCH. a 



SECTION OF ARCH. 



Onr Palenlei Traisverse System of Floor Arcli Constriction. Made in 9, 10, 12 anil 15 incli deptlis. 



At the 
WORLD'S 
COLUMBIAN 
EXPOSITION. 



Manufacturers and Contractors for every Description of 

Hollow, Solid and Porous Terra-Cotta 



FOR FIRE-PROOFING BUILDINGS. 




R. C. PENHELD, Pres't. R. W. LYLE, Sec'y and Mgr, J, A. GREEN, Treas. 

Standard 

Fire-Proofing 

Company. 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Fire-Proofing, Flue Linings, 
Fire Brick, Sewer Pipe, 

Porous Terra-Cotta, 

ORNAMENTAL Building Brick, 

And other Clay Products. 

New York Office, 39 & 4J CORTLANDT ST. 



NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY 

FIRE-PROOFING CO. 

FORMERLY LORILLARD I'.RICK WORKS CO. 

Fire=Proof Building 
Material, Hard= 
Burned Clay and 
Porous Terra=Cotta. 



f^ 



HOI I 0\A/ RI OP'k'Q For Flat, Elliptical, indSegmen- 
i^ t-^-^ l^ L^^<y y y ULV^V^rxO, tal Arches of every Description, 

Hollow Clay Ceiling, Hollow Blocks for Partitions, 

Hollow Brick, Fire -Proof Covering for Iron Girders 

and Columns, Hard-Burned and Porous Furring 

Blocks, Hard and Porous RooAng. 

SPECIAL SHAPES AND DESIGNS IN ANY OF THE 
ABOVE MADE TO ORDER AT SHORT NOTICE. 






A LARGE STOCK CONSTANTLY CARRIED. ORDERS FILLED 

PROMPTLY. SHIPMENTS BY RAIL OR WATER. 

PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING, xyCTir VAD17 
156 FIFTH AVE., i>tW lUKIV. 

Works, LORILLARD (Keyport p. O.), N. J. 



XVI 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



.Established 1856 



HENRY MAURER & SON, 



Manufacturers of 



Fire=Proof Building Materials. 



Floor Arches, 



Partitions, 



Furring, 



Roofing, Etc, 




Porous Terra-Cotta 



of all Sizes, 



Flue Linings, 



Etc,, Etc, 



"EXCELSIOR" END CONSTRUCTION FLAT ARCH (Patented). 

25 per cent. Stronger and Lighter than any other method. 
Office and Depot, Factories,. 



420 EAST 23d STREET, MAURER, N. J. 

New York. Philadelphia Office, 18 South rth Street. On C. R. R. of N. J. 



Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, 

Manufacturers and Contractors for the Erection 
of Porous and Dense Hollow Terra-Cotta . . . 

FTRE-PROOHNG. 

Also, Manufacturers of Plain and (under 
the Durant Patents ) Ornamental .... 

Hollow Architectural Terra-Cotta Building Blocks* 

Hollow, Porous, Front, and Paving Brick. 



WORKS at PITTSBURGH, PA., and at WASHINGTON, N. J. 



General Offices: CARNEGE BUILDING, PITTSBURGH, PA. 
Western Office : Chamber of Commerce Building, Chicago. Eastern Office : Metropolitan Building, New York Qty. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



xvii 



ARTISTIC FRONT BRICK 

.....AND..... 

MANTEL TILE. 



We manufacture tempered clay 
or Mud Brick in a great variety 
of colors and shades, including 
Mottled Fire-Flashed and Gray, 
also Old Gold and Mottled Tile 
for Fireplaces. 



TRADE 



RARITAN 



MARK. 



We make Glazed Brick (Faience 
Glazes) in any color and design 
desired. They are very effective 
for Mantels and interior decora- 
tion, and are especially adapted 
to the interiors of Churches, Hos- 
pitals, and Public Buildings. 



Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co*, 

874 Broadway, New York. 



Cor. I8th Street. 



HENRY M. KEASBEY, 

Vice-President. 



ROWLAND P. KEASBEY, 

Secretary and Treasurer. 



Empire Fire-Proofing Co., 


JOHN H. BLACK, 


Manufacturers and Contractors 
For All Kinds of 


33 Erie County Savings Bank Building, 

LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE. BUFrALO, N. Y. 


FIRE-PROOF WORK IN 


Sales Agent for 


Hollow Tile & 


Umpetvious IReb, Buff, 
(5ta^, pinK anb flDottleb 


Porous lerra-Cotta 


Front Bricks 


FOR FIRE-PROOFING BUILDINGS. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 


flu StauDart), IRoman, auD 
©rnamental Sbapes. 


Room 827 Monadnock Block, Chicago, UL 


^ 


e^fl^ 


Enameled Brick. Ornamental Terra-Cotta. 


NEW YORK OM<ICE, 


Roofing Tiles. Metal Lath. 


874 BROADWAY. 


Wall Ties, etc. 



XVlll 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Pennsylvania 



Enameled Brick 



Hanufacturers of a Superior Quality of 

ENAHELED BRICK, 

PURE WHITE FRONT BRICK, 

CREAM=WHITE FRONT BRICK. 



Company. 



Used in over 300 of the best Buildings in New York and other large cities. 



Works : 
P. O, Address, 



Address all Correspondence 
to Main Office. 



Main Office: 

25th Street and Broadway, 

Townsend Building, 



Oaks, Pa. New York City. 

' AfiP Af^ .VK" Ag .Vg Afg? iVgP »V ^ Af g F^ AfgP Afg iV ^ f^ MP ?^/? f^ ftiig?' 

■'Znx -CTlx ■^InKr ^TBBr ^fTBT -cn^ -sinSU *inMl -CWBT -tS/XU -iSAKU iS/XU -vWRr .J^n^ xfw^^ !*«k>^ .sfWBT 

a*« ^•^ ^M ^M ^M M^ M* M^ ^M ^'^ ^M ^*^ M^ M^ %.»M ^M ^•^ ^M ^*^ M# \»f \*M K*M ^M ^M ^»f \»A ^M «M M J ^M ^M ^M M« ^*^ ^*P ^*f ■^*^ ^M ^'^ ^M M^ M^ %** %*' \*f ^*f %»* M« M« %»M \»r ^»P M^ ^*i^ 






REFERENCES. 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



WRITE FOR CATALOGUE. 



^5 Marquette Building, 
^^ Atwood liuilding, 



HoLAiiiRl) & RocHK, Architects. 



C.reat Northern Theater, 



JI5 Stewart Uuilding, 



gj Iriide Building, 



I). II. BuRNllAM & Co., Architects. 



I air Building, 



^ Jknnky & MlJNDlK, Architects. 

itm .'"'"■iial Building, 

^ Jakvis Hunt, Architect. 

^* 111. Cent. R. R. Van Buren .Street Station, 

Francis T. Bacon, Architect. 









^J C.arfield Park Power House, 

5^ (larfield Park Band Stand, 

w Jas. L. Silsdee, .\rchitect. 

uka I-- Smeeth Estate (Front), 

i^ I). E. 6c O. H. Posil.K, Architects. 

^^ (leo. B. Carpenter (Front), 

«# . Fran/. Roy, Architect. 

1^ Coi)k County Hospital, 

^ Wakken H. Mil.N'KR, Architect. 

^ NEW YORK CITY. 

M# t>herry Hotel, 

JK Stable, Elbridge T. Gerry, 

515 McKiM, Mead & Whiie, Architects. 

Mif PITT.SBURG, PA. 

f^ Park P.uilding, 

^ Geo. B. Post, Architect. 

^^ Zoological Building, 

Jas. L. Silsbee, Architect. 

MONTROSE, PA. 
^ Allegheny Water Works, 
^ I'ROCTOR & BiLl.QUisT, Architects. 

m) PRINCETON, N. J. 

#*^ r.rokaw Memorial, 

21^ ( )nondaga Co. Savings Bank, 








:l!S< 




C. F. Rose, Architect. 
SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



#«% 



^J Guaranty Building, 



R. W. GinsoN, Architect. 
BUFFALO, N. Y. 



.•\i)LER & Sui, I.IVAN, Architects. 



Cnicann:. 

General Offices : 

204 DEARBORN STREET, 

MARQUETTE BUILDING, 
LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE EXPRESS 579. 



REFERENCES. g 

NIAGARA FALLS, N. Y. ^ 

I'ower House, Electric, ^J 

McKiM, Mead & White, Architects. ^ 

COLUMBUS, OHIO. ^ 

Union Depot, gag 

D. H. BoRNHAM & Co., Architects. *» 

Hosier Brewery, ?» 

F. W. Wolf & Co., Architects. «m 

DETROIT, MICH. g 

Majestic Building, S85 

D. H. BuRNilAM & Co., .Architects. ^ 

Post Office, mag 

Wm. Martin .\iken. Sup. .Architect. ««S 

Hacker Mausoleum, ^S 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. ^ 

CLEVELAND, OHIO. ^ 

Police Station, jj 

Wm. W. Saiiin, .Architect. ^ 

Morgue, ^ 

Lehman & Schmitt, .Architects. K 

TOLEDO, OHIO. ^ 

T. & A. R. R. Depot, ^ 

W. T. Cooper, Architect. ^ 

City Power House, £S 

D. L. Stein, Architect. ^ 

Luce Estate (Front), ^ 

Camimieli. & Nechter, Architects. S 

Mrs. Nearing's Stable, JK 

E. O. Fai.lis, Architect. Sf 

ANN ARBOR, MICH. 

Women's Gymnasium, 

John Scorr & Co., Architects. jQt 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 3^ 

Liggett & Myers Tobacco Factory, Sfif 

Isaac S. Taylor, Architect, ffi 

James L. Rankine, || 

Eastern Agent, ^ 

Room 626. 156 Fifth Avenue, 3^ 

ISIFAV YORK. S 



Ifi 



THE BRICKBUILDER. xxvii 



WALDO BROTHERS, 

New Address, 

102 /Bbilk Street 

Two doors below Post Office Square. 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

High Grade Building Materials. 

AGENTS FOR 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 

Atwood Faience Co. 

Front Bricks in all colors. 

English Glazed Bricks. 

Baltimore Retort and Fire Brick Co. 

Gartcraig Fire Bricks. 

Welsh Quarry Tiles. 

Alsen Portland Cement. 

Atlas Cement. 

Brooks, Shoobridge & Co. Portland Cement. 

Phoenix, Shield, Wedge, and Cleopatra Portland Cement, 

Hoffman Rosendale Cement. 

Shepherd and Gay Lime.. 

Bostwick Metal Lath. 

Morse Wall Ties. 

Akron Sewer Pipe. 

H. H. Meier & Co.'s Puzzolan Portland Cement. 

WHARVES: YARD: 



Waldo, 548 Albany Street. W On N. E. R.R, Tracks, near 

Tudor, 1 Charles River Avenue. ^ Congress St., So. Boston. 



TELEPHONES 



1294 Boston — I I Boston — i i^ Charlestown. 



XXVIII 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Xlbe /Bbosaic Xlile (Lc zanesvine, ohio. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Ceramic Mosaic Tile 
Parian Vitreous Tile 



(Zhc StronQcst XCile in tbe nDarhet.) 



For Floors and 
Aaral 
Decoration 



"ki 



Estimates, 
Samples, and 
Designs on 
Application. 





1 1 T 1 ^ M 1 y^^ 




Chicago Terra-Cotta Roofing & Siding Tile Company, 

1 122 Marquette Building, Chicago. 

Vitrified IRoofiuQ Ziic ot all minbs. 



Write for^Catalogue. 



L. 






V-A 



7 



? 








THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXIX 



Charles T. Harris, President. 

Henrv S. Harris, Vice-President. 



INCORPORATED xi 



WiMjAM R. Clarke, Secy, and Treas. 

Alvord B. Clarke, Superintendent. 



The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd. charles t. harris, less. 



.Manufacturers of 



Artistic Roofing Tiles. 



(Under Babcock Patents.) 

ALFRED, N. Y. 

Our oldest and best known shape of roofing tile is the Conosera, so called from the fact that its mechanical 
construction is that of a half cone truncated, or a conic section. Its mechanical excellence and superiority 
is shown in the following description and illustration. 



.^r^f. 




v:-^^- 



J^n^.JO. 





J^, 



Fig. 8 is a plan view of several tiles arranged as they would be when laid upon a roof, showing the 
configuration of the tile and the method of interlocking. Fig. 9 is a perspective view of Fig. 8. Fig. 10 is 
an enlarged plan view of a single tile similar to those comprising 8 and 9. Fig. 1 1, a section zz of Fig. 10, 
indicates the relative position of the adjacent interlocking tiles and their relative angle to the roof. Fig. 12 
is an elevation of the lower end of Fig. 10, and Fig. 13 a side elevation thereof. 

The mechanical advantages of this construction are at once apparent ; by this system of laying in alter- 
nating series or by " breaking joints," all suction is reduced to a minimum. By the system of joining, all 
capillary attraction is counteracted and all the ills of condensation or "sweating" subjugated. No elastic 
cement is used; the tiles themselves make a weather-proof roof. 

Suction of snow and rain and capillary attraction of moisture have been serious obstacles to the secur- 
ing of a satisfactory roof in tiles of the usual pattern, and to prevent these troubles much elastic cement has 
been used by roofers ; but this has given rise to another trouble, — that of " sweating," — so that in a few years 
the roof base has rotted out. All these mechanical and expensive difficulties have been overcome by our 
construction. 

As to the artistic features of our Conosera Tile, we invite your attention to some illustrations in the 
pages of reading matter. 



XXX 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




I 



THE ASTORIA HOTEL, FIFTH AVENUE AND THIRTY-FOURTH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. H. J. HABCENBEHGH, Architect. 

Attention is called to the fact that some 61,000 cu. ft. of terra-cotta are used on this building and the Astor Court Building, seen in the distance. This includes the work made for the interior, on the ground 

and first tloors. The total weight was about 2,200 tons, which is equal to 600 truck loads of 7. 333 lbs. each. 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA EXECUTED BY 

The New York Architectural Terra -Cotta Company, 

38 Park Row, New York City. 
PHILADELPHIA. BOSTON. 



i. 




No. n 



IBRICKBVILDER 






il OFFICE 

5g WATER 0>! 
6TREET gji 
B05T0Nx|j! 



i M ( ^ , nfvi 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN MATERIALS OF CLAY. 

PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3.50 per year 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT. 
No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 

IT is so much easier to see the outs than it is to appreciate the 
ins, that we often hear a great deal more of the objections to 
brick and terra-cotta as building materials than we do of their ex- 
cellent qualities. The criticism, so called, which is leveled against 
products of this description is very apt to be limited to fault finding 
and invidious comparisons without any attempt to show how the 
best results can be obtained with this vehicle. No material which 
is used for building construction is perfect, and so long as human 
agencies are the medium through which a structure is evolved, so 
long will mistakes and errors of judgment occur. There are natu- 
rally, therefore, directions in which the value of brick as a material 
can be greatly increased and the desired results more readily accom- 
plished. The architectural profession is an extremely critical one. 
By training, by association, and as a matter of self-protection, archi- 
tects are forced to be conservative in their views, to take slowly to 
new inventions or methods, to hold fast to established ways, and to 
let experiments be tried by the unwary and unprofessional ; while 
because of the retrospective character of the architecture of the 
present day the new forms of brick and terra-cotta sometimes re- 
ceive scant favor when first put on the market, and a color or texture 
which does not find a precedent in the work of the past obtains 
slow recognition. This is in a way as it should be, and yet the 
spirit of conservatism which would exclude doubtful products or re- 
ject untried methods must not be carried to the extent of ignoring 
possibilities or of exacting more than can fairly be required of the 
burnt clay products. We have very nearly outgrown the spirit which 
would prompt an architect to discard the more finished, workman- 
like products of our kilns in favor of the crude, misshapen, but 
finely textured brick which was so much in favor a few years ago 



We occasionally find instances where the rough, unfinished look is 
sought for and where an appearance of studied carelessness is con- 
sidered to be equivalent to an artistic effect. Without undertaking 
to question the picturesque possibilities of an imperfect brick or a 
poorly burned piece of terracotta, we do feel, and we find this be- 
lief is quite generally accepted, that better results will be obtained 
in every case by the use of the best product that our manufacturers 
can turn out; and if it is desirable to procure such excellence of 
product, our architects can lend great aid by their personal encour- 
agement of the efforts which are every year put out by our manufac- 
turers to more fully and completely meet the artistic growth of the 
country. It is very easy to find fault with the size of the brick, the 
sharpness of the edges, or the variations in tone, but if instead of 
indulging such a captious spirit we would be prompt to recognize a 
good brick when we see it, and not only recognize it by a pleasant 
word spoken to the manufacturer or salesman, but to acknowledge it 
in the more practical method of using it in our buildings, it would 
be much easier in a few years to secure the uniformity of product 
which is so generally desired. And with this uniformity it is our 
belief that the artist's desire to employ the rough or crudely burned 
product would be very much lessened, the element of uncertainty 
could be handled with more precise results, and our architectural 
designs would be clearly expressed in a medium that we could de- 
pend upon. Good brick always costs money. Terra-cotta which is 
irregular in shape, imperfect in burning, and out in color is of 
course a great deal cheaper than the product which is firm, even, and 
true. We all want the latter. If the architects would insist upon 
having nothing but that and should not give their clients even the 
opportunity of electing to take the cheaper material, but consider 
that terra-cotta and brick always means good terra-cotta and brick, 
and if not always the very best the market affords, at least a fairly 
reliable first-class product, there would be less cause for complaint 
on the score of poor material, and the manufacture would be raised 
more nearly to the ideal of which we believe it is capable. 



IN the fire proofing department of our last issue we called atten- 
tion to some conditions which exist under the so-called fire- 
proofing laws. Since then an illustration in point has been brought 
prominently into notice. A building has recently collapsed in Boston 
under conditions which were so exasperating that it is hard to have 
patience with either the authorities which will allow or the statutes 
which will tolerate such occurrences. The building law of Boston, 
very wisely, we believe, provides that every building to be used as a 
tenement or lodging house shall be fire-proof in the first story, and 
that every building used under certain conditions so as to be practi- 
cally a hotel shall be entirely fire-proof; but, unfortunately, the law 
does not apply to alterations, or, perhaps, to be more exact, the ordi- 
nance is not clear in defining the limits of what can be passed as an 
alteration. Boston is full of old tumble-down structures which have 
been used for tenement houses for years. These have been acquired 
quite extensively during the past decade by a class of property 
owners who care so much more for revenue than for a decent build- 
ing that their continual increase in the acquisition of such property 
constitutes a serious menace to good construction, to say nothing of 
danger to life and limb, for the reason that these old structures when 
acquired, invariably undergo a species of rebuilding and repairs, and 



240 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



as in nine cases out of ten the structures were orginally but imper- 
fectly built, they are seldom improved by the alterations. In this 
particular instance, in order to enlarge the building and at the same 
time avoid the requirements of fire-proof reconstruction, the building 
underwent what was claimed to be a process of alteration; but as 
only the wall on the party line and the floor beams themselves were 
left intact, the elastic limit of the statute was very closely touched. 
Some of the walls were only 4 ins. thick, none of them were well 
built, and the work of alteration was confided apparently to a set of 
mechanics who know almost nothing about proper building, with the 
natural result that before the work was half completed it all tumbled 
into the cellar. Boston's building law is in theory a very fair one, 
but in practise it allows loopholes of sufficient size to permit of out- 
rageous violations of what ought to be considered fairly good prac- 
tise. There is no possible excuse for the collapse of any building. 
With ordinary care and a slight mixture of intelligence the most 
extensive alterations can be carried through without the .slightest 
danger or risk, but with poor masonry, mortar which is nearer mud 
than anything else, and mechanics who are ignorant of the ordinary 
principles of building, coupled with an elastic interpretation of a 
law which at the best can only be vague in its limitations, the won- 
der is we do not have more accidents than really occur. 



BONDING OF BRICKWORK — CORRESPONDENCE. 
Editor The Brickhuildkk. 

Dear Sir : — Your editorial on the bonding of brickwork, in the 
October issue of The Brickbuili)I£u, touches upon one of the most 
serious evils in American building. It is not unusual to find bad 
methods tolerated because they are less expensive, but it is rare 
indeed to find a distinctly wrong practise that is also more costly 
from the start. This is most emphatically true of the practise of 
veneering walls of common brick with " face " or pressed brick. We 
must now make the real burden-bearing wall of the full thickness 
necessary to carry the load of roof and floors and then add the 4 in. 
skin of face brick, bonding this to the real wall in various question- 
able ways that impair the strength of the backing. All of this 
iniquity of weak construction and unnecessary expense is due to 
difference in coursing of front and common brick. 

I am unable to explain the origin of the numerous brick sizes, 
but it is fair to presume that many of the existing dimensions are 
arbitrary, and can, therefore, be changed without shaking the founda- 
tions of society. If the common brick would course with the face 
brick used in the body of the wall and were accordingly laid with 
bonding of header bricks, we should at once do away with the 
extra 4 ins. of thickness, and could consider the face as an integral 
part of the wall, capable of bearing its share of the imposed 
load. These advantages are entirely economical and constructional 
and sufficient to justify the changes suggested. The esthetic gain 
would be most desirable: we should have in the place of the char- 
acterless wall face composed entirely of stretchers, a wall diversified 
by the exhibition of ends of the headers, and suggesting, even to the 
layman, thickness and strength. 

The charm of the colonial brickwork is due more to the evident 
bonding than to picturesque combination of the dull red brick and 
thick joints of white mortar. Many architects are now insisting upon 
the so-called Flemish bond on the face of exposed brickwork, but 
they are satisfied to have the appearance without the strength, as 
they are content to have show headers. In some of the recent work 
selected common brick have been used on the face of the wall, and the 
bonding has therefore been honest. To have real bonding between 
face brick and common is at present almost impossible. I know of 
but one satisfactory example, and this was only possible by having 
the face brick made of special dimensions to course with the com- 
mon brick. The building referred to is the recently constructed 
Jefferson Hotel in Richmond, Va. As every inch of the walls could 
be counted upon to carry its share of load, the saving in space and 



in expense by avoiding the extra thickness became in this extensive 
building a very large item. 

The consideration of this question brings us at once to another 
and important one, which is, the existing variation in dimensions of 
common brick from different districts. We should have throughout 
this country a uniform standard of size for common brick, and then 
we can logically proceed to fix upon a size of face brick which will 
course with it. 

I hope that The Brickhuilder will continue to direct the 
attention of architects, masons, and brickmakers to this matter. 

OWEN BRAINARD. 
New York Citv, Nov. 15. 1S97. 



Editor The Brickbuilder. 

Dear Sir: — According to your invitation in the October 
number of your highly esteemed paper, regarding improvement on 
American bond, I will submit to your readers the practise I have 
followed for some time ; a simple method which not only gives no 
additional work to the mason, but also very little trouble to the 
brickmaker. 

I am using for headers, bricks 8 ins. square. This allows for a 
perfect, uniform bond, and does not limit you to a header every sixth 
course only. 

This system has especially great advantage in building with 
hollow bricks, where one is obliged to use solid bricks for headers. 

The square bricks are very handy on corners, and I have found 
that the masons save much time by using them. 

1 am sure every brickyard will be willing to furnish them along 
with the ordinary size, as they represent virtually two bricks. 

GUSTAV LIEBAU. 

Maurer, N. J., Nov. 2, 1897. 



PERSONAL, SOCIETY, AND CLUB NEWS. 

The designs of Carrfere & Hastings, submitted in competition, 
have been selected for the new Astor, Lenox & Tilden Public Li- 
brary Building, New York City ; also for the new building for the 
National Academy of Design, which will be located on Blooming- 
dale Heights, New York City. 

E. R. DuNLAP, architect, has opened an office at 32 School 
Street, Pontiac, Mich., and would be pleased to receive catalogues. 

The Detroit Camera Club held their annual fall exhibition of 
photographs in the east galleries of the Detroit Museum of Art, 
Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, and Saturday evening, November 
18, 19, and 20. 

The second annual exhibition of the Society of Western Artists 
was opened Thursday evening, November iS, at the .Museum of 
Fine Arts, 19th and Locust Streets, St. Louis. 

The Illinois Chapter of the A. I. A. and the Chicago Archi- 
tectural Club have made arrangements for a course of five lectures 
by Prof. William Henry Goodyear, of the Brooklyn Academy, on 
Greek, Roman, and Syrian architecture and archeology. The first 
lecture will be on horizontal curves and other optical refinements in 
Greek architecture (including recent photographs of the curves in 
.Sicily and at Passtum and in the Maison Carrde at Neims). Topics 
for the remaining lectures will be announced. The lectures will be 
given in the North Lecture Room (first floor) of the Art Institute on 
Thursday evenings at 8.15, November 18, December 2, 9, 16, 
and 23. 

A REGULAR monthly meeting of the "T Square Club " was 
held on Wednesday evening, October 20. This was the first meet- 
ing held by the club in its new house. For some time past the 
club has been without a home, holding its meetings in the offices of 
the various architects, who have kindly extended their hospitality to 
their fellow-members. This, however, was always considered a 
merely temporary arrangement, and the executive and house com- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



241 



mittees have been active in their search for suitable quarters, and 
now teel that a place has been secured as nearly ideal as is possible 
under existing conditions, having rented on a five years' lease an old 
stable, the ground floor of which has been sub-let as a carpenter 
shop, the club retaining the two upper floors for its own use. The 
upper floor has been converted into one large room 30 by 35 ft., 
where the club will hold its meetings. Five casement windows ex- 
tend all across the front and three at the back. A ge: erous brick 
fireplace has been built at one side, and the walls and ceiling are 
lined with wood of a dark color. Very little was necessary to be 
done to this place, with its sloping ceiling and general Bohemian air, 
to make it a cozy home, and just what all the members have wanted 
so long. 

ILLUSTRATED ADVERTISEMENTS. 

THE New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company send us a 
view of the Samuel Ready Memorial Library, Baltimore, of 
which Messrs. Wyatt & Nolting, of that city, were the architects. 

The Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company show in their advertise- 
ment on page iv, two figures executed by them for the Smith Build- 
ing, Market Square, Washington, D. C. ; T. F. Schneider, architect. 
Number 5 of the series of brick and terra-cotta fireplace mantels, 
which is being illustrated in the advertisement of Fiske, Homes & 




SAMUEL READY MEMORIAL LIBRARY, ISALTIMORE. 
Wyatt & Nolting, Architects. 

Co., page vii, is one designed by J. H. Ritchie and modeled by Tito 
Conti, the drawing being by H. F. Briscoe. 

The New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company illustrate in their adver- 
tisement on page viii, the new Ninth Precinct Police Station, New 
York City ; John DuFais, architect. 

The Probate Court Building, Cambridge, Mass., Olin W. 
Cutter, architect, is illustrated in the advertisement of the Fawcett 
Ventilated Fireproof Building Company, on page xii. The illustra- 
tion shows the building in course of erection. 

The residence of Theodore Hooper, Esq., at Baltimore, Md., of 
which C. L. Carson is the architect, is shown in the advertisement of 
the Harbison & Walker Company, on page xxv. 

Charles T. Harris, lessee of the Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, 
begins this month, in his advertising page (xxix), a descriptive series 
of the various patterns of roofing tiles manufactured by his company. 
A new series of tiles will be illustrated and described each month, 
and many valuable directions and suggestions regarding the use of 
tiles will be given. 

" Examples of Bond " is the title of a new series of illustrations 
begun in this month's advertisement of the (iilbreth Seam-Face 
Granite Company, page xxxviii. It is the purpose of the company 
to illustrate a number of styles of bond, employing the various sizes 
and shapes of their seam-face granite blocks. 



PERUZZI'S CAMPANILE AT SIENA. 

BY W. P. P. LONGFELLOW. 

THE southern part of Tuscany, over which Siena used to rule, 
is curiously destitute of building stone, considering that it 
lies between the rocky Apennines and the marble hills that border 
the Mediterranean. But it is a broken, ridgy land, built of marl and 
clay, and rising into innumerable hills on which the towns are 
perched, which almost forbids their inhabitants to use building stone, 
to be dragged over many miles of hilly roads, up long valleys, or 
over rough ridges, but which furnishes everywhere good material for 
brick. In medieval times, when roads were bad, the carriage poor, 
and when every few leagues of the way brought one into a new 
country, and usually a hostile one, the transportation of stone to a 
town so placed was almost prohibited. Siena was, till the days of 
the Renaissance, almost entirely a town of brick. It was built of 
brick, walled with brick, paved with brick. The Tolomei Palace 
of gray sandstone is conspicuous among the buildings of the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries by its unusual material. The 
Grotanelli Palace and the Marescotti, now the Saracini, have lower 
stories of stone with brick above ; but the Palazzo Pubblico, with its 
wonderful tower, the Buonsignori and most of the older palaces, 
the famous old fountains, the great churches of San Domenico, San 
Francesco, the Carmine, the Osservanza, the .Servi, and all the older 
churches, are of brick. Broad, irregular flagstones have displaced 
the brick pavements in the streets, which are recorded as late as the 
seventeenth century, but the great central piazza, the famous Campo, 
still keeps its funnel-shaped brick flooring seamed with radiating 
gutters of stone, and looking not unlike a huge cobweb. 

The brickwork which suited the pliable Italian Gothic of the 
fourteenth century did not lend itself so easily to the more rigid 
style of the Renaissance. It is a characteristic but stubborn mate- 
rial which demands sacrifices from the style that is to be embodied 
in it, or else insists on its right to generate a style of its own. It is 
contemptuous of fractions of an inch, and even of inches. When it 
is called on to adapt itself to a style of minutes and modules in 
which surfaces and moldings are adjusted to centimeters, and per- 
haps to millimeters, it refuses, and if the designer persists it makes 
him no end of trouble, and is apt to spoil his work. The use of 
terra-cotta, the natural adjunct of plain brickwork, did not develop 
in Tuscany so luxuriantly as in Lombardy, nor did it prevail much 
in the later style. By the time the Renaissance was brought in bodily 
from without, the building of the splendid cathedral in marble, with 
a richness and delicacy of detail before unknown to the Sienese, had 
revolutionized their ideas of the elaboration of architecture. The 
artists who brought it, dainty in their choice of material as of forms, 
naturally chose to execute their works in stone rather than brick. 
The Piccolomini Palace, and the Loggia del Papa, built for Pius II., 
the Sienese pope of the Renaissance, set a new fashion of building in 
stone, which the nobles or communities that built new buildings 
after these followed as they might, in the Spannocchi Palace, for in- 
stance. But the day of Siena's glory was passed. Not a great deal 
was added to her architectural beauty after the plague of the middle 
of the fourteenth century had finished the desolation that ceaseless 
wars had begun. The religious communities which raised a few 
great churches when the city had somewhat recovered were not rich 
enough to build expensively. They made structures of brick, which 
had to be big to accommodate their worshipers, but were for the 
most part rather rude, with little attempt at finished architecture, at 
least on the outside. 

There is a marked exception, however, in some of the work of 
Baldassare Peruzzi, which does not aspire to stone but is built of 
plain brick, yet with a care in design and a certain distinction in 
detail that are most characteristic of the man, and set his work apart 
from the rest. Peruzzi was in reality a Sienese, whether he was born 
in Siena, as seems probable, or brought there an infant from Volterra, 
as Vasari tells us. If he came, as Vasari says further, from a noble 



J42 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



family of Florence, driven by the quarrels of their fellow-citizens to 
emigrate to Volterra, this may account for the air of quiet distinction 
and refinement which characterizes his architectural work, and which, 
we are told, when all the world was fleeing from Rome after its cap- 
ture by the Constable de Bourbon, led the Spanish soldiers to take 
him for some great dignitary in disguise, and to hold him for a high 
ransom. In Siena he grew up among goldsmiths and painters, in 
the stimulating atmosphere of the early Renaissance, and by the 
time he was twenty years old had become a skilful painter. .Mural 
painting was then his work, and having formed his style under the 
influence of both Sodoma and I'inturicchio he presently drifted to 
Rome, which had already become the attractive center of all artists. 
There, falling under the powerful spell of Bramante, he turned to 
architecture, and became a 
zealous student of ancient 
Roman buildings. 

Peruzzi belongs to the 
second generation of Renais- 
sance architects (if we count 
Brunelleschi, Alberti, and Mi- 
chelozzo as the representatives 
of the first, and assume the 
third to begin with V'ignola), 
among whom are Bramante, 
the Sangalli, Raphael, Baccio 
d'Agnolo, Cronaca, and Mi- 
chael Angelo, and of them all 
he was perhaps the one who 
was most thoroughly master of 
his profession. Whether or 
not he possessed that power of 
magnificent conception which 
enabled Bramante and Michael 
Angelo to revolutionize the ar- 
chitecture of their day he had 
no chance to show, for he did 
not have the great opportuni- 
ties that fell to them, though 
his designs, preserved in the 
gallery of the Uffizi in Flor- 
ence, and by his disciple Serlio, 
show power and grandeur as 
well as skill. He was by his 
position a successor and fol- 
lower rather than a leader. 
His finished works as they re- 
main to us are rather small 
and simple, excepting the grand 
but little known Cathedral of 
Carpi, which, though doubtless 
his design, was certainly not 
carried out by him. The Far- 
nesina Villa and the .Massimi 
Palace in Rome are the best 
known. But there is on them 
the mark of distinction and of 

secure control of all the elements of his design that set them apart 
from the works of his predecessors and contemporaries. Balancing 
quality against quality, he is deservedly set beside Brunelleschi, Bra- 
mante, and Michael Angelo, among the greatest architects of the 
Renaissance. His works are the first that show a sense of propor- 
tion in all their parts, a power of combination, relation, and harmony, 
and a firmness of profiling and adjustment of detail that make him 
seem, in comparing him with his fellows, the first thoroughly accom- 
plished architect of the new movement, and one whom in the skill of 
his profession hardly any of his successors equaled. After he fled 
back to Siena he was always busy there till he returned to Rome for 
the last year of his life. The fortunes of Siena had waned, and his 




PERUZZl'S TOWER, .SIENA. 



work there gave him no great opportunity : so far as it was large in 
scale it was mostly in modest brickwork. The fortifications of the 
city occupied him ; he planned the convent of the Carmine, and also, 
it is said, that of the Osservanza outside the city. The charming 
little courtyard adjoining the house of St. Catharine is his, and vari- 
ous decorative works in the interior of the Cathedral and other 
churches. The tower which he added to the Church of the Carmine, 
and which I have to describe here, is a very characteristic example 
of his qualities, and of his unflagging care even in his most modest 
work. It is, for all its simplicity, one of the finest of the Renaissance 
campanili, as it is one of the earliest. 

This tower is a striking piece of really delicate design in brick- 
work, and bears such marks of Peruzzi's peculiar command of fine 

proportion in all details as well 
as in masses, that it would be 
difficult not to accept the tradi- 
tion which ascribes it to him. 
I know of no other piece of 
brick detail in Siena which can 
be classed with it. Of the 
lower part, below the eaves of 
the nave, I have no photo- 
graph, and unfortunately no 
notes. The upper part, which 
shows conspicuously above the 
low roof, consists of two 
square stories and a low octag- 
onal cupola. Each story is 
decorated with, or practically 
consists of an order of pilas- 
ters, one at each corner, enclos- 
ing on each face a high arched 
opening, which makes belfry 
stages of the stories. In the 
upper openings bells are hung. 
Every detail is in brick : there 
is not a line or scrap of stone 
or of terra-cotta in the whole. 
Even of molded bricks the 
forms are few, very simple, and 
very sparingly used ; there are 
only the cymatiums of the cor- 
nices, a quarter-round and 
a cavetto for their bed mold- 
ings, the echinuses of the 
quasi-Doric capitals, and ap- 
parently — I am not quite sure 
of this — their neck moldings. 
All the rest is of plain, square- 
edged brick, yet the design is 
neither bald nor rude, nor yet 
inarticulate. All desirable de- 
tail is there ; the proportion is 
so finely adjusted, the relief so 
delicate and yet so firm, the 
emphasis so well bestowed, 
that the tower has the effect of a finely treated design in wrought 
stone, and an air of elegance which it is very rare to find in pure 
brickwork. 

This campanile is worth a careful study in detail ; it is to be 
wished that some trustworthy student would make complete measured 
drawings of it for the sake of the lessons it has to teach, which can 
be set forth only by recording with precision the graduated measure- 
ments of the detail. The lower story is a little larger in scale than 
the upper, perhaps a seventh higher, a trifle broader, the pilasters a 
little heavier, so that it looks more massive, as it ought, while its pro- 
portion is in reality somewhat slenderer. The bricks are laid with a 
precision that would shame most modern bricklayers, and would 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



243 



seem to indicate that Peruzzi carefully watched the building of the 
tower, as no doubt he did if he was at hand. The upper pilasters 
are accurately centered over the lower, their shrinkage being just 
enough to set back their plinths and the dies of the pedestal course 
into line with the frieze and architrave beneath. The openings in 
the upper belfry are not perceptibly wider than those below, so that 
the shortening of the story makes them appear wider, and the upper 
story looks accordingly more open. An oval bull's-eye set over each 
end, perforating both frieze and architrave and interrupting the mold- 
ing that divides them, looks curiously intrusive, but nevertheless 
adds a touch of lightness to the upper story that could not well be 
spared. 

Comparisons of the details of the two orders show significant 
differences. The entablatures are higher than the classic proportion, 
being about a third as high as the pilasters, which are again heavier 
than the classic, — a marked departure from the habit of Peruzzi's great 
predecessors. The upper entablature, really a little lower than that 
below it, is a little higher in proportion, and the cornice, being de- 
signed with block modillions while 
the other has dentils, is more 
imposing, and fills the office of 
the principal cornice, though its 
dimensions are actually less. 
Moreover, all the detail of the 
lower entablature, and indeed of 
the whole lower order, is lighter 
and finer than that of the upper, 
notwithstanding the larger scale 
of the order itself. The mold- 
ings of the cornice are subdi- 
vided, and so are also those of 
the caps and bases of the pilas- 
ters. This makes the lower order 
look a little petty, perhaps, but 
it enhances the importance of 
the upper. A curious detail is 
that while the impost band of the 
lower order is flush with the pil- 
asters, and so breaks their inner 
lines, that of the upper is with- 
drawn from the face just enough 
to keep the lines there, with ad- 
vantage to the effect. It looks 
as if Peruzzi, watching the tower 
as it went up, had noticed the 
effect below and had seen how 
to improve on it above ; and it is 
possible that in the same way he 
got a lesson of simplification for 
the upper order. 

The only unsatisfactory de- 
tails are the keystones. While 
the motive of each story is the 
Roman triumphal arch, t'.ie brick orders being made heavier than 
in Roman examples, the arches are proportionally smaller and drop 
farther below the architrave. The archivolts, therefore, do not touch 
the architraves, and the keystones are considerably lengthened ; but 
these last being proportioned in width to the span of the arches, are 
thin and lank, and are only half redeemed by the bands between the 
panels which occupy the spandrels. 

The cupola is adjusted to the tower with admirable grace. It 
does not parody on a less scale the proportions or motives of the 
belfry, or echo its function, as is often done ; but is composed of 
different and simpler elements, and so adapted to the upper story 
as to ally itself closely with it, forming with it, as it were, a single 
feature, increasing its predominance, and crowning the tower with a 
singularly graceful outline. It is a low octagonal cupola, a little less 
in diameter than the square shaft beneath, with square paneled walls 




COURT OF ST. Catharine's house, siena. 



pierced by rectangular windows, crowned by a plain entablature, and 
bearing an octagonal dome. Small scroll buttresses, set against the 
diagonal faces, fill the angles of the square below at the junction. 
They are not of beautiful outline, but make the difficult transition 
from the octagon to the square with unusual elegance. The curves 
of the dome are circular, making its section a pointed arch and so 
considerably higher than a hemisphere, but truncated and terminated 
at the top by an aiiiortissemenf or bulbous finial of ogee curve which 
is still of brick, but ends in a ball that may be of metal or stone. 
The eight faces of the dome are broken by plain panels very slightly 
relieved, the only relieved panels in the tower. 

The proportion and subordination of the design are almost perfect, 
the outlines very elegant, the distribution and adjustment of the detail 
masterly. There is a gathered richness and focusing of detail in 
the crowning parts, where it is most effective without sacrifice of the 
pervading simplicity and without crowding, which is more difficult to 
achieve than many architectural designers imagine. To be sure, the 
scheme of design lacks that splendid effect of contrast between the 

tall, plain shaft and the rich 
belfry that we admire in some of 
the Italian campanili, both me- 
dieval and Renaissance, in the 
tower of the Palazzo Pubblico, at 
Siena, for instance, and at Venice 
in the Campanile of St. Mark, 
and in Palladio's Tower to San 
Giorgio Maggiore (in Isola), but 
of its type there is none better. 
We seem to see the master hand 
of Peruzzi in the free and yet 
consistent way in which the 
orders are handled, and especi- 
ally in the sure and fine grada- 
tion of all the measures and 
reliefs, in the scrupulous adjust- 
ment of every detail to its own 
place and to the whole. Finally, 
it is a rare example of a classical 
design skilfully adjusted without 
compromise to simple brickwork, 
a material which in ordinary 
hands has shown itself intract- 
able for such a use. 

There is another small work 
of Peruzzi in brick which deserves 
mention here for the same quali- 
ties that we see in the tower of the 
Carmine, — the facade which was 
added from his designs to the 
old cathedral, called the Sagra, 
at Carpi. The little old Lombard 
building, outgrown by the town 
and standing annoyingly in the 
way of the big palace which the ambitious Alberto Pio had undertaken 
to build in the new fashion, was yet too sacred to be absolutly dis- 
placed ; so Alberto had it razed down to its choir, and sent from Rome 
a design for a simple brick front which he got from Peruzzi, we are 
told. It is curious to see that it shows the characteristic motive 
which Palladio employed later at Venice in the churches of the 
Redentore and San Giorgio Maggiore, and which is usually considered 
his property,— the use of two interlocking orders, a high one on 
pedestals for the nave, and a lower one without pedestals for the 
front of the aisles. This narrow front has but one inter-columniation 
each for the nave and the aisles, giving three bays and four pilasters 
taller and shorter. A wall arch of little projection fills the head of 
each bay; the old marble doorway, piously preserved beneath, an un- 
finished pediment at the top of the nave, and half pediments on the 
aisles, and round panels in the tympanums, finish the design. 



244 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



&E<0*>IC> J'l-OOR r»i_>.Kl 



THE AMERICAN SCHOOLHOUSE. I. 

BY EDMUND M. WHEELWRIGHT. 

AS in all matters pertaining to public education, the Germans 
have made very scientific study of school planning. While 
certain considerations which are given deservedly careful attention 
by us are little heeded in Ger- 
many, in important points of 
planning there is much in the 
plans of German schools which 
is immediately suggestive for 
our own needs. 

The system of instruction 
in France and England differs 
so widely from that generally 
adopted in this country that, 
although points of interest and 
suggestion are not lacking in 
particular schools, there is in 
their plans little of important 
and general suggestion for us. 

The German method of in- 
struction in primary and secon- 
dary schools is mainly, as with 
us, by the separate graded class 
system. Especial instruction 
in drawing, music, etc., is given 
in special class rooms assigned 
for these studies, but no assem- 
blying of a whole school for 
purpose of collective instruction 
enters into the German system. 
There are, therefore, no large 
Assembly Halls provided in 
German schoolhouses, as is the 
case in American and English 
schools. Although German 
schoolhouses have fine and 
richly ornamented halls, they 
are not used for the regular ex- 
ercises, but only on state occa- 
sions and for examinations. 
The Asseml)ly Hall, with us, is 
not the important feature of the 
school, as it is in England. We 
use it only as an accessory to 
the schoolrooms. In our 
schoolhouse plans the Assembly 
Hall is usually placed, as is the 
German Aula, in the upper 
story of the building, and both 
are designed to be of ready 
access from all parts of the 
s c h o o Ihouse. The different 
uses of these halls in the two 
countries appear in their deco- 
rative treatment. With us the 
Assembly Hall has commonly 
but little more architectural pre- 
tension in its fittings than have 
the schoolrooms ; indeed, it is 
practically but a larger school- 
room, while in Germany the Aulas are often given a rich monumental 
treatment, as if to be representative of the dignity of the State. 

We find, therefore, the German schoolhouse closely resembling 
in plan the American schoolhouse as it is at present developed ; the 
main consideration of the plan in each being to give conveniently dis- 





c:nov>^lD PX.AM 




■B«Al>E»<JEM-r Jaa.A>>l 



JO 

—I— 



3.0 

=1= 



SO 

z=t= 



^ 






PAKISH SCHOOL, BERLIN, PRUSSIA. 
From Rolson's " Scliool Architecture. " 



posed and well-lighted schoolrooms, giving off well-lighted corridors, 
and a large hall placed in the upper story of the building. 

A few points of difference between the customs of the two 
countries give variations in plan of secondary importance. In Ger- 
many, nothing like coeducation of the sexes exists, and consequently 
in the plans the division between the sexes is made absolute; and this 
division is not, as with us, almost entirely confined to the basement 

of the building. 

The importance of good 
ventilation and freedom from 
bad odors appears to be more 
generally recognized in this 
country than in Germany; con- 
sequently, we have in our later 
schools developed more highly 
than the methods of ventilat- 
ing, and we have in our best 
schools excluded the outer 
garments of the scholars not 
only from the schoolrooms but 
from the hallways. American 
schoolhouses of the first class 
are now planned with separate 
rooms called " wardrobes " or 
" cloak rooms," one for and 
immediately adjoining each 
schoolroom. In (iermany, the 
outer garments are hung on 
pegs in the schoolroom. 

On the other hand, possibly 
on account of the proverbially 
bad eyesight of the Germans, 
the subject of proper lighting 
of schoolrooms is given more 
careful consideration among 
them than with us. 

A German schoolroom is 
either lighted from one side 
only or from opposite sides. 
The teachers are not forced to 
face windows, nor are the pupils 
s u b j e c ted to cross light. 
Schoolrooms are almost invari- 
ably arranged so that the prin- 
cipal light comes from the left- 
hand side of the pupils. But 
where our classrooms give 12 
to 16 sq. ft. of floor surface in 
a schoolroom to each pupil, in 
Germany the most liberal area 
is 10 to 12 sq. ft. for each 
scholar. This is a considera- 
tion immediately associated 
with the question of proper 
ventilation, and should not be 
disregarded in the consideration 
of the advantages and disad- 
vantages of the schoolroom 
plans of the two countries. 

The schoolroom, 24 ft. 
(with 12 ft. stud) for primary 
schools, and 28 ft. (with 13 ft. 
stud) for grammar schools, gen- 
erally adopted in this country requires, to give sufficient light to the 
row of desks next the inside wall, that there should be windows in 
the wall on the left and in the wall at the back of the pupils. While 
cross light is disadvantageous for the pupils' eyes, the chief disad- 
vantage of this method of lighting is possible injury thereby to the 



ro 



90 

— t— 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



245 



teacher's eyes. In no well-planned court room are windows placed 
opposite the bench, and equally valid objections hold in regard to 
placing a row of windows, except those with northern exposure, 
opposite a teacher's table. 

It is held in Germany that in a schoolroom lighted from one 
side only, the row of desks furthest from the windows should not 
be at a greater distance than once and one half the clear height of 
the room. While this rule is not, however, followed in all cases, 
in Germany and France 21 to 22 ft. is the customary width of a 
schoolroom. The maximum length of a schoolroom in these coun- 
tries is usually 30 ft. This length is the distance to which the aver- 
age voice can throw with ease, and it places the pupil in the row 
farthest from the teacher where writing upon the blackboard behind 
the teacher's desk can be distinctly seen. 

Another consideration in the adoption of a narrow width of 
schoolroom is the economy of construction permitted by this span as 
compared with the cost of 



WC^TT ?S.OOE S>1.>*KJ 



wider spans ; but in Germany, 
as the number of pupils to a 
schoolroom, except in the upper 
grades, is no less and sometimes 
greater than with us, the pupils 
in a German school are given a 
smaller allowance of air space, 
and do not have the advantage 
of separate desks such as are 
now almost universally assigned 
to pupils in our schools. As 
far as the scholars' wellbeing is 
concerned, there is disadvan- 
tage to them from cross light, 
but the great width of the 
schoolrooms required for the 
diffusion of light from the win- 
dows at the back of rooms gives 
greater air space per pupil than 
is given in Germany. It is un- 
doubtedly better to have the 
light from two opposite sides of 
the room, or, as would commonly 
be the case, from the left side 
of the pupils only. The crowd- 
ing of fifty-six pupils now 
seated in grammar schools in 
schoolrooms 28 by 32 ft. into 
rooms 22 by 30 ft. is inadvis- 
able. 

The question of adopting 
a smaller-sized class room in 
our schools should be consid- 
ered as one of economy in its 
broadest sense. A schoolhouse with schoolrooms 22 or 24 ft. in 
width can be more economically constructed than can one of 28 ft. 
wide. The eyesight of teachers and pupils would be better con- 
served in the narrower rooms. 

It is for educators to decide whether the lesser number of pupils 
under each school teacher means greater average progress for each 
pupil. If so, it is possible that as many pupils per teacher may 
receive instruction during a term of years under the small class sys- 
tem as under that which now usually maintains. The economy of a 
system of education would seem to depend not so much upon the 
number of pupils per teacher receiving instruction upon a given day 
as upon the average rate of progress of the pupils during a term of 
years. Smaller classes would admit of greater care in the training 
of the individual scholar, and under such conditions the rate of 
progress of the average pupil would probably be considerably in- 
creased. Unless the number of pupils per class room in Grammar 
and High Schools is materially reduced, our schoolrooms cannot be 




AEiOMD y:4_c»ow J=i— <>%KJ 





<ijaovj-ii> F'X.A.w 



I I I I 



^J^ 



PRIMARY SCHOOL, DRESDEN, SAXONY. 
From Rolson's " School Arcliiiecture." 



planned according to the most scientific method of lighting, nor can 
the only weakness of the American schoolhouse plan, as compared 
with that of Germany, be removed, and consequently no radical im- 
provement can be made in the general plan of our best designed 
schools. Of course the opportunity for improvement in details of 
fittings, in beauty of external effect, and in the domestic engineer- 
ing, is limitless; but as far as general plan is concerned, the module 
given by the schoolroom for fifty-six grammar grade pupils seated 
at separate desks prevents no possibility of better combination and 
arrangement of rooms than have already been made by our best 
architects. 

It is to be hoped that some progressive school board will try the 
experiment of building a large grammar school designed for classes 
of forty or forty-eight pupils, and adopt a system which will make 
rapid promotion in the grades possible. The economy of the small 
class system can thus be tested on a sufficiently large scale, and for 

a long enough period to draw 
reasonable conclusions from the 
experiment. We should not 
recede from the system of indi- 
vidual desks and ample volume 
of air, in which we are superior 
to the Germans, but we should 
not rest content with a system 
of classification which necessi- 
tates defective planning as far 
as light is concerned, if another 
system is reasonably econom- 
ical. 

If the system of smaller 
classes should prove to be 
somewhat more expensive in 
cost of teacher per pupil per 
school day, it should be borne 
in mind that to the credit of the 
smaller class room is to be 
placed the interest of the sav- 
ing on cost of buildings in 
which the floors, especially in 
the case of fire-proof construc- 
tion, are of short span. It 
would not be surprising if the 
result of such an experiment 
would show that the small class 
system would give as clear gain 
after duly weighing the other 
considerations in their econom- 
ical aspect, the lessened strain 
on the eyesight of both children 
and teacher, and the more indi- 
vidual education of the children. 
Large primary school buildings for the Elementen Schulen of 
twelve to fourteen rooms, such as are adopted in Berlin, even if built 
for small classes, would almost certainly prove to be more economical 
than the construction of four and six room primary schools. The 
smaller buildings are more expensive per pupil than larger buildings 
in cost of land and building, as well as in heating, and, if properly 
cared for, in janitor service. 

Primary schoolrooms, 24 by 32 ft., with a stud of 13 ft. 6 ins., 
while they would not fully meet the theoretical requirement of width of 
one and one half times the clear height would be well lighted with win- 
dows on one side only and would give seatings for fifty-six scholars. 
A better lighted primary schoolroom would be one 22 by 32 ft., 13 ft. 
stud and with desks set six in the width and nine in the depth of the 
room. This would require aisles as narrow as convenience will admit, 
say 18 ins. between desks and 2 ft. 4 ins. adjoining outer wall. The 
loss of two desks necessitated by this arrangement would appear to 
be a slight objection in comparison with the better lighting acquired. 



70 £0 

I I 






246 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




114. — IMI'EKIAL OYUNASIUU, TIF.NMA. TUE AULA, OR SXAMiKATION HALL. 

Frnm Kolson's '" School .\ichiteclurc." 

A jpjrammar grade schoolroom 24 ft. 6 ins. by 32 ft., 13 ft. 6 in. 
stud, while not as narrow as the (German theory would require, 
would give seatings for forty-eight pupils, well lighted from one side 
only. A better width would be 22 ft., with seatings for forty pupils 
of the grammar grade. The stud of these narrower rooms may be 

13 ft- 

To illustrate the effect upon school planning of the adoption 
of the narrower schoolroom lighted from one side, the floor plans 
of a grammar school recently designed for the city of Boston, with 
schoolrooms 2.S ft. wide, may be compared with that of a plan with 
the .same distribution of rooms, but adapted for improved lighting, 
with rooms 22 ft. in width. 

In the large German schools living apartments are provided for 
the janitor, and in some cases for the head master. Such arrange- 
ments would appear to be objectionable for all concerned ; at all 
events, they do not commend themselves for adoption in this country 

Schoolhouses should, if possible, be provided, in addition to the 
main entrances, with outside entrances to the basement for each sex, 
and there should never be less than two entrances on first floor. 
Where the conditions of the building admit, 
there should be an ample porch provided at 
the entrance to shelter the early comers who 
cannot gain admission to the building. The i- V-i.^r 

entrance doors should open outward to pre- 
vent possibility of disaster in case of fire or 
panic. The vestibule doors should be hung 
with double swing spring butts. The main 
corridors should be of ample width, not less 
than 10 and preferably 12 ft. wide, and 
should be thoroughly lighted. Fire protec- 
tion by tinned doors, making it possible to 
shut off the stairca.ses on each floor, is a 
desirable fire and panic precaution. It is 
very important that there should be such 
fire doors to shut off the basement, and that 
these doors should be fitted with spring 
butts or door checks. 

An entrance with runway and storage 
room for bicycles is to become a necessity 
in modern schools. 

The staircases should be of iron 
throughout, the treads fitted with rubber 
mats, or, better, with some one of the re- 



cently introduced combined lead and steel treads. 
Both rubber mats and lead treads should be set in a 
sinkage cast in the iron tread. The lead treads need 
not exceed 5^ ins. in width. The staircase risers 
for primary schools should be 6 ins. high, and in 
other schools they should not to exceed 7 '/i ins. ; the 
balusters and posts of iron of plain pattern, and the 
hand rails of each of plain round section. There 
should always be wall rails except at platforms. 

Staircases are required in Boston to be at least 
5 ft. in width. Some authorities consider that such 
staircases should not be wider than to admit of the 
comfortable passage of two files of children, each 
thus having a hand rail ; and therefore that they 
should be but 3 ft. 6 ins. wide, to prevent the possible 
crowding between the files in case of panic. The 
excellence of the discipline of our school children 
has been proved during alarm of fire, and therefore 
we may safely retain the comfort and convenience 
of the 5 ft. stairway. There should not be more than 
fifteen or less than three risers between landings. 
Landings should be at least 4 ft. between steps. No 
schoolhouse should have less than two stairways. 

Kvery primary and grammar schoolroom should 
have a wardrobe or cloak room adjoining it. The 
practise of using the corridors for cloak rooms is highly objectionable, 
as the movement of air in the building is naturally towards the 
schoolrooms. To say nothing of the danger from disease, the mass 
of clothing, especially if wet, is one of the main causes of the offen- 
sive " schoolhouse smell." 

The wardrobes should be carefully heated and ventilated, and 
should have outside windows. 

The hat and coat hooks should be set on side walls only, and the 
top row should he 4 ft. high in primary schools, and 5 ft. high in 
grammar schools. There should be at least 30 ft. of hanging 
space in each wardrobe. Every wardrobe should be fitted with a 
shelf set .above the baseboard, or above the upper row of hooks upon 
which rubber boots and overshoes may be ranged in orderly man- 
ner, and not left upon the floor to be kicked about by careless or 
mischievous urchins. The wardrobe should have two doors, one 
from the corridor and one to the schoolroom. Four feet in the clear 
is the least width for a wardrobe. 

Wardrobes adjoining schoolrooms are not absolutely requisite 
for high schools, and considerable economy may be effected in these 




( 



i;0\\ DOI.V DISTRICT (iKAMMAR SCHOOL, ItOSTON. 
Kdmiind M. Wheelwright, City Architect. 



« 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



247 



buildings by providing well-ventilated and lighted lockers in the 
basement adjoining the toilet rooms. These lockers should have 
panels of stout wire netting, top and bottom, in the doors, and may 
well be provided with floors and top of wire netting. 

As noted above, the standard size of a primary schoolroom, 
to accommodate fifty-si.x pupils, is 24 by 32 ft. and that for grammar 



schoolrooms with 12 ft. stud, 32 sq. ft. of light for each window is the 
minimum requisite size, and that of grammar schoolrooms is 36 sq. ft. 
It is desirable that schoolrooms should have double run of sash. 
The heating system where double sash is used is more effectively and 
more economically run, and both the dust and the noise from the 
street is lessened. The expense of doulile sash is consideral)Ie, not only 




5ECON0 FLOOR CLAW 



THBC FLOOR PLAM 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

schoolroom is 28 by 32 ft.; 
the pupils are seated so that 
the principal light comes from 
the left, and to give the requis- 
ite diffusion of light in such 
rooms there should be four 
windows on the long side, 
and, unless some requirement 
of design or plan prevents, 
three on the other side. 

When light comes from 
the north only, it is not held 
to be objectionable in Ger- 
many to place the pupils with 
their backs to the light. 

The windows should be 
4 ft. between jambs, 3 ft. 
above finished floor, and car- 
ried within 6 ins. of the ceil- 
ing. The windows should 
not have transoms, as the transom bar cuts off most valuable light. 
Narrow windows with muUions are not as good in a schoolroom 
as wide windows widely spaced. Arched windows should be spar- 
ingly used in schoolrooms, and only those of the upper story ; when 
used, the stud of room and height of window should be increased so 
as to give at least the minimum glass surface noted above. In primary 




GROUND FLOOR PLAN. 
KOWDOIN DISTRICT GRAMMAR SCHOOL, HOSTON. 

I'Mward M. Wlieelwright, City Architect. 



PLAN SHOWING NARROW SCHOOLROOM, LIGHTED ON ONE SIDE 

ONLY. 

on account of the addi- 
tional sash, but on account 
of the greater thickness of 
brick wall required. 

Unless the site is on 
a steep slope it is requis- 
ite that all the basement 
windows should not be 
less than 4 ft. 6 ins. high. 
In lecture rooms, lab- 
oratories, and rooms for 
manual training and cook- 
ing, there is no objection 
to cross lighting, and win- 
dows may be placed with- 
out regard to the side 
lighting advocated above. 
A platform 10 by 5 
or 6 ft. should be pro- 
vided for the teacher ; 
this should be movable, as many teachers prefer not to have an ele- 
vated seat. An ample wardrobe for the teacher, and bookcase set 
with faces flush with the wall where practical, should be placed ad- 
joining the teacher's desk. The wardrobe should be aljout 1 ft. 4 
ins. in depth, the bookcase 12 ins. Both should have doors and 
should have cornices on line with that of blackboard. 



248 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Architectural Terra-Cotta. 

BY THOMAS CUSACK. 

THE four Chicago examples of terra-cotta cornice construction 
furnished by Mr. W. L. 15. Jenney, and published in the 
June issue of The Brickbuilder, have been studied in the light of 
the description and directions that accompanied them. Construction 
and commentary were alike interesting, and will, doubtless, prove 
useful to those for whose benefit they were prepared ; and to that 
end, given publicity in a duly recognized channel of professional in- 
formation. As an evidence of this we can state that the chief 
draughtsman of a leading firm of architects — himself a very capa- 
ble constructor — makes no secret of having adopted the principle 
contained in one of these examples, for the construction of similar 
cornices, one of them on a very important fifteen-story building 
now in progress in New York. Said 
cornice has already passed through 
the hands of the writer, in the ordi- 
nary course of business ; and though 
it is not altogether what we should 
have advised, its execution is simple 
enough, and the result will be found 
quite satisfactory. We have, how- 
ever, profited much during a life of 
some activity, by the interchange of 
ideas ; and as Mr. Jenney — in com- 
mon with all other successful mem- 
bers of his profession — appears to 
set some store on the opinions of 
practical men, we offer, in return, a 
short criticism and a few suggestions 
from their point of view. This we 
shall try to do frankly, but with the 
deference due to one who, first in 
many things, was the first to catch an 
almost prophetic glimpse of the pos- 
sibilities of the steel skeleton, which, 
in little more than a decade, became 
generally accepted, and gives prom- 
ise of a yet fuller development. Not 
shrinking from the crucial test of his 
theory, he at once set about the prac- 
tical fulfilment of his own prediction, 
in the outcome of which it may be 
said — in this case at least — that 
the prophet is not " without honor in 
his own country." 

His first venture was made in 
the erection of the Home Life Build- 
ing, La Salle and Monroe Streets, 

Chicago, which was begun in 1883. and completed in the following 
year. In this very building the offices of Messrs. Jenney & Mundy 
are still situated ; and at his desk the veneraljle pioneer of a success- 
ful revolution in the building methods of the world may be found, 
alert in his movements, quick in his perception, full of interesting 
reminiscences, and ready to defend the faith that is in him against 
all comers. We take it for granted that a man such as this will be 
among the last to deny that as " iron sharpeneth iron, so a man 
sharpeneth the countenance of his friend."' 

We would say at the outset that little patience should be wasted 
on a critic who finds fault with that which is, unless he stands pre- 
pared to supply the deficiency, and take the risk of showing what he 
thinks ought to have been. This conclusion is reached from a lively 
appreciation of the fact that : — 

" A man must serve his time to every trade 
Save censure — critics all are ready made." 



Building, La Salle Street, Chicago, and without altering the profile 
or displacing the girder, rearrange the construction as at Fig. 42. In 
this way the alteration becomes, to some extent, self-explanatory, and 
those who wish to follow up the subject will have something tangible 
to take hold of. 

Starting with the architrave, the two courses into which it was 
divided are now made in one ; the blocks being of any desired length 
up to, say, 2 ft. 6 ins. Should radial joints be required, well and good ; 
they would satisfy the eye of a man who did not pause to reflect, but 
they would not add strength 10 work which must be otherwise sup- 
ported over apertures. Of course the idea of strength is worth con- 
sidering, and there are times when it becomes proper to make need- 
ful concessions on purely aesthetic grounds. Of these the present 
may, perhaps, be considered an instance. In either case provision 
would be made for a 7 in. I beam, its weight depending upon the 

width of openings. When the work 
had been set to line, its soffit resting 
on a suitable center, the whole of the 
interstices between iron and terra- 
cotta should be caulked (from the 
open chambers at back) full of ce- 
ment concrete, mixed in the manner 
recommended by Mr. Jenney. That 
done, no settlement in the arch or 
displacement of the blocks could oc- 
cur. The 12 in. chanrel and the 
attached angle can now be omitted 
and the frieze made as in the orig- 
inal. The dental course and the bed 
molding alcove are increased in bond, 
and made to fit in between the 
flanges of girder, but otherwise an- 
chored as before, except that the 
anchors take hold of a ^ in. rod 
passing through the blocks, and are 
tightened up on a good backing of 
cement by tension nut. 

It is in the cornice itself that the 
most important change would be 
made, and that change is radical in 
principle. The use of hangers is 
often expedient and sometimes in- 
dispensable, but wherever it is pos- 
sible to introduce a more direct 
support (as distinguished from sus- 
pension) the opportunity to do so 
should not be allowed to slip. Such 
an opportunity exists here, and it is 
, our first duty to make minor condi- 

tions conform to that fundamental 
one. The first of these would be to make the block in a single piece, 
plus the slip-sill ; and as it would then be but half the size of blocks 
that have been made without misadventure, the task in this case 
would not be a difficult one. The 12 in. 1 beam used as a fulcrum 
would give place to a 6 in. retained in the same position and for a 
similar purpose, with this difference: it would be allowed to rest on 
the top bed of the course below. The occupation of the longitu- 
dinal L's being gone, the cantilevers would be lowered to position 
shown, and their section changed to 5 in. l's. Finally, if square 
panels in the soffit were deemed a sine qua non, that factor would 
determine the length of the blocks at about i ft. y ins.; but if oblong 
panels were permissible the length of the cornice block might be 
increased to, say, 2 ft. 9 ins., with advantages that are certainly worth 
considering. These would consist in a saving of cantilevers, and in 
reducing the vertical joints to little more than half the number indi- 
cated on section (Fig. 42). As to the size of the block so increased, 
it would still remain less than that of those made (without special 
Acting upon this principle, we take the cornice of the Association difficulty) for the Astoria Hotel, and for other buildings which the 




SECTION 



i-iG. 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



249 



question of space does not permit us to illustrate. Then the protec- 
tion of these vertical joints; that may be done in a number of ways, 
some of which were discussed in articles for July and August. 
Whatever the method, we think, with Mr. Jenney, that the manner 
should be thorough, and that for the reasons pointedly stated in his 
remarks. The ways in which cornice blocks and cantilevers may be 
assembled will be found in the article for September, to which issue, 
and to those of preceding months, the reader in search of this and 
similar data is respectfully referred. 

At Fig. 43 is shown a cornice of undoubted simplicity, yet giv- 
ing, when set, an effect that is highly satisfactory, the chenaeu fur- 
nishing a particularly bold skyline. It maybe seen on the 12th 
Street elevation of the S. S. White Dental Manufacturing Company's 
new premises in Philadelphia (Boyd, Boyd & Roberts, architects). 
The photo. Fig. 44, though taken under certain disadvantages as to 
the point of view, gives a fairly correct impression of the work as 
seen from the opposite sidewalk. To obtain adequate projection — 
in this case 4 ft. 8 ins. plus the lion's head — without adding un- 
necessary weight to the structure often becomes the turning point 
between a terra-cotta and a metal cornice. Such was one of the con- 
ditions imposed in the design and construction of the subject under 
notice, and we think the data now presented will show that a fair at- 
tempt has been made towards its fulfilment. In Philadelphia the 



not less than 8 ins. on the bed molding, their weight, in any case, 
being carried by said cantilevers. But a time-honored law, in which 
the use of terra-cotta had not been contemplated, enacted long before 
the steel frame had been thought of, was cited and literally enforced, 
despite all that could be urged in deprecation of such action. 
Though originally intended as a precaution in the case of stone, 
when stone was made to balance on thick walls, and without any 
iron support, it now received a wider interpretation and was made 
to apply equally to terra-cotta cornices. This called for blocks with 
a bearing on the wall equal to their projection, quite regardless of 
the cantilevers which were spaced on 2 ft. 6 in. centers. The 
absurdity of all this was pointed out to the powers that be, but to 
them a city ordinance was like unto "the laws of the Medes and 
Persians that altereth not." Obstacles of a similar kind were de- 
nounced with much fervor some years ago by another distinguished 
Chicago architect, Mr. Dankman Adler, who, in an able argument 
published in the Economist of that city, inveighed against " official 
conservatism, self-sufficiency, and self-complacency backed by the 
letter of the law." 

In due time blocks of terra-cotta, one dimension of which was 
nearly 7 ft. were ordered, br.t the attempt to make and burn them met 
with indifferent success, huch of them as had not cracked in the 
drying and remained intact when taken from the kiln were broken 



-0'*<ETCH SHOWINC-MOOII-UONS, 
WITH IWbaB lN5ERTtDTHR0lj6M 
PARTITIONS, ecrORt FlLUnO 
\g CHAMBE.RS AlTH CONCRETE: 

; t i t ^ 




FIG. 43. 



building laws are sufficiently abreast of the times to permit of such 
an attempt being made, without risk of annulment as a foregone con- 
clusion. Had it been in Boston, such a proposal would have been 
found incapable of execution, by reason of certain belated building 
laws that have long since outlived their usefulness. Of these, too, 
we can speak from an unpleasant experience of a few years ago. It 
is encouraging, however, to know that some concessions have since 
been made in the manner of their enforcement ; but this is not 
enough : in that respect, at least, they stand in need of a radical re- 
vision in the light of progress and advanced practise. 

We cannot illustrate the effect of these antiquated ordinances 
better than by the narration of an incident in connection with a 
recently erected building in which terracotta and brick happened to 
be the materials used above the first story. The main cornice had a 
projection of about 3 ft., being supported by steel cantilevers running 
some distance back into the building and riveted to roof beams. 
The blocks forming top member of this cornice need not have been 
more than 2 ft. 6 ins. wide. This would have allowed them a lap of 



in transit, yet the farce of reassembling and setting the pieces was 
carried out as per program. Two thirds of that which was ordered 
to be made in single blocks of terracotta was, in reality, altogether 
superfluous. Indeed, we might go the length of saying that it became 
positively mischievous. For not only does it lie inert and useless ; 
the space it [occupies in the wall is but a series of boxes more or 
less hollow which otherwise would have been built solid in brick 
and cement ; weight in this case being held of high account for its 
own sake. This, be it observed, resulted from the misapplication of 
a law which at one time had a specific meaning, but now calls 
urgently for intelligent revision, with special reference to altered con- 
ditions and prevailing methods of procedure. We doubt whether a 
more glaring anomaly could be found in the building regulations of 
any city in the Union ; if so, it should have the immediate attention 
of the city dustman. 

We are far from saying that in all cases the best possible scheme 
of cornice construction is adopted. That would imply a degree of 
cooperation on the part of architect, engineer, and terra-cotta manu- 



250 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



facturer, tlie necessity for which is only beginning to be recognized. 
Neither can we assume that the scheme, after it has been fully 
elaborated (quite apart from its merits as such), is at all times made 
the most of in the course of execution. Unfortunately, that is not 
so ; nor could we expect anything so idealistic in the outcome of so 
brief a period of evolution. It is as yet a new problem, and one 
for which a solution is being rapidly evolved ; but like the language 
itself, in which we have been said to conceal as well as convey our 
thoughts, it is not altogether complete. In all the wide domain of 
human progress there can be no finality. Such improvements as 
have been made tluis far are due to the application of mathematical 



Fire-proofing Department. 




FIG. 44. 

principles, of practical skill, and of knowledge such as comes to its 
possessor by the slow and sure, though not always agreeable, course 
of experience. Those engaged in it are represented by the architect, 
the engineer, the clayworker, and finally, the general contractor. 
Their ultimate aim is, and, indeed, the results already achieved in 
the construction of terra-cotta cornices are, economy, simplicity, com- 
pleteness, and absolute security. That much yet remains to be done 
in these several directions we are free to admit. None the less, how- 
ever, do we contend that cornices such as have been illustrated and 
discussed in recent issues of this journal are the logical outcome as 
they are the crowning triumph of composite construction. 



As to the question whether it be desirable or not to introduce 
brick at all in ecclesiastical edifices, or generally in public buildings, 
one might, a few years ago, have been anxious to say, somewhat. I 
trust, however, that the ignorant prejudice which made many good 
people regard stone as a sort of sacred material, and brick as one fit 
only for the commonest and meanest purposes, is fast wearing out. — 
Street. 



THE PRESENT CONDITION OF 
I'ROOFINt;. 



THE ART OF FIRE- 



HY I'ETER IS. WIGHT. 

THE question is often asked, " Why should buildings be fire- 
proofed when it is cheaper, all things considered, to build 
them otherwise .' " This is one of those questions the answer to 
which is partly within itself and is impliedly in the negative, with 
many otherwise sensible people. And as long as it is a question of 
pure economics viewed solely from the investor's point of view, we 
should not deride and aljuse those who view it in that light. When 
a man's interest is centered in a single piece of property he has no 
occasion to be public spirited. It is nothing to him whether his 
building would be a valuable improvement to the town or not. He 
is only looking for the best percentage on his investment, and takes 
his chances of fire with the insurance companies. He estimates the 
cost of his improvement both ways, and reckons his returns both ways. 
Then he argues with himself how long his building can be kept in 
good condition, and concludes that it will anyway last through his 
natural life if it is not burned down, and if it is he can put up 
another building and get the benefit of the latest improvements. 
Therefore he estimates to insure his rents also. But the only thing 
that troubles him is the 80 per cent, clause in his policies. However, 
he must take some chances, and this is an indefinite one. In addition 
to this he introduces some of the cheapest features that produce a 
modification of his insurance rates, finding that they pay from that 
point of view, and when his building is completed and rented con- 
gratulates himself that he has been more successful than some of his 
neighbors. There are many examples of this kind of investor, and 
the circumstances are always in his favor. 

It might have been said as one answer to the above question : 
'• Because the building law of the locality says it must be fire-proofed 
if it exceeds certain dimensions." In this answer is also hidden a 
deeper fact : that the investor, if he finds that the size of his projected 
improvement comes within this category, must fire-proof his building, 
willing or unwilling, and mostly the latter. This new investor sur- 
veying the field looks at what his predecessors have done. He finds 
that there are many ways to comply with the provisions of the 
building laws concerning fire-proof buildings, and still keep within 
the law. Perhaps he finds that some great building in which no 
pains have been spared to get the best results is not on a paying 
basis, and some other one, which is the result of all the cheap 
materials and devices obtainable, glossed over with much onyx and 
mosaic, and replete with every comfort and convenience, is in a 
flourishing condition. All he wants now is an expert able to get 
around all the expensive materials with cheaper ones that can be 
made to pass the inspection of the building department, and he is 
ready to go on with his building. But knowing that he has sought 
to evade the spirit of the law, he protects himself with insurance, and 
gets that also as cheap as he can. 

Another and somewhat discouraging element that enters into the 
discussion of the fire-proof building question is of an architectural 
nature. How many men have asked themselves the question : " Why 
should I build for all coming time when my neighbor finds it more 
profitable to build only for a lifetime? I see around me many sub- 
stantial structures that I admired in my youth, now degenerate and 
given over to baser purposes than those for which they were erected, 
and some being torn down to be replaced by monster bird cages. 
What will my projected bird cage look like forty years hence to the 
eyes of my children and grandchildren? " He muses on the fleeting 
fancies and fashions of the present day, which are overriding and 
displacing many of the best structures of a quarter of a century ago, 
and wonders why this will not go on forever. He wonders if inven- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



251 



tion and improvement will ever cease in our land, and says, " No ! 
The Watchword of Americans is Excelsior ! " and then adopts the 
plan of the most plausible of the many " enterprising " architects 
who are always thrusting the " latest thing " under his nose. 
Fashion has conquered his judgment. 

This is no fanciful picture. During the last three years a period 
of financial stagnation prevailing in many of the largest cities of the 
continent has given those whose energies are usually exerted in pro. 
jecting public and private improvements, especially in the line of 
building, much opportunity to mentally speculate on questions which 
largely concern the architects of the country, and the manufacturers 
and builders who carry out their plans. They are now criticizing what 
has been done in years of excitement and occupation which prevented 
serious thought. They are weighing the results of recent invest- 
ments in the larger class of buildings, and find many wanting. It is 
being discovered, or at least asserted, that there has been extrava- 
gance. Already some new buildings are projected in which it is 
sought to depreciate rather than appreciate the quality of materials 
heretofore used. This is now the general tendency, to which, of 
course, there are exceptions. 

It may be seen in the disposition to cheapen the methods hereto- 
fore used in making the interiors of buildings fire-proof. Instead of 
our past experience resulting in the improvement of old methods, en- 
tirely new ones, seeking to supersede the old, seem to find a ready 
acceptance ; and whatever their merits or demerits, they are certainly 
cheaper methods, and are advocated and accepted largely on that 
account. The danger of accepting cheaper methods is in the fact 
that they are generally taken without question as to their quality. 
They are also taken without being tested by actual experience. The 
only experience to recommend them is found in experimental tests 
and demonstrations. 

The present year has witnessed the only experiences of burned 
clay when used for fire-proofing purposes on a large scale, and under 
circumstances calculated to be most disadvantageous to them, that 
the world has ever seen. Though not unscathed they have done 
their work, they have fulfilled their purpose. When the crucifiers 
cried out to the Man of Nazareth, " He has saved others, now let 
him save himself," they confessed to Ijelieve that which they sought 
to make others think they did not believe. And so the scoffers who 
can only say that clay fire-proofing has not in a crucial test saved it- 
self are obliged to admit that it has saved the structure of more than 
one building. It is also a fact that every other pretended system of 
fire-proofing heretofore used has been an absolute failure when sub- 
jected to the ordeal of fire in a large building. Such are the so-called 
fire-proof buildings erected twenty years ago. Of incipient fires and 
those that have burned out entire stories without destroying the build- 
ing the records of clay fire-proofing are a multitude. Many of these 
have been collected and published in The Brickbuilder, and others 
remain to be told (see Brickbuilder, November and December, 
1896). Of buildings with unprotected windows fire-proofed with 
burned clay, which have resisted the onslaught of fire from adjacent 
structures that were totally destroyed, may be mentioned the Montauk 
Block and Schiller Building at Chicago, the latter being of steel .skele- 
ton construction, with ex^arior side walls of hollow tiles. 

The experiences of the present year are full of instruction to 
those concerned in burned clay fire-proofing, and the good result of 
this will doubtless be seen in the near future. The makers and users 
have within recent years been too confident in their previous successes, 
and have neglected to make improvements which are always possible 
to those who are seeking to make them. There are no defects in the 
methods of manufacturing and using burned clay that cannot be 
easily overcome. It is in the selection of the raw materials that 
there is the greatest field for improvement. After this the most im- 
portant matter is the method of construction, and the relative quanti- 
ties to be used for specific purposes. 

As far as hollow tiles are concerned, if we have in view the 
usual systems of many makers which present continuous ceiling sur- 
faces, it is claimed that the chipping off of the bottoms is total 



destruction of the material from the insurance point of view, even 
though it has stopped the fire and saved the steel beams. The hol- 
low-tile system thus far used for floor construction is a single system 
with a double purpose. The systems depending on light metallic 
supports for concrete or plaster are nearly all double ; the floor con- 
struction is independent of the ceiling, and the ceiling is stretched 
below to protect the floor construction. Sometimes it protects the 
bottoms of the beams, and sometimes they are independently pro- 
tected. But in all cases it is there to be washed away by water after 
it has done its work, at which time protection to the floor construc- 
tion is no longer needed. If the clay system was used on the same 
principle the results might be different. Up to about seven years 
ago very many buildings had been constructed with ceilings of fire- 
clay tiles. In most cases these tiles were attached to wooden floor 
joists. In many of the fire-proof buildings of Pittsburgh and farther 
West these tile ceilings were used with steel construction for the 
highest story. There is only one example east of Pittsburgh, in the 
American Bank Note Engraving Company's building at New York. 
In the well-known Home Department .Store, and also in the Home 
Office Building at Pittsburg, the highest story was ceiled with clay 




tiles, and in each case they were in no way affected by fire from 
beneath, or by water to which they were also subjected in the Home 
Office Building. Another kind of clay tile ceiling was used in one of 
Ryerson's buildings on Randolph Street, Chicago, where a severe 
fire raged in the second story two years ago. This has also been 
described in The Brickbuilder (December, 1S96). 

In all these cases the tiles were either made in one thickness of 
material or were hollow tiles that had been split in two after being 
burned in the kilns. In each the tiles endured the most intense 
heat and the application of water without falling or cracking. .Several 
methods have been used for making and putting up such tile ceilings 
with more or less efficiency, but unfortunately they have been driven 
out of use by cheaper processes. Hut it has been demonstrated that 
ceilings of fire-clay tile, and only of tile, will endure tests that no 
other material will stand, even hollow tile itself. The reason is plain. 
A hollow tile when it cools in the kiln may still be under a strain in 
some of its parts, due to shrinkage. This is relieved by splitting it, 
it having been previously scored for the purpose. These tiles in a 
ceiling are in a state of rest. Each is independently fastened, and 
each is free to expand, contract, or move a slight distance. The 
thinner they are, if of hard tile, the more readily they will respond 
favorably to the attacks of intense heat or cold water. Everything 
depends on the way they are fastened ; but the difficulties in this 
respect have been overcome by blind fastenings and overlapping 
joints. The illustration (Fig. i) shows a section of one of these 
ceilings attached to I beams. The brick or tile arches are not 
shown. Suppose that each 1 beam was covered on the bottom with 
heavy porous terra-cotta skew-backs continued under it and a seg- 
ment tile arch thrown across from skew-back to skew-back. We 
would have the lightest, most reliable and economical floor construe- 



25 ; 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



tion with hollow tiles. Now, if hangers are inserted through the 
crown of the arch, a J[ iron can be attached to them running parallel 
with and between the beams, to which the small angle irons can be 
attached by iron cleats, as shown in the cut. Thus the tile ceiling 
would be independent of the beams, giving them increased protection 
in addition to the skew-backs, and furnishing a non-cracking protec- 
tion to the whole floor construction. Care should be taken to allow 
for longitudinal expansion in all the ^'s and \Js. 

Such a construction would be the same in principle, as has been 
said, as those proposed to be cheaply executed with metallic fur- 
ring, concrete, and plaster: but carried out in a material absolutely 
indestructible by fire and water, requiring only a new plaster surface 
to restore it to its original condition. It is not to be expected that it 
would suit the man who seeks to get around the provisions of the 
building laws, but it would be demanded for the highest class of 
buildings wherever the best of everything is sought for. 



NAKED STEEL CONSTRUCTION SEVERELY TESTED. 

AFIRK of extraordinary severity and destructiveness occurred 
in Detroit on the 7th of October. It destroyed the Detroit 
Opera House and five adjacent buildings of ordinary construction, 
two of them fronting on (natiot .Street in the rear of that on which 
the opera house fronted. In addition to these last was another 
building adjoining them and situated only 20 ft. from the rear 
wall of the opera house, occupied by the H. R. Leonard Furniture 
Company, and designed by Rogers & McFarlane, architects, of 
Detroit. Tliis building was 26 l)y iio ft., and ten stories high. 
Besides the street front on Gratiot Street, its side, no ft., fronted 
on a 20 ft. alley, and an alley 20 ft. wide separated it from the 
opera house. The whole building was of riveted steel construction 
and had girders and columns through the center. The front was of 
brick, but the side and rear were covered on the outside only with 
hollow building tiles. Curiously, while the whole skeleton was steel, 
all the floors were of mill construction. It was in open lofts and 
stocked with furniture from top to bottom. The only attempt at 
fire-proofing was to cover the columns and girders with fire-clay tiles. 
Everything combustiijle in it was completely burned out, and it must 
have made a most intense fire. But the entire steel skeleton remains 
standing, with the front wall and about half of the tile wall on the 
alley. The columns and girders are of course standing with the 
frame. The covering of the columns and girders, which were cer- 
tainly more exposed than any other jiart of the frame, may have been 
the means of preventing a total collapse. The amount of damage to 
the steel work has not yet been ascertained. The only wonder is 
that the burning of the combustible floors did not bring down the 
whole structure. There is nothing remarkable in the falling of a 
large part of the hollow-tile covering on the exterior, for the unpro- 
tected steel must have been greatly expanded and warped by the 
intense heat on the inside. There were no fire shutters on the rear. 
This experience only speaks well for riveted steel structures, but the 
whole may have to be taken down if it is warped out of shape as a 
whole, or in any of its details. 



FIRE-PROOF BUILDINGS. 

SINCE the decline within the last few years in the price of iron 
and steel, accompanied, as it has been, by the breaking up of 
what was once known as the steel beam trust, the number of fire- 
proof buildings that have been erected in the large cities of this 
country has greatly increased. The adoption of the so-called skele- 
ton form of construction is a method which permits of the utilization 
of space to an extent which would have been found impossible if the 
old methods of building had been continued. As it is now, it is esti- 
mated that a fire-proof building can be put up at about half the price 
that would have been required to pay for the construction of such a 
building eighteen or twenty years ago, while, as compared with the 
ordinary non-fire-proof building, one of these modern fire-proof struc- 
tures is said to call for an outlay not greater than 10 or 15 per cent. 



more in amount. This slight margin of increase is more than made 
good by the increased space obtained, as referred to above, and also 
by the fact that when once put up a building of this kind requires 
but a small expenditure in the way of repairs, and possesses the 
merits of indefinite durability. But beyond this there is also the fact 
that the insurance rates charged against fire are so much lower in 
the case of fire-proof structures than those which are not built in that 
manner, that the saving forms a considerable return in interest upon 
the extra money spent in the work of construction. 

But while a building may be classed as fireproof — and this 
classification, unfortunately, has been given to a great many struc- 
tures which do not deserve to be put in such a category — no form of 
building can offer absolute immunity against the destruction by fire 
of the inflammable contents which may be stored within it. Our 
building laws have put no limit upon the area which may be covered 
by a so-called first-class or fire-proof building, and it is obvious that 
if such a structure extends over half an acre or an acre of ground, 
and has each of its floors filled with combustible merchandise, a fire 
taking place and obtaining great headway on one of these stories 
may in itself cause a large loss, even though the building itself may 
not suffer material damage. This was the experience in the confla- 
gration which took place in Pittsburg about a year ago. The fire 
started in a building of ordinary construction, but the flames were 
carried by the current of air against the unprotected glass windows 
of a fire-proof building on the opposite side of the street. The result 
was that the merchandise on each story of the latter building was set 
on fire and completely burned up. The structure was in certain ways 
faulty, a fact which was brought out by the hard test of a hot fire. 
But the main structure of the building stood firm, although its entire 
contents were converted into ashes. 

A few weeks ago an alleged fire-proof building, a storage ware- 
house, took fire in Detroit, and in this case the contents were entirely 
destroyed, while the building itself was damaged to an extent which 
may require almost entire reconstruction. In this instance, the fire- 
proof qualities possessed were those of name rather than of fact. 

But in view of the presumable loss which might happen to the 
contents of our fire proof buildings, when these are used for the stor- 
age or sale of inflammable material, it is not unlikely that some re- 
striction should be placed upon the extent of undivided areas. With 
a building of second-class or ordinary construction the limit of area 
is 8,000 ft., a space which, if filled with inflammable merchandise, is 
quite large enough, when on fire, to furnish hard work for a fire de- 
partment in its efforts to extinguish the flames. In view of the fact 
that the tendency of the times is in the direction of fire-proof con- 
struction in this city, and in view, furthermore, of the circumstance 
that it is well to take precautions against a known danger in advance, 
it would be prudent to put some limit in the way of dividing fire walls 
in fire-proof buildings which will be erected in the future. 

So far as office buildings are concerned, no limitation is re- 
quired, for the reason that these are of necessity divided by fire-proof 
partitions into relatively small compartments, while the contents of 
these is hardly ever of a character to offer the materials for a hot 
fire. The same statement holds true of apartment houses and hotels, 
which are also cut up by interior fire-proof partitions, so as to impose 
a check to the quick spread of the flame.s. But in the modern ware- 
house it is often thought desirable to have a large undivided area, 
and these areas are commonly filled with con.sideral)le quantities of 
inflammable merchandise. If the regulations of our building laws 
were such that these floor areas could not extend over a greater space 
than 10,000 sq. ft., and where a store of three or four times 
this area was required, it would need to be divided from the ground 
upward by solid fire -proof partitions, cutting up the building into 
sections of not e.xceeding 10,000 .sq. ft. each, it is probable that 
the convenience of trade would not be greatly interfered with, while 
the construction would be such as to make it possible for the fire de- 
partment to hold a fire that occurred within the hmits of the floor of 
a single section, thus making a conflagration impossible. — Boston 
Herald. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Mortar and Concrete. 



LIME, HYDRAULIC CEMENT, MORTAR, AND CON- 
CRETE. VIII. 

BY CLIFFORD RICHARDSON. 

THE ROSENDALE CEMENT INDUSTRY. 

PHYSICAL TESTS OF NATURAL CEMENTS. 

THE strength, when determined under similar conditions in the 
laboratory, is a valuable indication of the character of a 
cement and of the effect upon it of variations in its chemical compo- 
sition and physical properties. Each kind of cement is made into 
test pieces in the way most favorable for developing its best quali- 
ties, the fineness of grinding, the amount of water necessary to make 
the mortar, and the time required for setting being observed. At 
intervals the strength, either tensile or compressive, is determined. 

Examinations of this kind have been made by the writer in the 
last few years of most of the well-known brands of natural cement in 
use in the concrete base of asphalt pavements over a large portion 
of the United States. The results are given in the following table. 



Utica. 
III. 

'538 

1972 



Fort Scott, Double Star, Mankato, 
Kans. Kans. Minn. 

Neat : — 

7 days 769 1072 1663 

28 days 1256 2402 2288 

3 months 3155 

Two parts quart/. : — 

7 days 417 988 575 1075 

28 days 680 1470 834 1450 

3 months 2718 

Average Rosendale, 

Neat : — 

28 days 1737 

Two parts quartz. 

28 days 614 

An examination of the data in the table shows that there are 
very decided differences to be noted in connection with the fineness 
of grinding of the samples of the different brands, the amount of 
water necessary to make the strongest mortar, the set and the tensile 
and compressive strength at different ages. It would also be found, 
among a large number of tests of the same cement, that there are 
often considerable variations in many of the brands themselves from 



PHYSICAL TESTS OF AMERICAN NATURAL CEMENTS, TENSILE STRENGTH, FINENESS, ETC. 



BRAND. 



Fineness. 



100 50 



Water in 
Mortar. 



Neat. 



Sand. 



Initial. 



Hard. 



Neat, tensile strength, pounds per square 
inch. 



I day. 



7 days. 28 days. 



6mos. 



I year 



Two parts crushed quartz. 



7 days. 



28 days. 



Rosendale, best, N. Y. 

Rosendale, average, N, Y 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Akron, " Star," N. Y 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Utica, 111 

Louisville, " Anchor,*' Ky 

Louisville, " .Speed," Ky 

Sellersburg, Ind 

Fort .Scott. Kans 

Double Star, Kans 

Mankato, Minn 

Union, Peun 

Improved Union, Penn 

Round Top, Md 

Cumberland, Md. 

Cumberland and Potomac, Md. 

Antietam, Md 

.Shepherdstown, Md 

Anchor, Penn 

Milroy, Penn 

Utah 



24 5 

24. 



■•5 
3-5 



28. 

28. 

26. 

26. 

30. 

32- 

3'-5 

33-5 

30. 

37- 

38. 

30- 

28. 

28. 

32- 

32. 

32. 

32. 

30- 

25- 

30. 
32- 



12. 

12. 

13- 

■4- 

"3-5 

15- 

■3-5 

14- 

'5- 

'4- 

12. 



14. 

14- 

14- 

'5- 

'4- 

■3-5 

■3- 

■4- 



36' 

65' 

43' 
50' 

63' 



I 10 

i8o 
40 
52 
116 
188 
170 
140 
100 
100 
1 00 

65 
70 
150 
50 



206 
150 
240 
300 
160 
249 
222 
248 
60 
100 
210 
238 
230 
219 
250 
300 
300 
146 
160 
300 
170 
204 



400 
300 
310 
320 
234 
336 
310 
394 
320 
160 
305 
346 
375 
314 
300 
375 
315 
300 
300 



450 

(317) 

338 

(257) 

(327 



276 
(259) 

324 
410 
371 
37' 



457 
375 
(290) 
(3f>4J 
(327) 
(242) 
(368) 



(280) 

397 
445 
393 
393 



500 
460 
(346) 
(369) 
'372) 
259) 
(416) 



(319) 
526 



108 
60 
118 
98 
72 
30 
36 
114 
112 
150 
■45 
122 
■56 
188 
70 
106 
90 
70 
52 



150 
■JO 
■52 
230 

80 

140 

■52 

164 
130 
86 
256 
160 
250 
231 
255 
297 
225 
124 
210 

200 
230 



250 
210 
(■■5) 
(■52) 
(■35) 
200 
(i.o) 



398 
(120) 

296 
342 
356 
403 
162 
265 



336 



370 
270 
(.03) 
(■49) 
(152) 
(.22) 
(■44) 



(126) 

359 

387 
350 
397 
226 
281 



450 
340 
(97) 
(■■5) 
(■56) 
(.34) 
061) 



■S3 
3^2 
400 
5'5 
438 
436 
232 
366 



supplemented, where some of the long-time tests are incomplete, by 
those of other investigators which seem comparable. It is impos- 
sible, however, to use the tests of the manufacturers themselves, and 
of many city engineers as a means of comparison, owing to the 
methods employed, which are quite different from those in which the 
test pieces are made with dry mortar and of sufficient density. It 
has been possible, however, to use some of the results of the excel- 
lent tests made in the office of the Inspector of Asphalt and Cements 
of the District of Columbia, and some of those of the cement testing 
department of the Hoard of Public Works of Philadelphia, which are 
the only ones available which are made under the same conditions 
as those of the writer, upon which the table is based. The results of 
some long-time tests of Western cements carried on under the di- 
rection of the city engineer of Minneapolis, from 1888 to 1894, are 
also introduced in parentheses, although only comparable among 
themselves. 

TESTS (JF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH. 
Founds per square inch. 

Brand Buffalo, .^kron, Louisville, Milwaukee, 

N. Y. " Star," N. Y. Ky. Wis. 

Neat : — 

7 days 997 1325 1737 913 

28 days 1300 2812 2795 1457 

Two parts quart/ : — 

7 days 700 700 500 506 

28 days 980 1300 1065 822 



time to time and from year to year, depending on changes in the 
character of the rock and in the manner of burning. For compara- 
tive purposes, however, the results which have been selected are 
sufficiently illustrative to show what the general differences are in 
the nature of our natural cements when at their best. 

These differences must be considered in the light of our previous 
information as to the chemical composition and density of the several 
cements and of our actual experience with them in their practical 
applications. 

Fineness. How fine a cement may be when put on the market 
is primarily purely a question of the care bestowed on grinding, but 
under ordinary circumstances it is dependent, to a large degree, on 
the hardness of the burned stone. The facilities for grinding are 
much the same at all cement mills, and at but few of them, at least 
hitherto, has sifting and care in grinding been practised. In the 
manufacture of the best Hoffman Rosendale of New York scalping 
or sifting, as well as grinding, is carried on, with the result that this 
cement is extremely fine, and yet there are some other cements 
which are softer and as satisfactorily ground without scalping. 

The importance of fine grinding appears from comparative 
tests of sand mortars made of cement from which the coarser parti- 
cles have been removed, and of that containing a considerable por- 
tion of coarse material, which, by itself, has little or no hydraulic 
activity. These tests show that, other things being equal, the finer 
the cement the stronger are the sand mortars made with it, at least 



254 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



in the ordinary proportions and at early stages, although in the neat 
form, the mortar, made with coarse cement, may produce a test piece 
stronger than that made with the finer material. On this account 
as our best natural cements are now furnished of such a degree of 
fineness that less than lo per cent, is coarser than will pass a loo 
mesh sieve, it is important that the coarser cements should not be 
accepted for use, at least at the same price as the finer. 

Fineness is undoubtedly an element of importance, although 
probably not as much so as in the case of Portland cement, which 
is used with larger proportions of sand. Fortunately the manu- 
facturers are beginning to appreciate the fact that the improvement 
that they make in their cements by attention to this detail repays 
them by the higher test which the finely ground material will give, 
and the readier sales it will command where they are made to persons 
who understand the importance of fine grinding and who test their 
cements carefully before using. Upon those who pay little or no 
attention to the character of the cement which they employ such a 
refinement may, no doubt, be thrown away. 

Sc'/. Natural cements, when made into mortar with the smallest 
amount of water, set in from a few minutes to an hour or more. 
There is a wide difference in this respect, although, as a rule, natural 
cements are quick setting. The variations are due to the composi- 
tion of the rock, the extent of its calcination, and the degree to which 
hydration of the finished cement has been carried. Much high- 
grade cement may, when first burned and ground, heat when mixed 
with water and .set too rapidly, but when properly hydrated by sprink- 
ling or steaming the burned stone or by storage, it may be made to 
set slowly and give satisfactory results. The lime cements are 
usually the quickest in setting unless hydrated, but they are equaled 
in this respect by many magnesian cements, too rich in carbonates. 
Very slow setting is unusual when cements are freshly burned. 
When found it is due to weathering, air slaking, and age, or to defi- 
ciency in the proper proportions of lime to silicates. 

Normal natural cements, satisfactory for use, when mixed 
with a small quantity of water, it appears, begin to set in from fif- 
teen to thirty minutes, and are hard set, that is to say, not easily 
indented by the nail, in about forty-five. 

The time required by the same cement, when employed under 
varying conditions, may vary very much. The more water there is 
used in making a mortar the slower the set will be. The warmer the 
water and air the quicker the set : and the more humid the surround- 
ings, and the more excluded the mortar is from the air, the slower it 
will set. 

On this account quick-setting cements must be mixed with more 
water than slow. They are also frequently in demand where the 
surroundings have a tendency to delay setting. 

IVater. The amount of water necessary to make the strongest 
mortar with each cement for comparative tests is variable. It is 
commonly expressed in percentages by weight. This is, however, to 
a certain extent deceptive, as the relation is one of volume. 

The variation in the amount of water required is due to several 
causes, — the degree of fineness to which the cement is ground, the 
specific gravity of its particles, its volume weight or density, and to 
its chemical composition. With considerable coarse material the 
voids in the cement are smaller and the volume of water required for 
a mortar less. When one cement has a higher specific gravity than 
another the same volume percentage of water will mean a smaller 
weight per cent, in the first case. For instance, 300 parts by weight 
of a cement having a specific gravity 3.00 might require 84 parts by 
weight of water to make a mortar, while 265 parts by weight of a 
cement, having a specific gravity of 2.65 ; but an equal volume with 
that of 300 parts of a specific gravity of 3.00, would require the same 
volume of water, or the same amount by weight, 84 grams, but in the 
first case the per cent, of water by weight would be 28, and in the 
second, with the light cement, 31.7, although in each case the volume 
was the same. 

The chemical composition of a cement has probably the greatest 
influence upon the amount of water necessary to make a mortar. 



Depending upon the quantity of water necessary to hydrate and 
combine with certain compounds the amount necessary in addition 
to make the mortar plastic will vary. The cement made at Fort 
Scott, Kans., requires much more water than any other natural cement 
to properly temper it. This is due to the fact that on its addition a 
portion of the water is at once taken up in chemical combination by 
the cement, leaving only an ordinary amount to act in the physical 
operation of making a mortar. The magnesian cement of Western 
New York requires but 26 per cent, of water and the best Rosendales 
but 28. Here there is not the same immediate demand for water to 
combine with the cement chemically, and so a smaller volume is 
sufficient to make a mortar. The quicker setting a natural cement is 
the more water it requires, as a rule, as the quick set is merely an 
evidence of active chemical change which requires and ties up addi- 
tional water. 

The difference in the volume of water required by a natural and 
a Portland cement also illustrates the effect of difference in composi- 
tion in the amount of water requisite for making a mortar. A good 
Portland cement of specific gravity 3.15 requires 21 per cent, by 
weight of water to make a mortar. 3 1 5 parts by weight would, 
therefore, require 66.15 parts by weight of water. The relation of 
the volume of the particles of cement to that of the water would be 
as 100 : 66.15. A Rosendale cement of specific gravity 3.00 requires 
28 per cent, by weight of water or 84 per cent, by volume of the 
particles of cement. The Rosendale, therefore, requires over 17 
volumes more of water to the 100 of solid cement on account of its 
different chemical composition and aside from the difference in 
density. 

Another difference in the behavior of cements towards water is 
the variable amount of working mortar that different kinds of cement 
require, owing to differences in the speed with which water acts upon 
them. Some quickly make a smooth and plastic mass, while others 
require a more prolonged kneading to bring about the proper hydra- 
tion of certain constituents. 

In the practical use of natural cements these peculiarities have 
their influence and will be noted later. 

Stretii^th, Tensile and Compressive. The results of tensile 
tests of cements given in the preceding table are of representative 
samples of the best grade of each brand as far as they have come to 
our attention and for the strongest test pieces which care and expe- 
rience can make under the most favorable condition. Under these 
circumstances the tensile strength appears to be, in almost all cases, 
satisfactory, and it seems that many of the brands attain a strength 
of over 100 li)s. per square inch in the form of sand mortar, 2 to i, 
at the age of seven days, and may be expected to reach this standard 
at all times. Some brands do not reach this strength at seven days 
but gain it later, while a few do not continue after some time to 
increase in strength in the proper ratio. These peculiarities may 
profitably be examined by comparing the results of the tests with the 
chemical composition, and what we know of each brand in practical 
work and other properties of the cements. 

Typical A'atnral Cements. As types of high-grade natural 
cements of the magnesian and lime classes the Hoffman Rosendale 
and Round Top cements may be selected. After learning to what 
their valuable properties are to be attributed it is then of interest to 
compare the other cements of the country with them, and to learn to 
what the differences in the latter are due. 

Rosendale Cement. Using this term as applied properly to the 
product of Ulster County, N. Y., alone, we have seen that this 
cement, of which Hoffman Rosendale has been taken as one of the 
highest grade brands, is made from a dense rock, that it has a high 
specific gravity and is finely ground. In tensile strength it does not 
equal some other cements soon after it has been made up, but with 
age it increases in strength slowly and continuously without expan- 
sion, and is not to be excelled by any of the cements of its class 
when a year or more old. An examination of its chemical composi- 
tion shows that its excellent ([uality must be attributed to the fact 
that it contains about 1 5 per cent, of alumina and iron oxides repre- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



255 



senting an abundant supply of the necessary clay, that the combined 
silica reaches a satisfactory figure, and that the magnesia is not 
excessive for a magnesian cement, being about 14 per cent. It 
appears that the rock is lightly burned, as shown by the uncombined 
silica and silicates, the cement is very finely ground and, both in the 
testing laboratory and in construction work, has proved itself for 
years such a satisfactory article that it may be fairly used as a 
standard with which to compare other cements. The color of this 
cement is a deep and dark brown, decreasing in intensity with the 
decrease in the amount of silicates in the rock from which it is 
made. 

Round Top Cement. Although this cement is known only 
in the limited markets, reached from the place where it is manu- 
factured in Maryland, it is such a perfect type of a natural ce- 
ment, nearly free from magnesia, that it has been selected as the 
standard of its kind. An examination of its physical and chemical 
properties and a comparison of them with those of the best magne- 
sian brands is instructive and shows to what its valuable properties 
are due. 

It is of only ordinary fineness but of considerable density. It 
sets in about the same time as many Rosendale cements, but it sets 
harder and gives much more rapid returns in strength both neat and 
with sand soon after Ijeing made up, both in test pieces and on the 
work. It is not exceeded in strength by any natural cements after 
the lapse of considerable periods of time, though equaled, of course, 
frequently by some other brands of its kind. It is not as plastic as 
Rosendale cement and requires more water to make a dry mortar and 
more working to make a smooth one. It does not lose as much in 
initial strength on addition of excess of water nor is it affected as 
much by cold, and can be used in winter weather where a magnesian 
cement would fail. It is particularly suited for concrete work, where 
centers are to be drawn, owing to its great initial strength and rapid 
gain. The valuable properties of this cement must be due, as in the 
case of the best Rosendale cement, to the satisfactory proportions of 
its various components. The combined silica, in an average sample, 
reached 21.68 per cent, and the alumina and iron oxide 12.48 per 
cent., corresponding to very similar proportions in the Hoffman 
Rosendale, but the magnesia fell to but 2.86 per cent. The ab- 
sence of the magnesia gives a very different character to the 
cement, its property of acquiring great initial strength, and one 
which distinguishes it sharply in its working from most magnesian 
material. 

As taken from the kiln the ground rock or fresh cement is apt 
to be hot and quick setting, but on sprinkling the burned material 
with a small amount of water before grinding this difficulty is 
removed. 

In color this cement is a medium between the dark Rosendales 
and the light Western cements, which may be described as a light 
brown shading into buff. 



SAND CEMENT. 



THE engineering public is always interested in the improve- 
ment of cement. One of the most likely directions for such 
improvement at present seems to be the use of sand cement. Con- 
crete is a mass of coarse stone or gravel whose interstices are filled 
with sand, which in turn has its interstices filled with cement. The 
finer we grind the cement the more completely is the surface of 
each sand grain covered with it, and the stronger the resulting mass. 
Now let us go one step further and we have sand cement. Let us 
take a mixture of, say, one to one of Portland cement and pure sand 
(silica sand), and regrind this mixture into an impalpable powder, in 
which the cement gets ground very fine and the sand itself is as 
fine as ordinary cement. If we mix this sand cement in the propor- 
tion of, say, one sand cement to three ordinary sand, we obtain a 
mortar nearly as strong, and, indeed, some claim, fully as strong, as 
an ordinary mixture of one cement, three sand. — J'ro/. Cecil B. 
Smith, in Canadian Engiticer. 



The Masons' Department. 



THE WAY TO AWARD SOME BUILDING CONTRACTS. 

MOST buildings at the present day are planned and constructed 
on what might be called a mercantile basis, the dominant 
idea being to obtain the greatest possible results with the least possi- 
ble expenditure of money; in fact, in a large proportion, if not a 
majority of cases, it is necessary to cut down the figures which have 
been obtained in competition, in order to make the two ends meet. 
But while such is the ordinary and every-day experience, there is, 
fortunately, a growing demand for well and thoroughly built buildings, 
particularly in the cases of the best domestic work, where the owner 
is willing to pay a fair price for what he receives. In such instances, 
if the architect desires to take advantage of his opportunity, he must 
certainly adopt a different policy in obtaining estimates and awarding 
the contract from the method usually pursued. 

The unfortunate and inevitable consequences of close competition 
in awarding building contracts have been already pointed out in these 
columns, and it naturally follows, if work can be given out on some 
other basis, the results, all other things being equal, will prove of 
material benefit to the owner and will place the architect in the best 
possible position to obtain the most satisfactory results in all direc- 
tions. 

There may be said to be three ways in which work can be 
figured besides the usual way of obtaining competitive estimates 
from several parties. First, to have the work done by the day ; 
second, to have the work figured by some one person without letting 
him know that it is being done without competition ; and third, to 
call in the contractor, — who, all things considered, seems to be the best 
qualified to execute the work at hand, — and tell him frankly if he can 
give a satisfactory figure he can have the contract. Whatever ad- 
vantages the first method may have, there is one serious objection to 
it for which there is no apparent remedy, and which consequently 
renders it impracticable except in rare instances ; the fatal objection 
to day work lies in the fact that the journeymen employed on the job 
always learn in some unaccountable way of the manner in which 
the job has been let, and work with the idea that it is for their em- 
ployer's interest as well as their own to make the work last as long 
as possible. Such inertia it is practically impossible to overcome ; 
and this condition alone, and without various contributing causes, is 
sufficient reason why day work infallibly overruns the most liberal 
preliminary estimates. And this is a sufficient reason for not adopt- 
ing this method except, as has been said, under peculiar or unusual 
conditions. 

The second and third methods are practically the same, except 
in theiirst case the true facts are only partially known to the con- 
tractor, but it is doubtful if the results justify the mild deception which 
is practised when the architects pretend that the work is to be figured 
in competition ; in fact, it is quite questionable whether the average 
builder can be kept in blissful ignorance of the true state of affairs, 
and if he learns or even surmises the true facts of the case he is 
much more liable to recognize and improve his chance for liberal 
profit than if the true conditions were presented for his considera- 
tion. It is an indisputable fact that the average man meets the 
opportunity which has been given him outright much more fairly, 
squarely, and liberally than he does the one which he has won in 
rivalry. The spoils of war, even in such mild encounters as the 
competition for building contracts, seem to carry certain rights, which 
are unfortunately and unjustly looked upon as inherent, which cannot 
be easily changed, and which work to the ultimate disadvantage of 
both the owner and the architect. It is sufficient, in support of this 
fact, to call attention to the practise of figuring work at cost and 
depending upon extras and other similar tricks of the trade to ac- 
quire a profit, and it can be seen that if a reputable contractor is 
given the opportunity to include his profit in the original proposition 
he is in honor bound to do additional work at fair prices. 



2s6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



As plans and specifications near completion, and the architect 
has mastered the details of the problem, he naturally considers to 
whom he would award the contract if left free to do so, and instinc- 
tively, as a rule, he makes up his mind that, all things considered, 
there is some one individual or firm who are better fitted to do this 
given piece of work than any other. Let the architect lay these 
facts clearly before the owner, and if he is clear sighted enough to 
realize his opportunity, he will allow the work to be given out with 
out the usual competition, which so often handicaps all concerned 
at the very start. Another advantage, and by no means an unim- 
portant one, in awarding work in this manner lies in the fact that 
it is much easier, when proceeding under this plan, to regulate and 
control the sub-contractors, the importance of which is readily recog- 
nized by any one who has had experience in building. 

The great objection which is urged against this plan of award- 
ing contracts without competition is the prevalent idea that no client 
would listen to such a proposition : in fact, we are often given to un- 
derstand that it would weaken the position of the architect to suggest 
such a radical proposition. But if the proposed building has been 
worked out in such a way that sharp competition is not necessary to 
bring the figures within the limits, it is reasonable to suppose that an 
intelligent owner can be made to see what will result in a substantial 
benefit to himself. This method of procedure is at least worth a fair 
trial in all cases where it promises to bring about improved relations 
and a Isetter standard of work. .And every case which is successfully 
carried out creates a precedent which makes it easier to accomplish 
the desired ends in the future. 



THE manner in which the huge gasometers on the site of the 
new South Union Station, Boston, were demolished was cer- 
tainly novel and interesting. These were built of brick, with very 
heavy walls so strongly knit that the roof of one of the buildings 
was blown off with dynamite without weakening the walls in the least, 
although before the dynamite was used theiron bolts and braces had 
been removed. In taking down the brickwork an application was 
made on a gigantic scale of a principle often used in cutting butter 
and cheese. At intervals of about twenty-five feet about the gasometer 
were narrow windows extending the greater portion of the height of 
the wall. A strong wire cable was made fast to the ground at the 
base of the inside of the wall, carried over the top and down to the 
ground on the outside on the line of a window, and taken through a 
pulley block to the drum of a hoisting engine. When all was ready 
the engine was started, the wire wound up on the drum, and the 
great strain forced the cable to cut vertically through the bricks and 
mortar almost as smoothly as it might have passed through an 
immense cheese. After the brick wall had thus been cut vertically a 
table was passed around a pier between two windows, the hoisting 
cable attached to this cal)le on the inside and thence carried over the 
top of the wall and directly to the hoisting machine. When the 
power was gradually applied the immense slice of wall began to reel 
and totter and finally fall with a crash on the outside of the enclos- 
ure. This is about as expeditious a way of removing a large mass 
of masonry as we have ever heard of, and accomplished the desired 
result with great satisfaction. 



A NUMBER of years ago, when the practise of building opera- 
tions in Chicago was much cruder than it is at present, one of 
the basement piers in a large building in process of erection l)egan 
to show signs of such manifest weakness that the authorities inter- 
fered, the superstructure was shored up, and the pier was taken down. 
Investigation showed that the outside course of brick all around was 
laid up in admirable manner, but the inside of the pier was a mere 
mass of bats and a slight sprinkling of mortar. This is an extreme 
case, but in a very much less scale it is very apt to be duplicated 
in many buildings. The average i)rick mason will care enough for 
appearance to build the outside all right, but there seems to be a 



tradition among masons that mortar can be slighted on the joints 
that are hidden, and that if the space is simply filled up with tjrick, 
that is sufficient. As a matter of fact, the reverse is just the case. 
The strength of a pier depends far more upon the mortar than it 
does upon the brick, and we will venture to assert that a pier of light 
hard brick laid up in Portland cement mortar will be far stronger 
than a pier built of the very best quality of hard burned brick which 
is laid up with indifferent mortar sparingly applied. The only way 
to build a pier properly is to have the courses run clear through. 
The practise of grouting was formerly much more prevalent than it is 
now. If judiciously employed, grouting strengthens a pier immensely; 
not that the grouting of itself is as good as mortar, but because the 
chances are the joints will be more thoroughly filled ; but at the 
same time, if the bricks are thoroughly rubbed in at each course, and 
plenty of mortar used so each brick is surrounded by it, the resulting 
pier will be a great deal better than one in which less mortar and 
more grout is used. The secret of all good brickwork is to preserve 
a thorough bond, and to use plenty of the right kind of mortar. 



METHODS OF BEDDING BRICK. 

ONE of the papers read before a recent meeting of the Archi- 
tectural Association of Great Britain dealt with the materials 
employed by bricklayers and the methods of using them. While the 
subject is treated from a purely English point of view, many points 
touched upon are of interest to American readers, and we present 
the following extracts : I have often found that the quality of the 
sand used for building purposes does not receive the attention it de- 
serves. A clean, sharp sand is essential to the making of good mor- 
tar, whether mixed with lime or cement. The many impurities to be 
found in sand must act injuriously and tend to detract from the 
strength of the mortar. The best way to avoid this is to wash the 
sand, but the expense attached to this process prevents its general 
adoption. Where a mortar mill is used the "clinkers" from a dust 
destructor, mixed in reasonable quantities with sand and lime or 
cement, make a good mortar. But it is always an important point to 
see that a proper proportion of lime or cement is used, which is not 
always done. 

I think it is essential (except during the winter months) that 
bricks should be well wetted Ijefore being laid. This is all the more 
necessary where cement mortar is used. The only possible way to 
secure strong work is to "grout" each course of brickwork, and 
this is where the advantage of washed or well-screened sharp sand is 
seen, as it will more readily fill the open joints of the brickwork. 
The plastering of mortar on the top of each course will not do. But 
the fact that wet bricks make bricklayers' fingers sore may have 
something to do with the neglect of wetting bricks. In work that 
is to be pointed after the building is erected the joints should be 
raked out one half inch deep and well brushed off with a hard 
broom, to clear away all loose mortar, and the pointing should be 
well pressed or " ironed " in the joints. In glazed or enameled work 
it may be often noticed tliat after a time the " glaze " flakes off and 
the defective part appears black. This is very often due to using 
chipped or defective bricks : but it is also due sometimes to another 
cause — viz., the mode of bedding them. The bricks having two 
deep " frogs " and generally being laid in a close joint, care is not 
always taken that sufficient mortar is spread to insure the frogs of the 
brick being solidly filled, so that when the weight comes on the wall 
the pressure is largely on the outer edge of the brick, and causes the 
" glaze " to fly. One way to obviate this is to fill the frogs before 
laying the Ijricks. Another way is to joggle either the end or side 
of the brick before bedding, and fill or "grout" them up with liquid 
mortar. The conditions of present day building often compel build- 
ers and others to carry on their works in sections. Very often walls 
are built with a vertical " toothing." If this cannot be avoided, I 
think the connection or making good to such tootliing should be done 
with cement. — Carpentry and Building. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



257 



Recent Brick and Terra-Cotta 

Work in American Cities, 

and 

Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK.— The election is over, and Robert A. Van Wyck, 
the Tammany candidate, has been chosen first mayor of 
Greater New York. A great deal of speculation is being indulged 




RE.SIUENCE OF DURIilN HOKNE, ESQ., PITTSBURCi, 
Peabody & .Stearns, Architects. 

in among architects and builders as to the personnel and conduct of 
the new Department of Buildings, which will have, after January i, 
jurisdiction over a city containing 360 square miles ; and as we arev 
confidently looking forward to a busy year, the department will have 
enough to do, and will need at its head men of more than ordinary 
skill and resource. 

The official figures of the department, showing the amount of 
building operations transacted during recent years, are as follows : 
In 1895 there were 3,206 plans filed, aggregating )i^ 7 2,93 2,2 20 ; and in 
1896, 3,848 plans, aggregating #84,068,228. 
In the first nine months of 1897 there were 
2,713 plans filed, aggregating $71,326,605, so 
that the present year promises to be the most 
prosperous of all. 

Simultaneously two large hotels, one for 
the accommodation of the wealthy, the other 
for the reception of the impecunious trades- 
man and labor, were opened last week. The 
first, the Astoria, in Fifth Avenue, is the 
largest and most beautiful hotel in New 
York. The interior is planned and decorated 
on a very lavish scale, the magnificent mural 
paintings being especially attractive. The 
exterior is a pleasing combination of red 
brick and Lake .Superior red sandstone in the 
Flemish style, and although it does not join 
well with the Waldorf next door, it is an im- 
pressive building. 

The second hotel is known as Mills 
House, No. I, and is located on Hleecker 
Street, in a poor neighborhood. This build- 
ing was built by Mr. D. O. Mills, from plans 
drawn by Ernest Flagg. It is a dignified 



building in the modern French style, with white brick and white 
stone trimmings. It is a very comfortable, almost luxurious home 
for the poor man, who can secure a lodging for a night, with bath, 
etc., for twenty cents, and the owner figures that the enterprise will 
pay expenses. 

A remarkable feat was accomplished recently in New York 
which no doubt will interest readers of The Brickbuilder. 

A five-story brick tenement house, weighing 1,700 tons, was 
moved a distance of 30 ft. without so much as disturbing a single 
brick in the entire building. 

The undertaking was fraught with many difficulties, but was un- 
dertaken and accomplished by W. K. Clynes, a contractor. The 
actual work of moving the building occupied 
six hours. Three weeks were spent in getting 
things ready. 

Plans for the new building to be erected 
by the New York Medical College and Hos- 
pital for Women, in loist Street, east of 
Manhattan Avenue, have been prepared by 
Wm. B. Tuthill. They provide for an eight- 
story fire-proof building, with a front of brick, 
terra-cotta, and limestone, which it is esti- 
mated will cost $90,000. 

Plans have just been completed by C. B. 
J. Snyder, architect of the Board of Educa- 
tion, for two new school buildings. One to 
be located on 108th and 109th Streets, near 
Amsterdam Avenue, will be five stories, fire- 
proof, steel skeleton construction, exterior to 
be granite, limestone, gray brick, and terra- 
cotta. It will cost $300,000. 

The other will be erected on 89th Street, 

between Amsterdam and Columbus Avenues. 

J, 

It will be of brick and stone, and will cost 

$233,000. 

F. C. Zobel, architect, has prepared plans for an eight-story 
brick and stone store and loft building to be built on 19th Street, 
near Fifth Avenue, at a cost of $150,000. 

Neville & Bagge, architects, have planned eight five-story brick 
and stone flats and stores to be built on Willis Avenue, near r4oth 
Street; cost, $1 50,000. 

James W. Cole, architect, has planned two five-story brick and 
stone flats and stores to be built on 92d Street, corner Columbus 
Avenue ; cost, $65,000. 




KE.SIDENCE of DURBIN HORNE, ESQ., I'lTTSBURG, 
Peabody & .Stearns, .Arcliitects. 



258 



THE BRICKBUILDER 












COMilERCIAL CAIiLE liUILDING, BROAD STREET, NEW YOKK CITY. 
I.OOKINCi FROM COURT OF THE MILLS liUILDlNG. 
Harding & Gooch, Architects. 
The white brick used in tlie facades of the l)uilding were inaiuifactured by Sayre, Kisher 

& Co. 

Win. J. Fryer, architect, is preparing plans for an eight-story 
fire-proof office building to be built on Greenwich Street, corner 
Laight .Street, taking the place of the building recently destroyed by 
fire. The cost will be 580,000. 



CHICAGO. ^ The dulness e.xisting in building is emphasized 
by the eagerness with which important firms seek unimpor- 
tant work. Small contracts are followed up and courted by concerns 
who would have thought them not worth looking after three or four 
years ago. Although every one is anticipating better things just 
ahead of us, yet the records show for last month only a little improve- 
ment over the corresponding month last year when the presidential 
election was uppermost. 

The annual exhibition of paintings at the Art Institute divided 
honors with the Horse Show lately, though it must be admitted the 
latter had decidedly the " swellest" crowd in attendance. The exhibi- 
tion was considered a good one, and it was so overcrowded that a little 
more weeding might have been indulged. And yet, curiously enough, 
it is a conspicuous fact that a dozen of the best American artists 
were entirely unrepresented. Pittsb rg held her exhibition at the 
same time, and her art endowment fund and better field of purchasers 
proved to offer superior attractions in the way of prizes and sales. 



There is a rumor or two of an important building, but no 
specially interesting news. The government building foundation 
work, under the direction of General Sooysmith, is making rapid prog- 
ress. The piling was driven first for the lofty central part, the steam 
drivers pounding and hissing busily night and day. Now the gril- 
lage and the concrete, and finally great pyramids of dimension stones 
are approaching the street levels, and the pile drivers have worked 
around toward the circumference of the surrounding groups of lesser 
foundations. The scene is an unusually interesting one for the stu- 
dent, and classes from the architectural department of the Art Insti- 
tute make periodical visits under the guidance of an instructor. 

The Chicago Architectural Club is promising to be active in its 
realm this year. It has a competition on now for an architects' club 
house. Mr. W. A. Otis recently gave a lantern talk on The Devel- 
opment of Architecture, and on another occasion the new president, 
E. G. Garden, exhibited working drawings of the Public Library 
Building, which were furnished through the courtesy of Messrs. 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. The drawings were discussed, also, 
by Mr. F. M. Garden, who superintended the construction of the 
building. 

BOSTON. — The remarkably open weather which has fallen to 
the lot of New England this fall has allowed almost uninter- 
rupted work on buildings under process of construction. In conse- 
cjuence, these structures begun in early summer have pushed rapidly 
ahead, and are now, many of them, nearly roofed in and ready for 
interior finish. These later additions to the business blocks of the 
city are, as a rule, full of architectural dignity and grace. As they 
have approached completion, the old-time buildings in their immedi- 
ate neighborhood have, by contrast, taken on a shabby aspect indeed. 





- JI i; 

II mm li 
rir m HI m - 








ju ni III (■' " ' 




^m 



THE REIBOLD ItUILDING, DAYTON, OHIO. 

Williams & Andrews, Architects. 

The front of this building is of cream-colored terracotta. Executed by the Indianapolis 

Terra-Cotta Company, Brightwood, Ind. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



259 




K 



1 1 1 1 1 



CAPITAL TO PILASTERS, FLANKING ENTRANCE GEORGE GOULD RESIDENCE, 

LAKEWOOD, N. J. 

Bruce Price, Architect. 

Executed by the Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 



The inevitable result of this will be the gradual rebuilding of the 
business district. Already many of the adjacent property owners are 
considering the erection of new structures. 

While the building industry in every city suffers periodically to 
a greater or less extent from the wiles of the speculative builder, yet 
Boston has been this season particularly afflicted in this respect. 
To such an extent have material men been victimized by these worth- 
less operators that most of 
them now refuse to do 
business with any specula- 
tive building whatsoever, 
unless cash is paid on de 
livery of material. In some 
of the other cities the ma- 
terial men have, by combin- 
ing and refusing to sell 
other than absolutely re- 
sponsible parties, succeeded 
in shutting off this most 
undesirable class of build- 
ers. It would be a wise 
move on the part of the 
material men here if they 
would affect a like combi- 
nation. 

In spite of the opposi- 
tion and heated arguments 
which some of our good 
citizens have brought to bear against the erection of the new West- 
minster Apartment Hotel at Copley Square, because of the tendency 
of its towering height to dwarf the superb architectural proportions 
of Trinity Church and other adjacent structures, the enterprise has 
gone rapidly forward, and the foundations are about being laid. 
The estimated cost of the building is an even million dollars. It 
will be ten stories in height, of fire-proof construction. Up to the 
third story the material will be of buff Indiana Bedford stone and 
granite. The succeeding stories will be of Roman brick and highly 
sculptured terra-cotta. The roof will have a tile covering. Henry 
E. Cregier, of Chicago, is the architect ; Woodbury & Leighton, of 
Boston, are the builders. 

Among the new buildings now under process of construction or 
soon to be erected may be mentioned a new building for Jordan & 
Marsh, located on Avon, Bedford, and Chauncy Streets. This is to 
be an extension of their present retail store. Winslow & Wetherell, 
architects. To be constructed of brick and terra-cotta a new struc- 
ture to be erected at the corner of Purchase and Federal Streets 
and Atlantic Avenue, on the property recently acquired by Wood, 
Pollard & Co. Plans for this building are being drawn by Shepley, 
Rutan & Coolidge, and 
it is rumored that the 
building is to be a fine 
hotel. The site of the 
property being directly 
opposite the New Termi- 
nal Station, gives some 
ground for this statment. 

There will be an 
addition the first of the 
year to the Homeopathic 
Hospital, East Concord Street, Boston ; H. K. Hilton, architect. 
Providence, R. I. To be constructed of brick and terra-cotta. 

A nine-story business block will be built by the Boston Wharf 
Company; M. D. Safford, architect. To be constructed of brick and 
terra-cotta. 

Six houses on the Bay State Road, Mr. Geo. W. Wheatland, 
owner; H. D. Hale, architect. To be constructed of brick and 
terra-cotta. 

New schoolhouse for the city of Haverhill. Plans in competi- 



tion among Haverhill architects. To be constructed of brick and 
terra-cotta. 

A stable on Troy Street, R. H. White & Co., owner; Peabody & 
Stearns, architects. To be constructed of brick. 

New schoolhouse for the Roxbury district; Andrews, Jaques & 
Rantoul, architects. To be constructed of brick and terra-cotta. 

New schoolhouse for South Boston ; H. D. Hale, architect. To 

be constructed of brick and 
terracotta. 

New schoolhouse for 
East Boston ; architect for 
which has not been ap- 
pointed. 

$100,000 hospital at 
Attleboro, Mass., Dr. J. M. 
Solomon, owner. Archi- 
tect not given out. 

$ 1 00,000 bu s i n e s s 
block at Hartford, Conn. ; 
Isaac Allen, architect. To 
be constructed of brick 
and stone. 

New $75,000 dining 
hall for Harvard College, 
Cambridge, Mass. ; Wheel- 
wright & Haven, architects. 
To be constructed of brick 
and stone. 

A new hospital at West Newton, Mass.; Rand & Taylor, Ken- 
dall & Stevens, architects. To be constructed of brick and stone. 

Parochial residence at Woburn, Mass.; W. H. & J. A. Maginty, 
architects. 

$75,000 apartment house at Brookline, Mass. ; J. P. & G. H. 
Smith, architects. To be constructed of brick. 

A mammoth apartment hotel on Commonwealth Avenue ; 
Arthur Bowditch, architect; Webb Granite Construction Company, 
builders. This job was projected last year, but was laid over until 
the present time. It is now reported that work will shortly be begun 
on same. 

A new apartment house, Springfield, Mass.; H. H. Gridley, 
architect. To be constructed of brick and stone. 

New engine house, Salem, Mass. ; Bickford & Graves, archi- 
tects. To be constructed of brick and stone. 

A $200,000 apartment house. Providence, R. I. ; Martin & Hall, 
architects. To be constructed of brick and stone. 

Two residences on Commonwealth Avenue ; R. C. Sturgis, 
architect. To be constructed of brick. 

A $100,000 combination store and apartment block at Lowell, 




TERRA-COTTA PANEL, RESIDENCE, JERSEY CITY, N. J. 
Executed in terra-cotta by the Cnnkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 



Mass.; Merrill & Clark, architects, 
and terra-cotta. 



To be constructed of red brick 



s 



T. LOUIS. — No small interest has been taken by some of the 
architects in the competition for the new City Hall that is 
about to be built by our neighbor across the river. East St. Louis, to 
replace the one destroyed by *' e cyclone in May of last year. Some 
seventeen sets of drawings were submitted, and those of Architect 
E. Jansen selected by the committee as, in their opinion, being the 



26o 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



best suited to the needs of their city. Architects May and Wees, of 
this city, and MeuUer, of East St. Louis, were each awarded prizes. 
The terms of the competition were much more satisfactory than is 
usual in such cases, and were such as might be used in competition 
in the Ecole des iSeau.x Arts. The design selected is French Re- 
naissance, and provides for the city offices on the first floor and base- 




TERRA-COTTA DETAIL. 
Executed by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 

ment, the city court and council chambers, with committee rooms, 
judge, and jury rooms, etc., on the second, while the third fioor is to 
be used for a large hall. The cost will be about $80,000. 

Owing to the fact that the enterprising little city has been trying 
to raise herself out of the mud by raising the streets 8 to 12 ft. above 
the grade, she found herself without the means to rebuild after the 
storm, the limit of ta.xation permitted by law having been reached. 
To relieve their city of its embarrassment, public-spirited citizens 
came forward and furnished the money, the city to repay them in an 
annual rental. 

An interesting old landmark, the Wabash Building, which was 
used for so many years by the Board of Education and Public Li- 
brary, was destroyed by fire the latter part of last month. 

A bill has been introduced into tlie House of Delegates to give a 
ninet)'-nine year lease of the site of our present court house to a syn- 
dicate, which proposes to erect thereon a ten-story building, covering 
the entire block, the building to be arranged for the courts and pub- 
lic offices on the upper floors, and the other floors for ofl^ces suitable 
for lawyers, etc. The scheme has been up for consideration before, 
but has assumed more tangible form, and has brought forth consider- 
able comment. 

There has been no material change in the outlook during the 
last month, the amount for building, according to the report of the 
building commissioner, being even less than for the same month 
last year. 

MEMPHIS. — The Brickbuii.uer has published from time to 
time the outlook for bi Iding East, West, and North, but 
has little to say of the vast amount of work continually going on in 
the South, where the use of brick and terra-cotta in the construction 
of buildings large and small justifies at least an occasional item of 
recognition in its columns. 

The new City Hospital Buildings now under way, which will 
cost when completed $200,000, were designed by Architect Samuel 
Patton, deceased, of Chattanooga. Mr. Patton lost his life in a 
Chattanooga, Tenn., fire, and thereby hangs an interesting story. Mr. 
Patton's rooms were in the Richardson Building, and he could easily 
have saved himself but for the fact that he made an effort to get his 
drawings for the proposed new Capitol Building of Mississippi, 
before leaving the burning building. The Governor of Mississippi 
had vetoed the bill authorizing the adoption of Architect J. Riley 
Gordon's plans for the capitol, which had been selected from ten or 
fifteen competitive sets, Mr. Patton's bei ng among the number. Mr. 
Patton had gone to much trouble and expense in making a second 
set of drawings, and his anxiety to save these drawings cost him his 
life. It might be mentioned here that the State of Mississippi con- 



templates the erection of a $1,000,000 capitol, which will doubtlessly 
be thrown open again to competition, as the legislature and Governor 
could not agree at the last meeting. 

The new Memphis Market House and Cold -Storage Building, 
also under way, involves the expenditure of about $75,000 and will 
be completed in the early spring. The plans were furnished by 
Alsup & Johnson, architects, of Memphis, who were paid 2^ per 
cent, for their drawings, and the contract for superintendence given 
to another firm of architects, Weathers & Weathers, of this city. A 
councilman attempted a bribe when the contract for plans was first 
awarded, was sentenced to a heavy fine, and ousted from the city 
council. The employment of one firm for plans and another for 
superintendence is certainly an innovation in this part of the country, 
and shows a few of the peculiar methods of public " jobbing " 
practised North as well as South. 

Few cities can boast of as rapid progress in the building of 
costly city residences as Memphis. Within the last year at least a 
dozen homes have been built that would grace the principal thorough- 
fares of any of the larger cities. A " costly " residence with us 
means the expenditure of from $50,000 to $75,000 exclusive of lot 
and furnishings. The majority of these houses are built of brick 
and stone, and in only one instance has the colonial style been closely 
followed. Architects Dodd & Cobb, of Louisville, Ky., elaborated 
their design for the Kentucky Building at the World's Fair, and from 
these plans has been erected one of the finest and costliest examples 
of colonial work in the South. I mention the use of colonial work 
because no other style is so peculiarly adapted to our climate, and 
with so many beautiful examples all around us it is a wonder that the 
style should be almost entirely abandoned by Southern architects. 
What might be termed the " castellated style " has been the theme 
for most of the " costly " houses, and miniature turreted castles have 
grown up all about us. The only serious objection to this so-called 
style is the peculiar appearance that the enormous verandas and un- 
covered " porches " give to the house. 

The much-debated question of licensing architects brings to 
mind the fact that architects in Memphis, until last year, were 
required to pay a city and county tax amounting to nearly Si 00. We 
are by no means exempt from the combined " contractors and archi- 
tects," however, and their methods are much the same here as else- 
where; but when it comes to unique methods of advertising, we hold 




TERRA-COTTA DETAILS, APART.MENT HOUSE, CHESTNUT STREET, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

Walter Smedley, Architect. 

Executed by the Conkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

the record. .-\ draftsman for one of the firms of contractors here has 
branched out for himself with this startling sign, — " Expert, Practical 
Architect and Scientific Housemover," — displayed on the private 
residence of the " architect." His own house is only half completed, 
but in its half-finished state is proudly shown by the possessor as an 
instance of what can be done toward building a $5,000 house with 
$1,000. This "scientific housemover" also has his startling " ad" 
painted in conspicuous letters on his buggy — but, to be more exact, 
his vehicle. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



261 




RESIDENCE OF A. B. GARDINEK, DOWAGIAC, MICH. 

W. K. Johnston, Architect, Chicago. 

Roofed with 8 in. Conosera Tile, made by Celadon Terra-Cotta Company. 



Not only has Memphis made rapid strides in 
the way of office buildings and handsome residences, 
but also Atlanta, Nashville, Louisville, and Chatta- 
nooga. In fact, the South offers a field of labor 
for the architect that allows him scope for nearly 
every style and class of building, and we are wel- 
coming the extensive and substantial use of mate- 
rials in clay which until recently played a very small 
part in the upbuilding of our cities. 



with the building material and its surround- 
ings. 

INTERESTING NEWS ITEMS. 

The Dacjus Clay Manufacturing 
Company, Daguscahonda, Penn., will fur- 
nish the buff brick for the new Warren 
High School, Warren, Penn. 

The Cummings Cement Company, 
of Akron, N. Y., is furnishing large quan- 
tities of Rock and Portland cements for 
work on the Erie Canal improvements. 

The Powhatan Clay Manufac- 
turing Company are supplying their gray 
bricks for the New Smithdeal Business 
College Building, Richmond, Va. 

The Pancoast Ventilator Com- 
pany are putting upon the market a hand- 



THE accompanying cuts show two elevations of 
residence, and one of stable, designed by Ar- 
chitect W. K. Johnston, Chicago, for Mr. A. B. Gar- 
diner, at Dowagiac, Mich., which are roofed with 8 
in. Conosera tile and graduated tower tile, manufac- 
tured by Charles T. Harris, lessee of the Celadon 
Terra-Cotta Co., at Alfred, N. Y. 

The walls are of field boulders laid up rough as 
shown, and the effect in connection with this style of 
tile roof is very artistic. 

But the picture can give no impression of the 
fine color scheme secured ; these broken boulders 
are of a great variety of color tones, and the roof is 
a warm red, thus securing a sky line in perfect accord 




stable a. B. GARDINER, DOWAGIAC, MICH. 




residence of A. B. GARDINER, DOWAGIAC, MICH. 

W. K, Jolinston, Architect, Ciiicago. 

Roofed with 8 in. Conosera Tile, made by Celadon Terra-Cotta Company. 



some new square ventilator for buildings. 
Also a window ventilator known as the 
" Common Sense." 

W. S. Ravenscroft & Co., brick 
manufacturers, Daguscahonda, Penn., have 
changed the company name to the Dagus 
Clay Manufacturing Company. 

Charles E. Willakd has secured 
the contract to supply the mottled brick on 
the Vega Society Building, New Britain, 
Conn.; W. H. Cadwell, architect, New 
Britain. 

The Standard Terra-Cotta Com- 
pany, Perth Amboy, N. J., have increased 
their pressing department by adding a new 
building 1 10 by 50 ft. 

Sayre & Fisher Company have the 
contract to furnish a large quantity of 



262 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



white enamel brick for new residence of George Gould, Lakewood, 
N. J.; Bruce Price, architect. 

The Bolles Sliding and Revolving Sash have been ordered for 
the Citizens' Bank Building, Norfolk, Va. ; Charles E. Cassell, archi- 
tect, Baltimore, Md. This is a handsome seven-story office building. 



The Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Construction Com- 
pany have been awarded the following contracts : Structural steel 
and fire-proofing for the new Masonic Temple, Boston; structural 
steel and fire-proofing for the Westminster apartment house, Bos- 
ton ; structural steel and fire-proofing for Mr. Winslow's (Winslow 
& VVetherell) residence, Boston. 



The Pancoast Ventilator Company furnished the large 
copper ventilators for the .\storia Hotel, New York City; also the 
ventilators for the Manhattan Beach Theater, at Staten Island. 

Sayke & Fisher Company are supplying 300,000 gray 
bricks and 1,500,000 hollow bricks for the new thirty-story Park 
Row Building, New York City, of which R. H. Robertson is the 
architect. 

The Union Akron Cement Company, Buffalo, are furnishing 
the Owego Bridge Company with the Star Brand Akron Cement for 
abutments to bridges at Mt. Morris, N. Y., and at Rockland, N. Y.. 
also for foundation for asphalt pavement at Warren, Ohio. 

Fall trade in fancy brick is reported exceedingly good by 
Messrs. Fiske, Homes & Co. Sales are largely in excess of last 
year, and future outlook for business in their high-grade specialties 
is quoted as very good. 

G. R. TwiCHELL & Co., Boston, are to supply face brick on 
the following work: Addition to the Chestnut Hill Pumping Sta- 
tion, Boston ; building for fire department headquarters, Worcester, 
Mass. and Somerset Trust Building, Boston. 

H. F. Mayland & Co., New York, representatives of the Bur- 
lington Architectural Terra-cotta Company, have secured the con- 
tract for furnishing the terra-cotta for a new store building in 
Brooklyn, of which C. F. Guyler is the architect. 

Recent inquiry at Cornell University elicited the information 
that the Cabot's Brick Preservative u.sed upon several of the most 
prominent buildings several years ago had proved most satisfac- 
tory, thoroughly waterproofing the bricks and retaining its efficacy. 

The E.xcelsior Terra-Cotta Co-mp-^ny have secured 
through their New England representative, Charles Bacon, the con- 
tract to supply the terra-cotta for six houses on the Bay State 
Road. George Wheatland, owner; H. D. Hale, architect; W. D. 
Vinal, builder. 

Mr. Geoiuse B. F". .Maxwell has assumed the sole agency, 
for Philadelphia, of the products of the American Mason Safety 
Tread Company, of Boston. Mr. Maxwell is widely known as hav- 
ing been for the past ten years designer and salesman of church and 
lodge furniture for the firm of S. C. Small & Co., of Boston. 

CoNKLiNG, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company have secured 
through their New England agent, Charles E. Willard, the con- 
tract to supply the terra-cotta on the Dedham High School build- 
ing, Dedham, Ma.ss. ; Greenleaf & Cobb, architects, Boston. Also 
the Sage-Allen Office Building, Hartford, Conn.; Isaac Allen, archi- 
tect, Hartford. 

The Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Company, New 
York, are furnishing " Raritan" 12 in. mottled brick in a run of color 
for a large church in S8th Street, New York City. The molded 
work in this job is very elaborate, especially the Gothic arches for 
the cloisters. It is a fine example of the use of brick in church 
architecture. 



Sayre & Fisher Company have secured through their New 
England representative, Charles Bacon, the contract to supply the 
brick for six houses on the Bay State Road. George Wheatland, 
owner; H. D. Hale, architect; W. D. Vinal, builder. Also the 
white enameled brick to be used in the Dean Building on India 
Street. Hart well, Richardson & Driver, architects; George A. 
Fuller & Co., contractors. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Company is placing 
strips of its safety material in a granolithic sidewalk on a steep in- 
cline on Bowdoin .Street, adjoining the State House grounds, Boston, 
rendering the sidewalk perfectly non-slipping even in the most frosty 
weather. This use of the safety tread seems likely to become very 
largely adopted, as it enables the use of granolithic in places where 
't has been heretofore impracticable. 

The Burlington .Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 
Burlington, N. J., have supplied terra-cotta on the following con- 
tracts: New building, Penn Institution for the Blind, Overbrook, 
Penn. ; Cope & Stewardson, architects; residence at Overbrook, 
Penn. ; Kean & Mead, architects ; business front. Chestnut Street, 
Philadelphia; H. E. Fowler, architect; Hospital for Deaf Mutes, 
Trenton, N.J. ; Thomas Stephen, architect ; apartment house, Girard 
Avenue, Philadelphia ; S. A. Stoneback, builder. 

Meeker, Carter, Boorae.m & Co., New York, have closed 
contracts for 1 50,000 standard buffs, Hotel, 33d Street, near Broad- 
way; H. J. Hardenbergh, architect ; C. T. Wills, contractor; 125,000 
standard gray bricks, apartment houses, 138th, 139th .Streets, and 
Brook Avenue; Schickel & Ditmars, architects; A. A. Smith, con- 
tractor, and are now delivering white semi-glazed bricks and gray 
bricks to office building, 9-1 1 Maiden Lane ; C. A. Cowen, con- 
tractor; R. S. Townsend, architect, all of New York City. 

The Hamislin & Russell Manufacturing Company, of 
Worcester, Mass., have appointed Fiske, Homes & Co., of 164 
Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass., as their general agents on Stand- 
ard Wall Ties, Slate Fasteners;, and Wind Guards. Illustrated 
catalogues setting forth the Standard clinch system and the new 
method of slate roofing will be forwarded upon application. This 
system seems to be quite a step in advance of the old methods, and 
without doubt it will meet with ready approval, and a thorough in- 
vestigation is invited to all interested in this line. 

The Powhat.an Clay Ma.nufacturin(; Company, Rich- 
mond, Va. (New York office, Townsend Building), have sent us five 
sample brick, which are certainly worthy of the highest recom- 
mendation as being particularly fine specimens of their latest suc- 
cesses in gray and white brick. The general high reputation which 
the company's output has acquired among the Imilding profession 
leaves little more to say of these samples than that they are, if pos- 
sible, of a finer quality and more perfect shade than any which the 
company has before placed upon the market. 

Fiske, Homes & Co. report a good demand for their special 
ties, and have booked a large number of orders for fancy brick 
during the past few weeks. Among the more important are, the 
Westminster Chambers, Boston : High School, Needham ; Fire 
Station, Dorchester; Richmond Court, Brookline ; Pumping Station, 
Waterworks, Somersworth, N. H.; Warehouses on India Street, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



263 



city proper, and on A Street, South Boston; Y. M. C. A. Building, 
Fall River. Smaller orders include mercantile buildings at Salem, 
Beverly, Springfield, New Haven, Hartford, etc., with numerous 
apartment houses and private dwellings in and about Boston and 
throughout New England. 

William Connors, of Troy, N. Y., has purchased for $40,000 
the Olympic Mill property, 669, 671, 673, and 675 River Street. 
This is one of the best manufacturing sites in Troy, and has been 
owned by Orrs & Co. since 1835. It has two large water wheels 
of 1 50 horse power each. Mr. Connors proposes to remodel the 
present building and equip it especially for the manufacture of 
American Seal Paint, and erect a separate building, which will be 
used exclusively for the grinding of dry colors. The machinery to 
be used in operating this plant will be entirely new, of which Mr. 
Connors is the sole owner and patentee. His method not only re- 
duces the cost of production, but mal<es a much better article than 
can be produced by the present means. 

The Hydraulic-Press Brick Companies, through their 
New York and New England agents, Messrs. Fredenburg & Louns- 
bury, report the following contracts, pertaining to New England 
work only, that have recently been secured by them ; Hotel, corner 
Beacon Street and Brookline Avenue, Boston, Mass. ; Winslow & 
Wetherell, architects ; Memorial Library, Adams, Mass. ; William M. 
Butterfield, architect ; Wellesley Chapel, Wellesley, Mass. ; Heins 
& LaFarge, architects ; apartment house, corner Beacon & Carlton 
Streets, Brookline, Mass. ; Winslow & Wetherell, architects; Police 
Station, Hartford, Conn.; J. J. Dwyer, architect; New Bedford 
Pumping Station, New Bedford, Mass.; Rice & Evans, engineers; 
business block. Main Street, Hartford, Conn.; Isaac Allen, Jr., 
architect ; engine house. West Roxbury, Mass. ; John A. Fox, archi- 
tect. 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Limited, Charles T. 
Harris, Lessee, has recently closed contracts for roofing tiles on the 
following: Seven houses for E. L. Schiller, 81 st Street and West 
End Avenue, New York City; Clarence True, architect; style, 8 in. 
Conosera ; Meter house and Office for Gas Company, Omaha, Neb. ; 
Wilson Brothers & Co., Philadelphia, architects; style, open shingle; 
water tower at State Hospital, Massilon, Ohio ; Yost & Packard, archi- 
tects ; style, graduated Conosera; residence for Isaac D. Fletcher. 
813 Fifth Avenue, New York; C. H. P. Gilbert, architect; style, 
open shingle; two towers for H. C. Rutt, Passaic, N. J.; style, 8 in. 
Conosera; Y. M. C. A. Building, Mansfield, Ohio; C. H. Martin & 
Brother, architect ; style, 8 in. Conosera; United States Post-Office 
Building and Court House, Paterson, N. J.; supervising architect; 
style, Gothic. 

We are in receipt of a very attractive catalogue of some fifty 
pages from the Eastern Machinery Company, New Haven, Conn., of 
their Improved Friction Clutches. We would recommend a perusal 
of this to those of our readers engaged in manufacturing, as being a 
very interesting little volume, full of information on this subject. 

In it ihe principle on which their Improved Friction Clutches 
are constructed is described in a clear and concise manner, further 
explained by sectional cuts, etc. Besides pulleys for regular work, 
the company make a number of special pulleys, which are also de- 
scribed and illustrated. 

The reputation for high-class machinery which this company 
has won for itself in connection with their line of clay machinery 
is certainly a guarantee as to the merits of their Friction Clutch 
Pulleys, and we are glad to recommend parties in need of same to 
correspond with them. Address, The Eastern Machinery Company, 
New Haven, Conn. 

The Grueby Faience Company have secured the contract to 
supply the enameled brick to be used on the new Subway station 



at Haymarket Square. This company have recently equipped their 
factory with new represses, and are making some new and very at- 
tractive designs for tile work. They have recently finished a par- 
ticularly fine piece of work in special Moorish tile of a dull-finished 
Alhambra pattern for a bath room in the Moores' residence, in 
Detroit; A. W. Chittenden, architect. They have also supplied the 
faience work for an addition to the house of H. C. Warren, of an 
open loggia roof, supported by brick piers, between which are panels 
of blue Chinese tile, forming a balustrade. Capitals of these piers 
are made of gray, dull-finished fawn, to harmonize with the brick- 
work, the surface between the eaves being blue to match the tiles 
below. The frieze above is enlivened in color by different shades 
of tile, set between the consoles. The effectiveness of this com- 
bination is most artistic and attractive, and shows the possibilities 
that may be achieved in this direction by the use of faience in ex- 
terior decoration. 

Attention is called to what would seem to be a rare opportu- 
nity to acquire a most desirable modern brick plant in the heart of 
the clay-manufacturing district of Ohio. The owner of the plant is 
obliged to remove to Colorado on account of health, and is willing to 
dispose of the property at a "great bargain." 

The product of this plant is well and favorably known in the 
market, and it has facilities for manufacturing and shipping that 
are particularly favorable. The location is on a belt line of railroad 
that connects with seven different systems, including the Baltimore 
& Ohio, and the Pennsylvania. We are informed that there are 
extensive beds of red and buff clays right at the works, and that 
the best coal can be obtained delivered at the kilns for $1.00 per ton. 

The plant is equipped with six down-draft kilns (holding 800,000 
brick) with exhaust fan system attachment, and has a daily capacity 
of presses of 30,000 brick. There is in stock a very large line of 
molded dies, claimed to be the most extensive in the State. 

Any parties interested in acquiring a property of this kind 
should not fail to investigate this plant. For further particulars see 
advertisement on another page. 



While the building profession have for a long time recognized 
the mechanical advantage and economical saving in space of the 
overhead window pulley in comparison to the old style side pulley, 
yet in the past it was impossible to use them without making special 
provisions. This difficulty has been overcome by an ingenious de- 
vice known as the " Queen " Overhead Pulley, a patent on which was 
granted last September to U. G. McQueen, Manager of the Queen 
Sash Balance Company, 150 Nassau Street, New York, N. Y. 

The various objections to the old style of overhead pulley have 
been fully overcome in the " Queen," as may be seen by the accom- 




THE "queen" MULLION frame pulley (one weight liALANCES 
the sash). this cut shows a lYi IN. PULLEY. 

panying illustrations. Some of the advantages claimed by the com- 
pany for the Queen pulley are as follows : it can be placed in any 
window in which the ordinary side pulley can be used, at a gain of 
a large amount of pocket room, thus doing away with lead weights 
and reducing cost; no grooving of the sash is necessary, and no 
extra space for head room need be allowed. No iron or steel work 



264 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



in any building will in any way interfere with its perfect action, and 
it requires, at least, one inch less head room than any other over- 
head pulley. 

All sizes, styles, and kinds of finish are given in the company's 
catalogue, and many of the best buildings now being constructed in 
New York are equipped with these pulleys. It has the endorse- 
ment of the leading architects. 

The Mullion Frame Pulley, here shown, is designed to do away 




THK "QUEEN" SINGLE FRAME PULLEV. THIS CUT SHOWS A 2^ 
IN. PULLEY. 

with the mullion pockets in twin windows. When these pulleys are 
used, the sashes are operated by one weight with the same result as 
by using two weights, and from six to eight inches more glass space 
is given than by ordinary methods. 

" The difficulty heretofore experienced in threading overhead 
pulleys has been overcome by the ' Queen ' pulley, and a new style 
of mouse for use in threading the pulley with cord, tape, or chain is 
furnished with each order." 

The company will be glad to send a working model and cata- 
logue to any architect, on application. All goods specified in the 
catalogue are kept in stock. 



BERRY & FERGUSON, 

New England Agents for 

Snyder's " Crescent " Brand Rosendale Cement, 

" Burham " English Portland Cement, 

" Lafarge" French Portland Cement, 

"Qermania" German Portland Cement, 

" Globe" Belgian Portland Cement. 

Also dealers in 

General Masons' Supplies. 

Removed to 
102 STATE STREET, BOSTON. 

Manhattan Concrete Company, 



Incorporated under the Laws of the 
State of New York. 



Capital Stock, $50,000. 



HIGH GRADE WORK 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



m 



ROSS F. TUCKER, President and Manager, 
Room 923, 156 5th .\ venue, >iE\V YORK. 




^9s»*»-**-$->»->->*»s»$^ A simple yet very effec- 
- — — I tive design for a corner 

The brickwork 



Here 
It Is. 



^ mantel. 

* is red, the mosaic tiles 



S€€eS€«€eS€*Si$-$fe' 



.^<^ 



3j above the shelf being al- 
|jj ternately light red and 
$ dark red, the woodwork 
is painted white, the 
walls are hung with French gray paper. The 
combined effect is extremely pleasing. There 
is nothing so decorative, so durable, or so ap- 
propriate for Fireplace Mantels as our Orna- 
mental Brick. Our mantels are absolutely the 
best in every way. Our customers say so. 
They don't cost any more than other kinds, 
and local brick masons can easily set them up. 
Our Sketch Book tells all about 52 designs of 
mantels, costing from $ 1 2 up. Send for it. Be 
sure to improve the decorative opportunities of 
the chimney piece. It's money well spent. 

PHILA. AND BOSTON 
FACE BRICK CO., 

J 5 Liberty Square, Boston, Mass. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Ill 



Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, 

CLAYVILLE, VIRGINIA. 



Manufacturers of the 



Celebrated Powhatan Cream White" and Silver Gray 

Artistic Front Bricks. 



99 



These bricks are manufactured in all sizes and shapes from a pure NATURAL WHITE foot-hill clay by the " stiff mud " process, 
hand pressed and burned in down-draft kilns ; they are of a solid color and uniform throughout, containing no KAOLIN OR CHEM- 
ICALS of any description, and therefore WILL NOT CHANGE COLOR when exposed to the action of the weather. 

The ** SILVER CRAY*' bricks are made from the natural white clay, in combination with jet black imported Manganese, 
and are the only Gray bricks on the market which are absolutely frCC from the very objectionable yellOW tinge. Test them 
by comparison. 

For Prices, Freight Rates, 
Samples, etc., address the 



Home Office 



Richmond, Virginia. 



O. W. KETCHAM 



Budbets' 

Supplies 



OFFICE: 



Builders' Exchange, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Telephone, 2163. 



«v< 



e' 



^^ 



K 



o 






Of 



Every Description. 



ZLcrra*(Lotta, 

jfront anb 

lEnamelcb 
Brick. 



H. F. MAYLAND &. CO., 

MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS AND 



DEALERS IN 



FRONT AND SHAPE BRICK IN ALL COLORS. 



Telephone, 614 18th St. 



287 FOURTH AVENUE, 
NEWrfYORK. 



Room 616. 



IV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



EXCELSIOR TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



Manufacturers ok 




Architectural 
Terra-Cotta, 



4%. 



These figures, over ten feet in height, were executed in light gray Terra- 
Cotta for the Smith Building, Market Square, Washington, D. C, Mr. 
T. F. Schneider, Architect, by 




Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 



Works : Rocky Hill, N. J. 



105 East 2 2d Street, N. Y 



Boston Representative: CHARIES BACON, 3 Hamilton Place. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Conkling, Armstrong 
^ ^ Terra-Cotta Co. 




BOWLING GREEN OFFICE BUILDING, NEW YORK, 

W. A. AUDULEY, ARCHITECT. 

CONTAINS A LARGE AMOUNT OF OUR TERRA-COTTA. 



. Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior Q^^lity 



WORKS: OFFICES: 

Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, 

PHILADELPHIA, PHILA. TELEPHONE CALL 9005. and 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 



VI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co^ 



Perth Amboy, R ]. 



....Manufacturers... 



Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

160 Fifth Avenue* 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros*, 102 Milk Street* 



STANDARD TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 



PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue. 



BOSTON OFFICE: 

John Hancock Building, 

O. W PETERSON & CO., Agents. 



WASHINGTON OFFICE: 

Builders Exchange, 

WM. C. LEWIS, Agent. 



PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: 

Builders Exchange, 
w. LINCOLN Mcpherson, Agent. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VI 1 



Something New 

In Brick and Terra -Cotta Fireplace Mantels. 




Designed and del. by H. F. BRISCOE. Modeled by TITO CONTI. 



We are now prepared to furnish an entirely new and complete line of Fireplace Mantels 
^CSlQllCO in classical style to produce rich, yet dignified ^SSCITlblCO from standard interchangeable pieces in 



architectural effects. 

iIIjOOCICO entirely by hand in the highest perfection 
of the art. 



any desired combination, thus giving a 
great variety of size and detail with no 
additional cost. 



lPl*CS8Cb with great care to give clear-cut outlines and Tin gCnCtEl producing all the desirable effects of special 



smooth surfaces. 
JOUtnCO in a suitable variety of soft, rich colors. 



mantels, made to order, without their 
excessive cost, or their uncertainty of 
manufacture. 



166 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dealers also in Architectural Terra-Cotta and Building Bricks in all colors known to clay working. 

Fire-Proofing and General Building Materials. 



VUl 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra-Cotta. 



K. MATHIASEN, President. 




NINTH PRECINCT POLICE STATION, NEW YORK CITY. 

JOHN DU FAI8, Architect. 

Architectural Terra-Cotta executed by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co. 



Office: 108 Fulton Street, 



New York Gty» 



Works : PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 



Sales Agents for New 



England, G. R. TwicHeU & Cc, 19 Federal Street, Boston. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



XI 




AN ENTRANCE IN TERRA-COTTA, UNION TRUST BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

LOUIS H. SULLIVAN, Architect. 
Terra-Cotta Executed by THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO. 



THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra-Cotta 



IN ALL COLORS. 



WORKS: 

Cheltenham, St. Louis. 



OFFICE: 

502-503 Century Building. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 




eXCHANQE CLUB BUILDING, Boston, Mass. 

BALL & DABNEY, Architects. 
Fire-proofed by the Boston Firh-Proofing Co. 



Boston Fire-Proofing Company, 



D. McINTOSH, Proprietor. 



i66 DEVONSHIRE STREET, 



BOSTON, MASS. 



Fire-Proof 



Building 



Material. 



" Porous Terra-Cotta stands fire and water." 



XII 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Building 

Company, L't'd. 



Patents in England, Belgium, France, United States. 



ADVANTAGES OF OUR SYSTEM. 



The Only System that Provides an Absolutely Scientific Safeguard 

Against Fire. 




PROBATE COURT BUILDING, CAMBKIUGE, MASS. Olin W. Cuttek, Archilcct ; Thomas H. Connkll, Contractor. 

The fireproofing and steel work iiirnished by 

THE FAWCETT VENTILATED FIREPROOF BUILDING COMPANY, L't'd., 

Main Office, 448, 449, 450, and 451 Philadelphia Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sales Agent for the New England States, 
JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 Tremont Building, Boston, Mass. 

Sales Agent for New York, 
A. J. COFFIN, 412 Presbyterian Building, Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 



i 



THE BRICKBUILDER. xxvii 



WALDO BROTHERS, 

New Address, 

102 /nbilk Street 

Two doors below Post Office Square. 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

High Grade Building Materials. 

AGENTS FOR 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 

Atwood Faience Co. 

Front Bricks in all colors. 

English Glazed Bricks. 

Baltimore Retort and Fire Brick Co. 

Gartcraig Fire Bricks. 

Welsh Quarry Tiles. 

Alsen Portland Cement. 

Atlas Cement. 

Brooks, Shoobridge & Co. Portland Cement. 

Phoenix, Shield, Wedge, and Cleopatra Portland Cement. 

Hoffman Rosendale Cement. 

Shepherd and Gay Lime. 

Bostwick Metal Lath. 

Morse Wall Ties. 

Akron Sewer Pipe. 

H. H. Meier & Co.'s Puzzolan Portland Cement. 

WHARVES: YARD: 



Waldo, 548 Albany Street. W On N. E. R.R, Tracks, near 

Tudor, 1 Charles River Avenue. ^ Congress St., So. Boston. 



TELEPHONES 



1294 Boston — 1 1 Boston— i i^ Charlestown. 



xxvin 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





Chicago Terra-Cotta Roofing & Siding Tile Company, 

1 122 Marquette Building, Chicago. 

I])itri«c6 IRootinG Zilc of all Ikinbs. 



Write for Catalogue. 



^? #'^ 



"7 




F. W. Silkman, 



IMPORTER AND DEALER IN 



4* 



Cbemicale, /llbinerale, 
Claipe, anb Colore. 



1 



For Potters, Terra=Cotta, and Enameled Brick Manufacturers. 



Correspondence Invited. 



23X pearl Street, IFlew l^ork. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXIX 



Charles T. Harris, President. 

Henry S. Harris, Vice-President. 



INCORPORATED iS 



William R. Clarke, Secy, and Treas. 

Alvord B. Clarke, Superintendent. 



The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd. charles t. harms, l 



ESSEE. 



.Manufacturers of 



Artistic Roofing Tiles. 



(Under Babcock Patents.) 



ALFRED, N. Y. 

Below we show shapes and give a description of a new form of roofing tile, which is also especially adapted to SHEATH- 
ING purposes. 



Js^ fflL 



J^U 



rt>\ is^ 



/fl^/.^. 



rt^ 



i;/5\. Si.-J 



f 



^^^3 






Fig. I is a plan view of several tiles arranged as they would be when laid upon a roof; Fig. 3, an enlarged vertical section taken on 
a line corresponding with .r.v in Fig. 4; Fig. 4, a plan view of a single tile drawn on the same scale as Fig. 3 ; Fig. 5, a sectional view 
of Fig. 4 at XX ; Fig. 6 is an elevation of the lower end of the tile in Fig. 4 ; Fig. 7 is a cross section at \>y of Fig. 4. 

This invention relates to cla\' or an\ other roojiiig' files of approximately rectangular form : tlie novelty consists in interlocking the 
tiles consecutively in vertical succession, composing series which lie in lines perpendicular to the eave and ridge of the roof, and then 
" breaking" or alternating joints between the adjacent series laterally, so that the members of each overlap at or about the middle of 
those adjacent. 

The invention also includes certain novel features of construction of the interlocking Hanges used in carrying out the said arrange- 
ment and forming tight joints for the exclusion of rain, snow, wind and dust. 

In these tiles, as in those illustrated last month, ^ is a downward flange on the lower side of the tile extending about one half its 
perimiter below its axial line wzv ; C is an upward flange on the upper side of the tile extending in the same way above zl'zv ; D \s a. part 
of the flange upon the end of the tile deeper than those on the remaining sides. 

The extension in depth of the flange at D compensates for the difference in distance or separation between the planes of adjacent 
tiles of common series and adjacent tiles of different series, enabling them to interlock in vertical as well as lateral succession. This is 
necessary, also, in order to close the horizontal joints. The said joints may also be the more securely closed by the employment of the 
upward-extended flange £ in conjunction with the downward extension D, as aforesaid. 

The parts bbcc of the flanges ^C respectively interlock, as indicated at d in Fig. 7 herewith and in Fig. 12 in description of the 
Conosera shape given last month. The downward flange below the axial line is thereby adapted to overlap and interlock three adja- 
cent tiles, and the upward flange above the axial line to interlock three other overlapping tiles. 

The junctions of the corners with the sides at y", Fig. 1, where the flange BC reverse, are sealed by means of the curved edges of 
the extended flange D, which overlap and fit the rounded exteriors g; Fig. 6, of adjacent tiles. 

In the several figures t.i. indicate fastening lugs, by which the tile may be secured to the superstructure. 

In the Conosera pattern, illustrated in last issue, we saw that a heightening of the ornamental effect was obtained by the high relief 
or reveal obtained, the separation of the planes of vertically-adjacent tiles being doubled by the interposition of the edges of laterally- 
adjacent tiles between their ends. 

In the tiles described herewith the same mechanical advantages are fully secured and by the shape a low relief or plain surface, 
which is especially fit for sheathing purposes. 



ALL OUR SHAPES ARE FULLY PROTECTED BY LETTERS PATENT. 



XXX 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE ASTORIA HOTEL, FIFTH AVENUE AND THIRTY-FOURTH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. H. J. HARCEN8ERGH, ARCMiitoi. 

Attention is called to the fact that some Gi,<»of> cu. ft. of tcrra-cotta are used on this building and the Astor Court Building, seen in the distance. This includes the work made for the interior, on the ground 

and first floors. The total weight was about z,^uo tons, which is equal to 600 truck loads of 7,333 lbs. each, 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA EXECUTED BY 

The New York Architectural Terra -Cotta Company, 

38 Park Row, New York City. 
PHILADELPHIA. BOSTON. 



CONTINUED 
ARTICLES FROM 
1897. 



The Brickbuilder for 1898. 

PROSPECTUS. 

N announcing our work for the coming year it should be explained that some of the articles promised 
for 1897 have been unavoidably delayed, but that nearly all such will be published early in 1898. 
The articles that have been begun, and which will be concluded during the early part of 
the year, are : — 



I 



THE AMERICAN 
SCHOOLHOUSE 
SERIES, BY 
EDMUND M. 
WHEELWRIGHT. 



Mr. Wheelwright will furnish at least six more papers upon this subject, which will be published in 
consecutive issues. The full series will consist of a thorough and comprehensive treatise on schoolhouse 
designing and planning for the primary, grammar, high, normal, and manual training grades. Heating, 
ventilation, plumbing, janitor service, an analysis of the cost of schoolhouses, a digest of specifications for 
a brick grammar school, and the provision for recreation of pupils during recess, in Germany, France, 
England, and this country, will be fully considered in this series, which will be illustrated from some of the 
best examples of schoolhouse work in the country. 

Although bearing the same title, this practical and interesting series consists of independent articles, 
of which there remains possibly two to be published, and these will appear in the early numbers of the 
year. 

Under this title, but in independent articles, Mr. Cusack will review the relationship existing between 
architect, engineer, and terra-cotta manufacturer ; with reference to the latest phases of composite con- 
struction. In this he will have occasion to offer some suggestions, on which a common understanding 
may be effected, that would lead to a discontinuance of present anomalies. The illustrations will be taken 
from the best current work in which terra-cotta has been employed, and include drawings showing con- 
structive details. 

COLOR AS 

APPLIED TO AR- ^^- Garnsey, who has spent a part of the pa,«t year in Europe studying the best examples of the use 

CHITECTURE, BY of color in architecture, will have one more paper upon this subject. 

E. E. GARNSEY. 



IMPORTANT 
PROBLEMS IN 
CONSTRUCTION 
BY WM. W. CRE- 
HORE, C. E. 

ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA-COTTA 
SERIES, BY 
THOMAS 
CUSACK. 



THE BRICK 
ARCHITECTURE 
OF ITALY. 



Mr. W. P. P. Longfellow will contribute two more papers, each of which will consist of a descrip- 
tion (with illustrations) of some notable examples of brick architecture in Italy. 

The paper by Mr. Frank Miles Day, promised for 1897, and which will treat of Italian Brickwork, 
suggesting modern application, will be published during the year. 

In connection with this subject it may be here stated that during the year the reprint of Street's Brick 
and Marble in the Middle Ages will be resumed. 

While this work is taken up, owing largely to the existing obligations to our older subscribers, it will 
be done in a manner that will not fail to interest new subscribers. To this end a large quantity of photo- 
graphs of Italian work, many of them heretofore unpublished, have been purchased from the latest col- 
lection of Valentine & Co., London, and these, with measured drawings made by draughtsmen holding 
Travelling Scholarships, will be used to further illustrate, and give added interest to this work. 



PLATE FORM 
OF SCALE 
DRAWINGS. 



The Plate Form for the coming year will be made the leading feature of our work. Carefully 
selected scale drawings of elevations and details of the very best work that is being done in this country 
will be reproduced in this form, and in addition to these there will be reproduced measured drawings of 
some of the best examples of colonial brickwork, especially prepared for the purpose. 



SUBURBAN 
RESIDENCE 
TO COST 
$10,000.00. 



New Announcements for the Year. 

There will be begun this year a most valuable series of contributions by well-known architects, on 
the designing, in brick and terra-cotta, of a popular class of buildings which will include RESIDENCES, 
APARTMENT HOUSES, LIBRARIES, CHAPELS, CHURCHES, etc. (one of these buildings 
will form the basis of a series each year). It is the intention that each of these subjects shall be treated 
in at least two sets of articles (six articles to a set) in which the cost and conditions are varied. Each 
article will be suitably illustrated by elevations and plans. 

The subject chosen for this year's work is a 

SUBURBAN RESIDENCE TO COST $10,000.00. 
The contributors will be 

Walter Cope .... (Cope & Stewardson) .... Philadelphia. 

Ralph Adams Cram . . (Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue) . Boston. 

Edward B. Green . . (Green & Wicks) Buffalo. 

Alfred B. Harlow . . (Alden & Harlow) Pittsburgh. 

Charles A. Rich . . . (Lamb & Rich) . . v. . . . New York. 

C. F. Schweinfurth Cleveland. 



OTHER 
LEADING 
ARTICLES FOR 
THE YEAR. 



FIRE-PROOFING. 



MASON 
CONTRACTOR. 



MORTARS AND 
CONCRETES. 

RECENT BRICK 
AND TERRA- 
COTTA WORK 
IN AMERICAN 
CITIES. 

EDITORIALS 
AND CURRENT 
TOPICS. 



APARTMENT HOUSE ARCHITECTURE (Illustrated), by Irving K. Pond (Pond & Pond), Chicago. 

THE BONDING OF BRICKWORK, by Ernest Flagg, New York. 

A SERIES OF PAPERS ON MASONRY, CEMENT, AND MORTAR, by Prof. Ira O. Baker, 
Champaign, 111. 

DESCRIPTION, WITH SERIES OF STANDARD DRAWINGS OF DETAILS FOR BUILD- 
ING CONSTRUCTION, by C. C. Schneider, C. E. Chief Engineer Construction Department 
Pencoyd Iron Works. 

ESTIMATING THE COST OF BRICKWORK, based on the actual time and quantities of material 
used in different buildings, and 

DIFFERENT WAYS OF ESTIMATING, by F. E. Kidder, Denver, Col. 

In this department, which is conducted in a manner consistent with the policy of our journal, we shall 
furnish a series of articles by the ablest of writers, which shall treat of the advanced methods of fire-proof 
construction with materials of clay. 

Among the writers who will contribute during the year are : — 

Dankmar Adler Chicago. 

W. L. B. Jenney .... Chicago. 

F. C. Moore (Pres. Continental Insurance Co.) New York. 

C. T. Purdy, C. E New York. 

Peter B. Wight Chicago. 

In this department there will be published that class of articles which shall be alike of interest 
to architects and contractors. 

A special effort will be made, beginning with this year, to make this department of vastly more 
value to this class of our readers, and to this end important questions arising from the relationship 
between architect and contractor will be discussed by those who have given such questions careful 
study. 

Suggestions from our subscribers as to important questions needing practical discussion are solic- 
ited, and all such will be given due consideration. 

This department is maintained for the purpose of furnishing that class of material which shall 
be an aid to architects and builders who recognize the necessity of care in successfully employing 
cements. Contributors to this department will include many of the leading authorities on the subject. 

We shall publish in this department letters from the larger cities which shall present in a concise 
and interesting manner the more important happenings in matters architectural. These letters will be 
illustrated from the best current work in brick and terra-cotta. That this department may become a 
more potent factor in our work we have recently reorganized our correspondents' corps. 

Our editorials are contributed by a staff of able writers, and by them current topics of interest 
will be discussed. 

The Brickbuilder is published monthly at Boston, Mass. 

By ROGERS & MANSON. 

Subscription Price, 

$2. §0 per year. Publication Office, 85 Water Street. 




P OFFICE 



BRICKBVlLDERij 



WATER Ki 
STREET Jp 
B05T0N>|j 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN MATERIALS OF CLAY. 

PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $350 per year 

COPYRIGHT, l8g3, BY THB BRICKBUII-DRK PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Ofiice as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT. 
No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 

HONOR TO WHOM HONOR IS DUE. 

BETWEEN the financial necessity of making himself known, 
and the unwritten ethical code which forbids him to advertise 
his wares, the architect is not uncommonly squeezed out of a proper 
recognition of himself as a factor of his work. Now there is a right 
and a wrong use to make of an architect's name in connection with 
building operations. To parade the fact in print that so and so has 
done so and so, when his achievements are of little public interest or 
real merit, is certainly reprehensible. On the other hand, the archi- 
tect has a perfect right to an acknowledgment of what he has done, 
and he is entitled to this recognition as publicly as the circumstances 
will warrant. When we read in the news columns a report of the 
dedication of some church or of some proposed public building, with 
a dozen or more names r-f committee men unknown to fame, we fail 
to see who, beyond a very narrow circle of personal friends, would be 
interested in such names; while the name of the architect, which is 
very apt to be lacking, is of deep business interest as well as of 
artistic importance to a great many. This is a principle which the 
public as represented by the utterances of the daily press is very apt 
to neglect, not with the idea of depriving the architect of what might 
be considered an advertisement, but because the desirability of coup- 
ling the man and his work does not appeal to the average news 
editor. When it is remembered that in a large building direct em- 
ployment is given to many thousand craftsmen and artists, and that 
each one of these looks to the architect of ten for direct employment 
and always for possibilities of gain, it will readily be seen that the 
omission of the architect's name considered simply as a matter of 
news is a mistake, and that the thousands of manufacturers, mechan- 
ics, and contractors who have to do with the building have quite as 



much interest in knowing who is to do it as they have in knowing 
what is to be done. In connection with a large structure recently 
completed, it was estimated as a result of pretty careful investigation 
that the building had directly and indirectly interested something 
over three thousand people in its construction, each one of whom 
received his instructions and final approval of work from the archi- 
tect. Surely in a case of that kind the mention of an architect's 
name, no matter how publicly brought forward, could hardly be called 
illegitimate advertising. 

The association of the name with the work may properly be 
carried even further. When a painter signs his canvas, or a sculptor 
carves his name on the pedestal of a statue, no one considers that 
he is exploiting himself before the public. It is expected as a 
matter of course, quite as naturally as that an author shall sign his 
writings. There has recently been considerable discussion as to the 
advisability of an architect's signing his buildings in precisely the 
same manner, not at all as a matter of advertisement, but purely as 
a matter of responsible identification, of properly locating the credit 
or the blame. While the species of advertising which some of the 
members of the profession are willing to resort to is anything but self- 
respecting or desirable, an architect's name should never be dis- 
associated from the work he has produced, and as a matter of justice 
as well as of news, when the building is mentioned in print the 
architect's name belongs with it. 



BRICKS WITHOUT STRAW. 

THE inadequacy of means to desired results is one of the dis- 
couraging phases of all the arts and sciences, and no less is the 
insufficiency in the burnt clay industries apparent to-day than it was 
in the time of Moses, with the difference that in the light of modern 
experience, for straw we must read dollars and cents. Or, to drop 
the simile, there is no difficulty in having good brick and terra-cotta 
work made. There are plenty of manufacturers to-day who can turn 
out what is wanted. The lack is not in the brains of the manufac- 
turers nor in the processes of making, but in the amount of money 
which is available to pay for the product when completed. When 
an architect or an owner says he is discontented with terra-cotta as 
a building material, or feels that it is not sufficiently dignified to serve as 
a medium for his ideas, we will venture the broad statement that in nine 
cases out of ten the difficulty is rather that he is not willing to pay the 
price of a thoroughly good article. If our constructors were willing 
to pay for terra-cotta at the rate they do for stone, the resulting 
product would be equal to any artistic emergency. It is not fair to 
the product to put forward as one of its merits that it is cheaper 
than stone. Certainly most terra-cotta is cheaper than some stone, 
but burnt clay at its best, fresh from the hand of the artist, with every 
touch and feeling translated into permanent shape, should be meas- 
ured for itself entirely irrespective of what it costs, and in planning 
for specific effects the cost of itself should be the last thing to be 
considered. Rather, let us try to get first the best effects in the most 
natural and straightforward manner. Terra-cotta when rightly used 
is never cheap, either figuratively or literally. The amount of thought 
and work which can be expended upon the modeling of a single orna- 
ment places it entirely above the category of ordinary work. We 
are appreciating this more and more fully every day in our country ; 
but if one wishes to appreciate that we are trying to get good effects 



266 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



in terra-cotta without paying the price, and that it is very largely the 
lack of adequate financial resources which prevents us from elevat- 
ing terra-cotta to its proper level, one has only to compare the best 
of our work with buildings like the South Kensington Museum, or 
the London Natural History Museum. In our American work there 
is every evidence that our manufacturers know how to make the 
terra cotta ; but there is also, unfortunately, the evidence that terra- 
cotta is still suffering from the stigma of being a cheap material, and 
that in only too many instances our constructors and designers are 
not willing to give it the same chance that they would without ques- 
tion accord to stone. 

WE have received the reprint of a paper upon the subject 
'•Can Buildings be Made Fireproof ?" which was pre- 
sented to the American Society of Civil Engineers by Mr. C. T. 
Purdy, who is so well known for his exxellent work in the lines of 
architectural engineering that his conclusions have very considerable 
value. The Pittsburgh fire is the text of the paper, which is very 
fully illustrated with diagrams and photographs showing the con- 
struction of the various buildings involved. -Mr. Purdy's opinion is 
that, limiting the definition of fire-proof building to denote one which 
will not burn, no matter how great a fire it may be exposed to from 
without, and which will confine an internal fire to any room in which 
it occurs without material injury to the rest of the room, the Pitts- 
burgh fire confirms the opinion that buildings can be made fire-proof : 
but that it is quite essential in making a fire-proof structure which can 
be depended upon in any emergency, that the best design, the best 
specification, and the best workmanship in every detail of the construc- 
tion should be insisted upon. He also concludes that, as now manu- 
factured, porous tile or terra-cotta fire-proofing can be relied upon 
to protect the steel construction, while the hard-burned material can- 
not be depended upon with the same certainty. Woodwork covered 
with wire lathing and plastering is not fire-proof construction, and 
the efficiency of concrete in flocrs was not tested by this fire. 



WITH this number the translation, by Mr. Dillon, of Choisy's 
"The Art of Building Among the Romans" is completed. 
Of this work there remains four plates that have not been published. 
.Subscribers who so desire may have these plates sent with the 
February number of The Brickuuilder by sending notice to that 
effect to this office. 

PERSO.XAL AND CLUB NEWS. 

Frank F. W.vko and Herbert E. Davis have formed a co- 
partnership under the firm name of Ward & Davis, for the practise 
of architecture, with offices at 203 Broadway, .\ew York City. 

At the invitation of Mr. Frank Lloyd Wright the members of 
the Chicago .-Xrchitectural Club met on the evening of November 29, 
in a discussion of the " Arts and Crafts." 

The St. Louis Architectural Club held its regular monthly 
meeting on Saturday night, December 4. President Ittner presided 
for the first time since the club's vacation. The names of Messrs. 
E. G. Garden and W. S. Eames were proposed as honorary mem- 
bers. The classes in architecture under R. M. Milligan, and the 
pen and ink class of Mr. Enders are showing considerable interest in 
their work. The other classes have not become thoroughly organized 
yet. 

The regular monthly meeting of the New Jersey Society of 
Architects was held on Friday, December 3, at Board of Trade 
rooms, 764 Broad Street, Newark, N. J. 

The chairman of the committee appointed to confer with the 
Master Mason's Association of the city of Newark, which associa- 
tion requested a conference with a like committee from the society 
to adjust in general misunderstandings between the architects and 
builders, reported that the agreement that had been drafted at the 
last meeting had been finally adopted after minor changes were made. 



A regular meeting of the T Square Club was held on Wednes- 
day evening, December i, the subject for competition being " An 
Arrangement of Terraces and Steps." Mr. Wilson Eyre was the 
critic for the evening. First mention was awarded to David K. 
Boyd, second mention to Wm. C. Hays, and third mention to John 
Molitor. The award of medal and mentions for the second annual 
redesigning competition was also announced at this meeting, the 
drawings having previously been sent to New York, where they were 
judged by Messrs. John Galen Howard, Bruce Price, and Henry 
Bacon, who had consented to act as jury for this competition, and 
made the awards as follows: Gold medal to Horace H. Burrell; 
second mention to Samuel R. Davis, and third mention to Charles Z. 
Klauder. 



ILLUSTRATED ADVERTISEMENTS. 

THE accompanying illustration is of the Brewers Exchange Balti- 
more, Md.. of which Mr. J. E. .Sperry, of that city, is the archi- 
tect. This building is executed in terra-cotta and brick from sidewalk 
to Hag-pole, including a very neat entrance and vestibule, in which the 
former material is used throughout with highly creditable results. 




The terra-cotta was executed by the New \ork .Architectural Terra- 
Cotta Company. 

Another beautiful fireplace mantel designed in brick and terra- 
cotta is shown in the advertisement of Fiske, Homes & Co., page vii. 

In the advertisement of R. Guastavino, page xiv, a group illus- 
tration is made which shows the roof over St. Anthony's Chapel, at 
Washington, D. C, in process of construction. Heins & La Farge 
are the architects. 

Harbison & Walker Company illustrate in their advertisement, 
page XXV, the Y. M. C. A. Building at Cleveland. Ohio ; C. F. 
Schweinfurth, architect. 

Number two of the descriptive series of the roofing tiles made 
by the Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Charles T. Harris, Lessee, is 
given in the company's advertisement, page xxix. 

The Philadelphia and Bo.ston Face Brick Company illustrate 
one of their artistically designed brick mantels in their advertisement, 
page xxxi. 

Examples of bond, showing blocks of the Gilbreth Seam-Face 
Granite laid up in two styles of bond, is illustrated in the company's 
advertisement, page xxxviii. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



267 



The American Schoolhouse. IT. 

BV EDMUND M. WHEELWRIGHT. 

SLATE blackboards are the most economical in the long run^ and, 
when of proper quality and color, are preferable to any other 
blackboard. All blackboards should be 4 ft. 6 ins. high. In primary 
schools they should be set 2 ft. 4 ins. above floor ; in grammar and 
high schools they should be 3 ft. o ins. above floor. The chalk re- 
ceiver should have a receptacle 23/ ins. wide. It is desirable to 
have blackboards on all available wall surfaces of schoolrooms and 
recitation rooms. 

Sheathed dadoes should never be used in schoolhouses. They 
give lodgment for dust, and when removed have often been found to 
be infested with vermin. The best dado for a schoolhou.se is of 
gauged mortar, with wooden chair rail, where blackboards are not 
set, and with a plainly molded ogee base run out of 2 in. or 3 in. 
plank, or better, a like mold of Keene's cement may be used. To 
facilitate the cleaning of the building, it is advisable that the angles 
of walls and the junction of walls and ceilings of schoolrooms should 
be concaved on a radius, as is customary in good hospital construc- 
tion. 

As in a hospital ward, and for the same reasons, as little wood 
as possible should be used in the finish of a schoolroom. Inaccessi- 
ble ledges on which dust may collect should be avoided. Jambs of 
windows and doors may well be finished with round corners in 
Keene's cement. The floors should be of rift Georgia pine or maple. 
Schoolhouse Hoors are not usually finished, although two coats of 
linseed oil for Georgia pine floors would appear as desirable here as 
in a private house for the floors that are to be scrubbed. School 
boards are usually very economical in expenditures for this purpose, 
a method of saving public funds not conducive to the health of the 
community. In Germany great pains are taken during construction 
to thoroughly oil the floors of schoolrooms, and the surface is care- 
fully maintained in use. In Boston ash is found to be the most satis- 
factory of the inexpensive woods for the interior finish of school- 
houses. 

The doors should have transom lights over them, and should 
have a glass panel set with l)ottorn 4 ft. above floor. Doors should 






open towards the corridors. There should be a picture molding run 
around the walls of all schoolrooms, recitation rooms, and assembly 
halls. 

A soft shade of light green is a good color for the walls of 
schoolrooms of the present standard size with southern exposure. 




-^^ 
't^, 







I'.KIGHTON HIGH SCHOOL, BOSTON. 
Edmund M. Wheelwright, City Architect. 



liROOKLINE HIGH SCHOOL, BROOKLINE, MASS. 
Andrews, Jaques& Rantoul, Architects. 

while light shades of buff are desirable for rooms with other expos- 
ures. No " hot " colors should be used on schoolroom walls. The 
ceilings should be tinted in light shades of buff. Water color may 
be used for all plaster above top of blackboard. If the narrower 
schoolrooms lighted from the left or from the left and right side are 
ever adopted, it would be possible to paint the walls of the rooms m 
a lower key than is now advisable where the rooms depend upon the 
general diffusion of light for their sufficient lighting. 

Schoolhouses should have one or more teachers' rooms with 
toilet room adjoining, and in large schools there should be, in addi- 
tion, a master's office. 

The uses to which a basement may be put depends upon the 
size of the school. In every school, in addition to the boiler room, 

coal room, etc., there should 
T be well-lighted play rooms 

'j for both sexes, with lava- 

/ j tories adjoining, shut off by 

fly doors with spring butts. 
Where sufficient size per- 
mits, manual training and 
cooking class rooms and 
gymnasiums for both sexes, 
and where possible, ample 
bathing facilities may well 
be provided. Where there 
is space there should be a 
well-lighted janitor's closet. 

The best flooring for 
basement, corridors, play 
rooms, and lavatories is as- 
phalt of the best brands. 
Where wooden floors are 
used, they should be laid on 
screeds bedded in concrete 
with waterproof paper under 
upper floor and with no air 
space. If the site is damp, 
it is advisable to lay on top 
of the bottom bed of con- 
crete a thick coating of hot 
asphalt or tar concrete be- 
fore setting the floor screeds. 



■■V 
■ 'V ''' 



I '"^ 




I ii I 


J 


^ '. ! 


I'jil ' 


■ v-7: 




L 1 "' 







vm 



j!r_nK^'l 



268 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



THIRD FLOOR. 



It is a wise precaution to build schoolhouses of four or more 
stories in height wholly of indestructible materials, that is, they 
should be of " fire-proof " construction. 

It would appear unnecessary under ordinary conditions to use 
such expensive construction in buildings of three stories or less in 
height. 

The first floor of all schoolhouses should be of '•mill" or "fire- 
proof " construction. With the present low cost of structural steel, a 
steel and arch construction of 
the floors is preferable to that 
of heavy timbers and plank, as 
the latter construction, though 
less expensive, is liable to 
cause considerable annoyance 
from shrinkage, as practically 
the market does not afford sea- 
soned stock of large dimen- 
sions. 

With the first floor con- 
structed of incombustible or 
slow-burning materials, all in- 
terior partitions solid, the plas- 
tering laid directly on brick 
walls, ceilings wire-lathed and 
the basement staircase protected 
by fire doors, even if the floors 
above the first story and the 
roof are constructed of the or. 
dinary narrow joists with % in. 
floor boarding, there is practi- 
cally no danger from a 
started in the interior 
schoolhouse. If the roof is 
and protected by a battleme 
wall of ample height, under 
ordinary surroundings, a fire 
outside of such a schoolhouse 
would be a practical danger to 
the lives of the occupants. In 
a building constructed as above 
described, and in the isolated 
position of most schoolhouses, 
the scholars would be led to 
the street before there could be 
any dangerous condition of the 
building. There is, however, 
danger from panic. To avoid 
this danger by giving the 
greater sense of security to 
teachers and pupils, which goes 
with a solid construction, it 
would appear advisable to have 
the floors of fire-proof con- 
struction in primary school- 
houses in excess of two stories 
in height, when in closely built 
localities. 

The inner lining of outei 
brick walls should be of hard- 
burned hollow brick, with soft 
brick set to receive nailings for 
finish. The interior partitions 
should either be of brick, terra- 
cotta lumber, or thin partitions 
of metal lathing on angle irons. 

The advantage of such solidity of construction and absence of wood 
furring is not only to protect from fire, but from vermin. 

In the matter of schoolhouse construction the question of cost 




BKOOKLINE HIGH SCHOOL, BROOKLINE, MASS. 



is an all-important consideration, and should be at least touched upon 
in a paper of this kind. An attempt at exhaustive analysis of the 
subject would be a task disproportionate to the value of the result. 
General conclusions drawn from data gathered in my own practise, 
and from that of others, may, however, prove serviceable to architects 
and school committees. This data should be used with judgment and 
with careful consideration of the conditions governing each partic- 
ular case. Estimates based upon cost per square or per cubic foot 

can never be as safely relied 
upon as those based upon a 
survey of quantities, and reck- 
oned according to the prices 
which maintain at a given time 
in each locality ; but none the 
less a fairly close approxima- 
tion of the probable cost of a 
building can be made by esti- 
mates based upon the cost per 
square or per cubic foot. The 
basis of cost per schoolroom is 
the fairest method of compar- 
ing roughly the cost of gram- 
mar or primary schoolhouses. 

To come to a closer judg- 
ment of such comparative costs 
that per cubic foot has often to 
be taken into account, while, as 
their plans present less constant 
characteristics than do those of 
the schoolhouses for the lower 
grades, the cost per cubic ap- 
pears the fairest basis of com- 
parison of costs of high 
schools. 

The architects of the 
Brookline High School have 
allowed me to examine the 
drawings, specifications, con- 
tract prices of that building for 
purpose of comparison with the 
cost of the Brighton High 
School, built for the city of 
Boston. The two buildings 
were built at about the same 
time. Reckoned from the top 
of basement floor to top of cor- 
nice, the Brookline High School 
contains 1,193,880 cu. ft., and 
cost, without grading and with- 
out laboratory, or other similar 
fittings, 5185,000, /. <?., close to 
\^}4 cents per cubic foot. The 
Brighton High School contains 
746,854, and cost upon the same 
basis in round numbers I122,- 
000, or about i6>4 cents per 
cubic foot, /. e., the proportion- 
ate cost of the Brighton High 
School was 6.6 per cent, more 
than that of the Brookline High 
School. 

By actual computation 4>^ 
per cent, of this additional cost 
is explained by the extra thick- 
ness of walls and strength of 
floors required by the Boston Building Laws. As the Brookline 
school was an admirably constructed building, it will be seen that if 
the building laws of Boston had permitted, the Brighton school 



THEBRICKBUILDER. 269 

might have cost between $5,000 and $6,000 less than it did. The Wire lathed ceilings $1,328.00 

Brighton school had slate blackboards, Keene's cement door and Terra-cotta lumber partitions 606.00 

window finish, double run of sash above basement, asphalt floor, or Hospital base 252.00 

equivalent, throughout basement. 

The Brookline school had composition blackboards, oak door ' 

and window finish, single run of sash throughout, basement floors of This is 1.8 per cent, of cost of the building, 

concrete or Georgia pine on concrete. A careful computation of the cost of the Brighton High School 

If the Brighton school had been finished as was the Brookline shows that if the building had been built as a purely utilitarian struc- 

school, the following savings could have been made in the former ture of the factory type, a saving of 8 per cent, of the cost, or between 

building: — • nine and ten thousand dollars could have been made. 




BASEMENT. 



THIRD FLOOR. 



Composition in place of slate blackboards $537-50 

Oak instead of Keene's cement finish 226.80 

Single in place of double run sash 1,090.00 

Concrete and Georgia pine basement floors in place of 

asphalt 654.00 

$2,508.30 

This amount is a trifle more than 2 per cent, of the cost of the 
Brighton school. The features noted above were originally contem- 
plated by the architects of the Brookline school ; they were omitted to 
bring the cost of the building within its strictly limited appropriation. 

The Brookline and Brighton schools had in common certain 
features not found in less well-constructed buildings, which cost, in 
the Brighton school, as follows : — 



The architects of the Brookline school reckon the cost of tower 
above cornice line as being between $8,000 and $10,000, or about 5 
per cent, of cost of the building. There are other architectural fea- 
tures in the Brookline school which increase its cost above that of a 
purely utilitarian structure. It is probable that a closer analysis of 
the cost of the two buildings would be about the same proportionate 
expense for architectural effect. 

We may, therefore, safely set the cost of a first-class high school 
building at i^'/i cents per cubic foot. This should apparently be 
the normal cost of such a building provided with domestic engineer- 
ing systems of requisite excellence, if built in a locality where the 
requirements of the building laws involve no needless expense, and 
where the cost of labor and materials is as high as it is in the neigh- 
borhood of Boston. 



270 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Important Problems in Construction. 

BY WILLIAM W. CREHORE, ASSOC. M. AM. SOC. C. E. 

PROBABLY the greatest inconsistencies are found in the details 
of wooden construction. Girders and beams of ample carry- 
ing capacity often have insufficient bearing or rest on improper mate- 
rial. Framed joints between headers and trimmers are weakening at 
best, and are seldom made to develop the full strength of either 
member. Frequently these joints are so 
made as almost to incapacitate one of 
the members entirely. It is safe to say 
that architects, as a rule, pay little atten- 
tion to the design of joints and connec- 5~ 
tions in their wooden construction, but 
leave this important work to the boss car- 
penter, trusting largely to his e.xperience. 
The scarcity of accidents in this kind of 
construction shows that the carpenter's experience is a valua- 
ble guide, but the inconsistencies remain, and much material 
is absolutely wasted, because it is used where its full strength 
cannot be developed. The use of iron stirrups in wood fram- 
ing is becoming more general and ought to be encouraged : 
it does away with mortising, and thus not only preserves 
the full value of the timbers intact, but also saves time and 
labor in erection. The additional first co.st is slight. 

It has long been customary in wooden construction to 
rest the posts directly on the girders which pass over the 
tops of the posts in the story below, as in Fig. I. By this 
construction the direct column load crushes the girders 
across the grain where the timber has only al)out one fifth 
the resistance that it has against crushing longitudinally. 
Consequently, when the posts are figured to their full capac- 
ity only one fifth of it can be developed in any arrangement 
such as this. As a chain is no stronger than its weakest 
link, so it must be remembered the capacity of a structural 
system is determined by the weakest spot in the system. 
There are several devices in use for making these wooden 
post and girder connections; for example, see Fig. 2, where 
the post above rests on a kind of cast cap be- 
tween it and the post below, the sides of this 
casting being extended to receive the girders. 
These connections are very loose and do not 
bind the adjacent members together in any 
way, their avowed purpose being to " let go " 
easily in case of fire or accident. 

The connection shown in Fig. 3, however, 
possesses superior advantages to the cast cap. 
A steel plate, a, is placed between the columns and 
may be extended in two or more directions to receive 
girders. A pair of angle knees, /', is placed under 
the girders and made fast to the lower column by 
lagscrews. Lag.screws also pass up through the 
angles and the plate into the girders, thus securing 
the whole system from shifting in either direction. 
The upper column is held laterally by the ends of 
th e girders in one direction, and to prevent motion 
the other way a wooden peg is let into the lower 
column and passes up through a hole in the plate into 
the upper column ; to increase the rigidity of this 
connection a pair of angles may be used at c also, with lagscrews 
into the column and girders. By properly proportioning the size of 
the steel plate and angles, this simple connection can be made to fit 
any combination of wooden girders and posts imaginable. The 
writer has used it with 1 2 by 12 girders connecting to 8 by 8 posts 
with no difficulty whatever. Then, too, each girder and post has a 
square cut end, and no side straps are required to hold the girders in 
place. Heavy wooden construction might be safely used with this 




I 


. 


- 






- 


-^ \ 




































































M 






R 


■ 








3 








; 


^ 


_ 












a 


3 
















■ 








H 








^iQ 7. 


\ 




















rx 


-8 













/■<«?. 



style of connection, if properly proportioned, in many cases where 
cast-iron columns are now used with wooden girders. 

In determining the extent of bearing to give to wall or column 
footings on different kinds of soil, careful attention should be paid to 
the old rule about keeping the center of gravity over the middle 
third, and on soil of a yielding nature still greater accuracy than this 
is reciuired. If a rigid slab of any kind be laid on a plastic or yield- 
ing surface, and a pressure be exerted at some point outside the 
middle third, the slab will be observed to take a permanent set in 
an inclined position, lower at the loaded 
end than at the other, as illustrated in 
Fig. 4. Similarly, then, but on a larger 
scale, when a wall is so built and stepped 
off that the center of gravity of its sec- 
tion falls outside the middle third of its 
footing cour.se (see Fig. 5) the same 
phenomenon must be expected, if the 
footing course is rigid ; otherwise the 
footing course must crack off on or near the line, b, 
which separates the working portion from the idle por- 
tion. 

This emphasizes the point that a portion of every 
such footing is idle, and of no effect, or rather, that its 
effect is bad in proportion to its rigidity, becau.se its 
tendency is then to assume an inclined position, like the 
experiment in Fig. 4, and thus cause cracking in the 
back of the wall at some point about a (see Fig. 5) ; 
whereas if the footing course could crack, the loaded 
portion would move on down vertically and the idle por- 
tion stay where it was. Besides this "middle third" 
principle, there is the "sixty-degree" principle, which 
requires that a straight line, c, inclined so as to touch 
the corner of each step shall make an angle with the 
horizontal of not less than sixty degrees. This limit of 
inclination has been established from theoretical consid- 
erations as well as by experience, and its observance is a 
prerequisite to stability in construction. " Problems in 
construction are all simple enough if you keep in mind 
two things, — bracing at forty-five degrees, and brick- 
work at sixty," was a remark made not long 
ago by an architect who is better known for his 
artistic ability than for his knowledge of con- 
struction. .As emphasizing fundamental princi- 
ples the remark is worth recording and re- 
membering. 

The writer may be pardoned for this 
digression into the realm of first principles, in 
view of the surprising number of violations of 
these principles which have been observed to exist 
in actual work and in plans for proposed new work. 
The advent of higher buildings and the novelty of 
all problems connected with their construction, has 
led some designers to try experiments with first prin- 
ciples to a remarkable extent. To illustrate from an 
actual case, take Fig. 6. The designer found the 
side wall loads would require wider footings than he 
could obtain by stepping up in the usual manner on 
one side of the wall only, and being reminded of the 
universal efficacy of steel beams for an emergency 
decided to imbed a series of them in the concrete 
under his footings (as shown to scale in Fig. 6), and thus distribute the 
wall load over the required amount of ground without destroying his 
interior with stepped-up footings. In effect he simply had a perfectly 
rigid footing, part of it loaded (rather overloaded) and part of it idle, 
so that in case of settlement the condition in Fig. 4 will prevail, 
eventually producing a horizontal crack in the back of the wall. 

A large part of the difficulty experienced by designers is due to 
the necessity for providing for isolated heavy loads at or near the 




^ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



271 



property line. If it is not possible to arrange the footing so that the 
load's center of gravity will fall within the middle third of the ground 
area covered, then it may be tied to another in one rigid bed of 
steel beams encased in concrete, spreading over enough ground to 
carry both the loads, and occasionally one bed is made to receive 
three or four or more loads. In designing one of these grillage beds it 
is important (t) to shape it so that the center of gravity of all the 
superimposed loads shall coincide nearly with the center of pressure 
of the ground area covered, and (2) so to design the grillage itself 
that it will distribute the imposed loads equitably over every square 
foot of the ground area. To bring about these results is not as 
simple a problem as it might at first appear, especially if there are 
more than two loads, and if their relative positions and magnitudes 
are irregular. 

In the case of two loads on one grillage bed, if the interior load 
is lighter than that on the property line, the bed should be trapezoi- 
dal in shape (see Fig. 7), but if the interior load is heavier, the bed 
may be rectangular (as in Fig. 8). These requirements arise from 
the necessity of keeping the center of gravity of the loads coincident 
with the center of pressure of the area covered by the grillage bed. 
The simple square grillage bed (see Fig. 10) for a single interior 
heavy or moderately heavy load possesses advantages over the 
stepped-up masonry footing (see Fig. 9) covering the same ground 
area in that there is much space saved about the column near its 
base which is lost in the stepped-up footing, or else the latter has to 
be lower in the ground. At the present prices of steel beams the 
slight difference in cost is offset by the saving in brickwork and by 
this gain in space or saving in excavation. 

In order to distribute an isolated load or loads over the grillage 
bed an upper course of steel beams or girders is usually necessary. 
In the lower course or grillage course proper the beams are laid not 
more than 1 2 or 15 ins. center to center, and the concrete between 
them is depended on to complete the distribution on the ground. 
In the upper course the problem is to receive the loads from the 
columns and to distribute them as economically as possible over the 
lower grillage beams. For this purpose deep beams, or plate girders 
if more economical, are placed close together directly under the load 
or loads and extended across all the beams of the lower course. The 
total bending moment having been figured, it will be found much 
more economical to make it up by using a few deep beams concen- 
trated under the load than to use many shallow beams spread out 
over the lower grillage, even though the projecting portion (and 
therefore the moment) of the lower beams is thereby made somewhat 
less. In the lower course it would also be more economical to use the 
deeper beams if they could be spaced further apart, but the close spac- 
ing is necessary here to make the distribution of the loads complete. 
In the writer's opinion this whole subject of load distribution 
should receive more attention from designers than is now customary. 
It is not a feature of high building construction only, but should also 
be thought of in designing footings for lighter loads as ordinary 
dwellings. These footings are too often specified arbitrarily without 
any calculation, and made like some other case where the conditions 
are supposed to be similar. There are very few kinds of soil that 
will not bear some weight without yielding ; it is merely necessary to 
find out how much or how little the soil will bear on each superficial 
foot and then to design accordingly with a fair factor of safety. In 
building a frame house on more or less spongy ground stability will 
be gained l>y spreading the footings over an increased area sooner 
than by sinking them deep, unless solid ground is to be found near at 
hand. The architect or builder of your suburban residence tells you 
that it will take a year or two for your house to settle, and that you 
must expect ceilings and walls to crack, windows to bind, and door 
jambs to be distorted from rectangles to parallelograms, necessitating 
frequent visits of the carpenter and the locksmith. This, on the con- 
trary, is not necessary, and a very slight extra expense in the footings 
to begin with would prevent all the above and similar annoyances 
which were not directly due to the use of green lumber in construct- 
ing the building. 



Architectural Terra-Cotta. 

BV THOMAS CUSACK. 

(^Continned.^ 

THE recently erected Bank of Commerce, Cedar and Nassau 
Streets, New York, of which Mr. James B. Baker is the 
architect, has been appropriately named; for it certainly is a com- 
mercial building par excellence. This is indicated, not only by its 
location and the avocation of its occupants ; the design itself would 
seem to have been suggested by a full and frank acceptance of these 
underlying facts, as the fundamental conditions on which the embodi- 
ment of that idea should be based. So, too, with the detail, which 
has been worked out on really sensible business principles, enlivened 




FIG. 45. 



liANK OF COMMERCE BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 
J. B. Baker, Architect. 



on the one hand, and held in due subjection on the other by good 
architectural maxims. It is legible, and on the whole, effective, when 
viewed from any point of accessibility in a neighborhood where tall 
buildings now " do congregate." There is a commendable absence 
of unnecessary fripperies, as also of finical bedizenment, and there is 
reason to doubt whether the designer cares two cents for triglyphs. 
Judging not merely by what has been done, but quite as much by 
what has been wisely left undone, in the way of detailing here, we 
think that common sense has prevailed over pedantry, for which we 
are disposed to feel thankful. The legibility, and much of the effec- 
tiveness just referred to, is accomplished chiefly by a systematic 
gradation in the size of the various members. They increase in size, 
just as the ornament increases in boldness of relief, in proportion to 
its approximate distance from the spectator. In that respect, at least, 



272 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



we have in this building a timely reminder of an oft-forgotten and in 
some instances, apparently unknown art, which should not be allowed 
to pass unimproved. 

It is matter for regret that as much cannot be said in behalf of 
the color scheme, more especially so' in regard to the combination 




FIG. 46. 



of color as between terra-cotta and brick walling. The three lower 
stories are granite of a bluish cast, for which the terra-cotta through 
out is a remarkably good match. This is so, not only in color, but in 
the quality of surface texture, which it is more difficult — and, beyond 
a certain point, obviously impossible — to produce. The constituents 
of that unstratified rock, quartz, feldspar, and mica, though in itself 
of volcanic origin, cannot be reconstructed by fire without the ad- 
mixture of other and more fusible ingredients. In combination with 
silica and alumina, etc , they may be rendered more time resisting 
than the original rock, but they no longer retain their crystalline for- 
mation. 

The word match is used here out of deference to those who pre- 
fer to regard it as such ; but itni- 

tation is the more correct word, 1 

and it, like IJanquo's ghost, will I , / ,. | 

dog our steps at all hours, what- < " ~\ j^ y. 

ever we may do to down or dis- *~ """'" 
guise it. The more general ques- 
tion of imitating stone will not be 
shirked when the time comes to 
discuss it, but in passing let this 
much suffice for the pre.sent. It is 
done by manufacturers in response 
to a demand that is well-nigh irre- 
sistible, because usually urgent, 
sometimes peremptory, and not 
infre([uently a condition precedent 
to the closing of a contract. 
When that demand ceases or 
abates in its insistence, so will the 
supply, but not, we fear, until then. 
The root of this abnormal growth 
was exposed not many days ago 
by a prominent architect, who, in 
reply to a mild remonstrance on 
the point by the present writer, re- 
marked in a tone of unavailing 
regret," Your argument is all right 
in theory, but the tide is against - 
you; I have found it so in my own 



practise." The remark, no less than the confession, showed that he, 
too, though an architect, was content to remain a creature of circum- 
stance. Nevertheless, in the present instance, as in others just like 
it, we cannot help thinking that a solid body color in a gray burning 
clay, adjusted to about the required shade by an admixture of a 
small percentage of manganese, would have been pref- 
erable to the one selected. It would, at all events, 
have avoided the appearance, and left never a foothold 
for the charge, of artificiality. 

The brick used from the fourth to the fourteenth 
story (inclusive) are a light buff with a yellowish tinge. 
This, with the horizontal bands of dark terra-cotta, de- 
stroys the idea of vertical homogeneity which is (or, 
we think, ought to be) the dominant characteristic of a 
high building. The contrast is also more pronounced 
than agreeable. There is such a thing as a harmony 
of contrast, and though that was the thing evidently 
aimed at here, we leave it for higher authorities on 
color to say whether the mark has not been missed 
by several points. Instead of harmony, it appears to 
approach the margin of that neutral territory, beyond 
which discord begins. 

In F"ig. 45 we have a view of such portions of the 
Bank of Commerce as rise above the Equitable Life 
Building on the left, and the Mutual Life on the right, 
with a rear view of Mr. Post's twenty-fivestory bantling 
in the distance. The lower stories disappear from 
view in the depths of the Nassau Street Canyon, where 
our lens, by reason of physical limitations, was unable to penetrate. 
We know for a fact, however, that they rest on a secure foundation 
of steel, buried in a monolith of cement the size of the entire site, 
and many feet in thickness. With this assurance, we can now give 
undivided attention to the four upper stories, on which may be 
noticed an excellent example of engaged columns of the banded va- 
riety, a style that is invariably successful in terra-cotta. Losing sight 
of all that is below, these four stories and the main cornice. Fig. 46, 
undergo a favorable transformation, and that because their conti- 
nuity is not so much broken up by the intrusion of harshly contrast- 
ing brickwork. The bluish-gray monotone, however, remains; and 



hether viewed from the harbor or from adjacent housetops, we 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



273 



think it must be admitted that the color is more than one shade too 
dark. A lighter color would have yielded a greater proportion of 
high lights, between which and the deepest shadows there would 
have been a blending of half-tones to unite the two extremes and 
preserve an even balance. The absence of this scintillant transition 
is not felt so much in a strong light when tinted by " that silent 
architect, the sun "; but under a leaden sky, or when the shades of 
evening begin to fall, the general effect leans too much to the side of 
monotony and gloom. 

The main cornice. Fig. 47, has a height of 8 ft. 9 ins., and a 
total projection of 5 ft. i in. from wall line ; and, as little of its weight 
rested directly on the wall, it had to be transmitted to the structural 
framing and to the roof beams. This is done by a series of steel 
trusses, framed out of 3 by 3 L sections and spaced on about 
5 ft. centers. The direct weight of the first cour.se has a partial 
bearing of about 10 ins. on the wall below, and besides fitting into 
the flanges of the 15 in. I beam, it likewise rests on the projecting 
bottom cover-plate. It is also anchored back by a 34' in. bolt, one 
end of which takes hold of a ^ in. rod that passes through the 
block, the other having a tension nut, by means of which the desired 
alignment is made, thus overcoming any trifling variation that might 
occur in the ironwork. 

The dental course rests, in part, on a continuous 6 by 6 L 
section attached to floor beams. On the top bed of these blocks a 
recess is molded, into which another continuous 6 by 6 channel is 
bedded, and then riveted to the triangular bracket forming part of 
the main truss. It will be seen from this that the whole course is 
held in position in a simple, practicable way, and beyond the possibility 
of escape. Into the seat thus prepared the modillions are set on 
about 2 ft. 8 in. centers, and they, in turn, are secured by a ij^ in. 
bolt, which, passing through the block, is fastened to the two channels 
in the manner shown in section. The flat head of this bolt is counter- 
sunk, the hole being then filled by a terra-cotta plug, set in cement, 
the outer end of which becomes one of the balls called for in design 
of modillion baluster. 

The modillions being thus secured beyond peradventure, and 
the panels between them locked in position, they are made to act as 
corbels, with sufficient strength to carry the four courses above, and 
yet leave a wide margin of safety. In these last courses, as with the 
first one already described, a hole is provided for a j{ rod to pass 
clear through the block, from which it may be anchored at conve- 
nient intervals, without reference to positions of joints. The coping 
is set on a liberal bed of cement, which, passing up between the par- 
titions of the cellular bottom bed, grips it in such way as to make 
anchors unnecessary. The sloping roof is formed of fire-proofing, 
on which is laid a waterproof covering, to be again protected by a 
tile pavement laid in cement. The risks of fire and water reduced 
to a minimum, the damage from incessant friction is rendered practi- 
cally non-existent. 

The construction and execution of this cornice has been spoken 
highly of by men well qualified to judge of its merits. From their 
conclusions we see no reason to dissent in any particular. It is a 
good example of its kind, with a projection in due proportion to its 
height, and quite sufficient as the crowning member of a twenty-story 
building. Most important of all, we think it is safe, which is more 
than can oe said in the case of all the terra cotta cornices of recent 
erection, with which we are acquainted. There may be things in 
this world about which " ignorance is bliss," but the security of over- 
hanging members, suspended at heights varying from one to three 
hundred feet, in a city's most crowded thoroughfares, finds no place 
in that category. Some day, we fear, there may be a tale to tell on 
this subject, in regard to which those who had furnished the sensa- 
tional features would be cited as involuntary listeners. The merito- 
rious examples that have been selected for discussion may, in some 
measure, help to encourage and promote the construction of others 
equally good. In this, the one thing required is an intelligent appli- 
cation of the same (or similar) principles, honestly applied and modi- 
fied to meet the exigencies of the subject in hand. 



The Art of Building among the 
Romans. 

Translated from the French of Auguste Choisy by Arthur J. 

Dillon. 



PART III. 
CHAPTER II. 



THE ART OF BUILDING AND THE ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK- 
ING CLASSES. — {Coiicludcii). 

THE number of monuments built by the Roman troops was 
considerable. It was one of the Roman principles that the 
soldiers should never, under any circumstances, remain idle ; and, as 
must be confessed, it was principally to avoid dangerous inactivity 
that they were employed on the buildings, and frequently they were 
thus employed, the Roman writers tell us, on buildings which were 
otherwise superfluous. When Vitellius had the amphitheaters of 
Bologna and Cremona built by the soldiers, he thought less of bestow- 
ing on the cities these useful buildings than of controlling for the 
moment the turbulent spirit of the legionaries. In Africa we again 
find the Roman soldiers building amphitheaters; in Brittany, fortifi- 
cations; in Egypt, tombs, bridges, temples, porticos, basilicas ; in 
Italy, the great roads, and everywhere the mention of their work is 
accompanied by the curious observation that " the monuments were 
undertaken in order to occupy their leisure." 

It was not only the soldiers that were thus transformed into 
workmen, for such was the simplicity of the Roman methods that 
even the prisoners that the Romans held and the convicts from the 
lowest ranks of the people could be used for the same purpose. 
Condemnation to labor on the public works was a recognized legal 
penalty. It is cited by Paulus, and may be read on every page of the 
Theodosian legislation. 

The work was principally in extracting the material for build- 
ings, and it was from among the prisoners, principally the Christian 
prisoners, that the workmen were recruited who quarried the stone 
and dug sand for the Baths of Diocletian ; and long before, all the 
prisoners of the empire had, under different pretenses, been put to 
work on the canal of Avernus, as well as on that colossal assemblage 
of palaces called the House of Gold. " To complete them," says 
-Suetonius, " all who were in the State prisons were brought to Rome 
by the order of the emperor, and he did not allow those convicted of 
crimes to be sentenced to any punishment except labor on the public 
works." ' 

The Romans even went still farther. Not satisfied in placing pris- 
oners and soldiers side by side with the workmen, they even called to 
the work of construction free citizens and men most unused to work, 
demanding of the one, materials, of the others the aid of their arms. 
This unusual but systematic imposition was particularly developed 
toward the seventh century along with the rise of despotism, and it 
was continued under varying names until long after the fall of the 
empire. But in order to see things from the proper point of view it 
is necessary to go farther back. 

The Roman idea of taxation was entirely different from that 
held to-day. People were then divided into two distinct parts ; one 
was the urban population, who as a whole had the benefit of the 
rights of the cities and of the municipal franchises; it was composed 
of descendants of the ancient Roman colonists, men of the race of 
conquerors, as could be seen by their liberties and privileges. Be- 
neath this class was the taxable population, the remains of the 
indigenous race, which was constrained to provide for the other half 

' The texts establishing this participation in public works by prisoners are these : — 

Paul., Sentent., Lib. V., tit. de Poenis ; Cod. Theod., Lib. XIV., tit. X.,1. 4; Digest., 
Lib XLVIIL, tit. XIV., 1. 34, 1. 8, § 7, etc. 

On the construction of (he Baths of Diocletian with the aid of convicts : Annales eccles. 
Baronii, ann. 2g8, act. Sta. Marcelli. 

Construction of the House of flold and of the canal of Avernus: Suet., Nero, Cap. 
XXXI. 



274 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



of the empire by its labor. The imposts they paid were not only 
taxes to cover the cost of the government ; they were also, in fact 
above all, tribute paid to the luxury and subsistance of the great 
cities. This fact alone establishes the great difference between the 
social economy of antiquity and that of to-day. The difference is, 
however, not only in the destination of the results of taxation, for it 
is even more apparent when tlie elements which made up the public 
revenue and the manner of its collection are examined. 

This tribute, which was imposed on the vanquished, should 
have been redeemable, as with us, in money, which could then be 
exchanged for the necessities of the conquerors ; but the interposi- 
tion of money seemed a useless complication to the Romans, and in- 
stead of obtaining the products of the soil and of labor by the use of 
money exacted from their tributaries, they preferred to suppress all 
such intermediaries and collect the debts of the provinces in such 
shape that they could be immediately utilized ; so a large part of the 
taxation was collected, not in money, but in kind, and those who were 
responsible for the provisioning of Rome were, in most cases, the col- 
lectors of these curious taxes.' 

Building materials were among the taxes in kind which the 
Romans thus collected. For example, the curiales of Etruria paid 
annually to Rome 900 cartloads of lime ; the city of Terracina had a 
similar impost to pay, and the product of these taxes was re.served 
exclusively for public works, lighthouses, wharves, etc. Such and 
such a country sent the Romans building stone, another a tribute of 
bricks. These materials were a percentage of the products of 
various industries, just as in certain provinces (among others Hrut- 
tium and (Jalabria) a part of their flocks and herds, and from Egypt 
and Sicily a portion of their wheat was taken. Distinct regulations, 
moreover, prohibited the acceptance of an equivalent in money, and 
thus guaranteed to the public works supplies of material whose 
amount was limited only by the moderation of the Romans.- 

It was in this manner that the owners of the soil assisted, by 
contributions of taxes in kind, in the establishment of public edifices. 
As for the lower classes, who.se almost total lack of property shel- 
tered them, from taxes either in kind or in money, they owed to the 
public works a tribute of another sort, forced labor. 

The corv<5e played an important role in the public works of the 
last centuries. The Romans disdainfully called this form of tax 
"sordida munera," and counted among the services that could be 
demanded of that part of the population subject to forced labor, the 
proportion of the lime for public works and personal concurrence in 
" the construction of the public monuments, the sacred buildings, and 
the great roads of the empire." The people" who took part in these 
works were in principle all the inhabitants of the empire, except the 
officers of the government, and the dignitaries of the church, and the 
army. Nevertheless, the exceptions should have been greater in 
practise: and judging from appearances, it is probable that the 
Roman authority excepted all the population of the great cities from 
whom they provided provisions and pleasures, and from whom, it 

' Tlie details preser\-ed in tlie 'i'lieodosian Code, Lib. XIV., tit. IV., on the organization 
of the ** Suarii " should be examined in this connection. I chose this example because these 
tax collectors, who were also counted aniong the principal contractors, are perhaps those 
whose functions were most clearly defined ; and from this point of view, a study of their 
organization should precede any general research on the method of collecting the taxes in 
kind among the ancients. 

= Tributes of lime paid by Etruria and Terracina : Cod. Theod. , Lib. X I V., tit. V I ., I. 3 ; 
Symmach., lib. X., cap. 53. 

Tributes paid in building stone : Cod. Theod., lib. XIV., tit. VI., 1. 4. 

Tributes paid in brick . Seethe notice published by Nardini at the end of his " Roma 
.Antica." designated " Lettera d'Ott. Falconieri sopra I'iscrizione d'un mattone,** etc. 

Rule against the acceptance of money in place of tributes in kind: Cod. Theod., Lib. 
XV., tit. L. 1. 17. 

No part of these materials was conceded to individuals unless the portions paid by the 
tributaries exceeded the limit of the public needs; Cod. Theod., Lib. XIV., tit. VI., I 4, 

3 Cod. Theod., Lib. XL, tit. XVL. 1. 15. iH. The list of the taxes varies greatly. To 
show this it is sufficient to compare the enumeration of the fifth century in the Thcodosian 
Code with that in the Justinian Code of the sixth century (Lib. X., Cap. XLVIL, 1. 12). 
There is a direct proof of these variations : for example, that the care of the great roads ceased 
to be placed among the " sordida munera " imder Theodosius the younger. Hut these fluctua- 
tions of the Roman law are of little importance, for we are more concerned with the general 
idea than with the details of its application. 

■I Cod. Theod., Lib. XI., tit. XVL, 1. 15, etc. 



would seem, they were far from exacting onerous assistance or useful 
services. 

It remains to say how these taxes were imposed, what recourse 
there was against their exaction, and what laws determined their ex- 
tent and tempered their rigors. But, with a remarkable gap, the 
Code leaves these serious questions in the most absolute vagueness. 
.More than twenty '■ constitutions relate to the " sordida munera," and 
among so many laws there is not one which defines the rights and 
obligations of the subjects of the empire, who came within the scope 
of these onerous regulations ; all treat of the exceptions, the only thing 
which they neglect to define is the extent of the obligations which they 
iiTipo.se. Thus is seen, even in the silence of the law, the spirit of 
a system which was based entirely on exceptions and privileges. This 
gap in the laws left open an unlimited field for arbitrary and oppres- 
sive measures, and the frequencies of the corv(5es under the rule of 
the emperors shows the strangest forgetfulness of equity in the dis- 
tribution of the public burdens. Taxes in the form of personal labor 
have, among other wrongs, that of being imposed exclusively on those 
taxpayers who, by chance, happen to be in the vicinity. But the 
Roman emperors hesitated but little over principles when it was a 
question of a tax that fell on a class of the people who had been 
reduced, by centuries of servitude, to passive instruments. These 
general levies were a sure and swift means of attaining their object, 
and this advantage was sufficient for them. They had frequent 
recourse to it during the despotic times that preceded the dismem- 
berment of the Roman world. It was by this means that Diocletian 
was al)le to execute, in so few years, the embellishment of Nicomedia, 
of which he wished to make a second capital of the empire, and a 
rival of ancient Rome. Basilicas, palaces, a circus, a mint, an 
arsenal, were raised in the new city by the unaided arms of the in- 
habitants of the city. They were compelled to transport the materials 
at their own expense, to furnish all the necessary engines and machin- 
ery, and even to cede to the emperor the sites of their own houses. 
These requisitions, of which Lactantius has left us so striking a pic- 
ture, " were so unexceptional in the eyes of the Romans that one of 
their historians eulogizes Vespasian for having constructed buildings 
in the provinces " without having taken laborers from the fields." " 
The whole spirit of antiquity is shown by this single remark, which 
becomes even more characteristic when it is considered that it re- 
lates to one of the most prosperous periods of Rome and to one of 
the best princes that ever ruled the empire. 

To sum up : Rome took its unskilled labor from the population, 
subject to the corvtfe, and its skilled workmen from the local corpora- 
tions ; the corvde and the corporations were the two elements which 
supplied the labor for the construction of those monuments whose 
ruins we admire; to unite them was to unite material power and the 
strength of tradition and to furnish the empire with resources suffi- 
cient for the most colossal undertakings. But as they owed their 
existence to a fal.se organization of society, these resources were 
rapidly dissipated, and the empire finally experienced the fatal results 
of an economic system founded on disregard of individual right and 
private liberty; the country supported during three centuries the pain- 
ful laws which compelled it to construct for the cities buildings of a 
purely municipal character ; the small towns themselves were put 

- It is necessary to make a careful distinction between the "sordida munera*' and the 
" extraordinaria munera." The two kinds of contributions, although the juridical texts fre- 
quently connect them, were, by their nature, profoundly distinct. The Theodosian Code 
never confounds them and sometimes it even opposes them, as can be seen in Lib. XL, tit. 
XVL, I. 15. ".Sane rerum extraordinariarum munus ab omnib. omnino Magnif. tua sciat 
esse poscendum .... Sordidorum vero munerum talis exceptio sit, ut . . .*' 

The *' sordida munerum" were the corv^es, the "'extraordinaria munera" were simply 
increases of taxation. It will be remarked that there were much fewer exceptions to the 
" extraordinaria muneria" than to the " sordida muneria " , but, on the other hand, their im- 
position was guarded by a host of guarantees, none of which extended to the " sordida 
munera.'' See, in support of this observation, the following constitutions where the " sordida 
munera'' appears, and whose character is defined bv their assemblage. 

Cod. Theod., Lib. VI., lit. XXIII. ,3, 4; tit. XXVI, . 14 ; tit. XXXIV., i. 4; Lib. XL. 
tit. XVL, 5, 15, 16, 18, 10. 20, 21,22,23; Lib. XIII., tit. III., 12; Lib. XIV., tit. IV.. 6 : 
Cod. Just., Lib. X., tit. XLVIL 

' Lact., de Mortib. persec, Cap. VII. 

' Aurel. Vict., de C-Esarib , Cap. IX.. I take this observation from the work of 
.•VI. Naudet, "des Changements op^r^s dans toutes les parties de I'Empire romain," etc. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



275 




276 



THE BRICKBUILDER 










:-:; 


.:. . 


....... ::i 


if ^ ; 




•t^ 


;?;^ 






_ _ --1 _.! 






W::.:l^:r ■; 












{ 


• 










X-. 


■ 








•' ■• , 








. ■- ' 






hs\:j:,y^:. 








. , -v ^ . ,.j 






fi.-.;.. vrA-rO^i- :■ -1 








;.. 


\ . 

^ 


-.-.I -^ 








ih^t^ 




:;-|.' ;| ■ 1 :-| 







PEROI 
PLAT1-: X.\. THE ART OF BUILDING AMONG THE ROMANS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



277 



under the obligation of contributing to the expenses of the great 
cities. 1 But finally, incapable of meeting the exigencies of the imperial 
tyranny, the inhabitants of the country, as, for example, in Gaul, 
profited by the relaxation of the bonds which tied them to the 
empire to arm themselves against it and ceased to be its auxiliaries 
in order to become its enemies. 

In their turn the corporations had their period of decline; their 
members, ruined by a system of tariffs and statutes that legally de 
prived them of part of the payment due for their services, came 
finally to seek asylum outside of the cities by taking refuge in the 
colonies, or even going beyond the frontieis; they sought to find a 
larger and more liberal life among the barbarians. This was the 
signal for the abandonment of the old methods ; they had de- 
clined with the increase of public misery, but they fell definitely 
with the fall of the corporations that were the depositories of their 
secrets. The first constitutions opposed to the dissolution of the 
corporations date from the immediate successors of Constantine. 
They attempted to stop the evil by reviving the traditional methods; 
but the fall was irremediable, the sequence of the traditions was 
broken, and architecture existed only in the memory of the past and 
in the monuments of the Roman greatness. 

It is hardly necessary to point out the differences which should 
distinguish the methods of the architecture of the empire and that 
which is suitable to modern nations. They lie in the differences of 
the two civilizations themselves, and they arise from the double pic- 
ture we have shown of the methods of building, and the institutions 
that explain them. Knowing how the methods of the art of build- 
ing of former days satisfied the needs of the Roman civilization, one 
can easily see the reasons that should prohibit them to-day, or at 
least modify their form and limit their use ; it can be understood 
that these gigantic constructions, where the simplicity of the methods 
is compensated by an immense increase of labor, properly belong to 
the days of slavery and forced labor. The affranchisement of the 
laboring classes, putting a price on all work, imposes on the builder 
the necessity of taking the material difficulties more into account, of 
measuring with greater care the amount of time and effort he must 
spend. The Roman methods are possible only under a great em- 
pire whose resources are concentrated under an absolute government ; 
and this is so certain that the Romans themselves, as soon as they 
built for private purposes, as soon as they had to pay for labor, either 
in salaries to the members of the corporations, or in buying the slaves 
who worked for them, renounced the luxury of solidity. The ves- 
tiges of Pompeii, and the ruins of the villas scattered about the Cam- 
pagna of Rome show this fundamental distinction most clearly; 
their construction is essentially slight, and they are less like the offi- 
cial works of the contemporary epochs than like the buildings of the 
Lower Empire, whose construction is recalled by the Christian basili- 
cas. Moreover, the work to be expected from slaves is different than 
that from free workmen exercising without constraint their chosen 
trades. Intelligence develops with the amelioration of physical con- 
ditions, and we may ask more from logical combinations and less 
from physical force; in a word, we may leave a greater field for the 
personal initiative of each artisan. This is one of the first causes of 
the changes in the art of building, but still other reasons oblige us to 
give our architecture a new aspect, and apply different methods to 
our construction. 

There are, in fact, two methods of construction appropriate to 
two clearly distinct conditions of society ; either buildings are con- 
structed as a whole of a solidity that protects them from the chances 
of destruction for centuries, or else, accepting the conditions of main- 
tenance, and the chances of a proximate reconstruction, buildings are 
erected whose existence must be prolonged from day to day, whose 
preservation is a constant expense. It is the last method that tends 
to prevail among modern nations. Given up to the preoccupation 
of production, they seek to reserve for creative enterprises a part of 

' Cod. Theod., Lib. XV., 1. 18 et 26: Laws cited by M. Serrigny in liis work on " Le 
Droit publique et Administratif des Romains." 



the resources which the Romans devoted to the monuments of the 
empire ; and when the income of the amount so saved exceeds the 
cost of maintenance and reconstruction, the difference is regarded as 
an increase of the public wealth. The Romans would have difficulty 
in comprehending such a calculation. Accustomed to live by the 
labor and tribute of conquered nations, they regarded their personal 
interests as the end and aim of all the energy of the peoples whom 
conquest had made their slaves, and they found in this resource all 
that was necessary to give their works a solidity which it would be 
wrong to seek in modern times. Our buildings will have but a short 
existence ; many of them will scarcely survive us. It is not sure that 
the needs to which they owe their existence will last after us; and 
the ruin of these frail edifices is a small matter if the economy in 
building them as they are built is sufficient to replace them by others 
more in accord with the new generations. 

Unceasing transformation ; this, in a word, is the condition of mod- 
ern architecture. The constant movement of society forces architec- 
ture into a series of changes whose result it is useless to predict and 
whose end is impossible to foresee. But whatever make be its varia- 
tions, our architecture is bound to the past with unbreakable bonds ; 
its origin carries us back, in spite of ourselves, to ancient Rome, and 
for a yet long time will it be necessary to seek the principles of its 
methods and the hidden end to which it is tending. 

THE END. 



ENAMELED BRICKS FOR THE FRONTS OF BUILDINGS. 

AT the time that the American "glazed " bricks failed, English 
enameled bricks were imported at a much higher price, and 
were used for facing the interior courts of most of our large office 
buildings. One of the most recent, however, the Marquette, has 
been faced in its courts with the new-made American enameled bricks. 
Thus far these inner courts have afforded the principal places for 
their use ; but in England they are extensively employed on the in- 
terior of buildings, in the lining of kitchens, vestibules, and latrines, 
and for manufacturing buildings and laboratories, in which they 
effectually resist the action of the acids in the air. 

In cities of the interior of this country, where much bituminous 
coal is consumed, the bete noire (almost literally) of the architect is 
the disfigurement of the exterior of buildings with the condensations 
from soot. These are of a gummy nature, contain creosote, adhere 
with obstinacy to every building material, and after a few years they 
cannot be removed, even with soap. Red bricks were found to turn 
to a dirty chocolate color, and were not free from disfigurement. The 
only remedy that house owners could find (and that an expensive 
one) was to paint stone and brick alike, so that to-day more than half 
of the best buildings of Chicago and other cities are painted. 

The architects of the Rookery saw their opportunity to avoid 
this in one fine building when the dark semi-glazed "obsidian " brick 
came on the market. This was a frank acceptance of the situation 
and a surrender to what was then thought to be the inevitable. 
They made the exterior the exact color of smoke-dirt, and so it has 
remained ever since ; but we now see the dirt and not the bricks, 
which are completely covered. The owners have avoided the ex- 
pense of repeated painting, and have been the gainers thereby. 
Many other buildings have been similarly faced since then. 

But since reliable American enameled bricks have been on the 
market, architects and owners have been able to face their buildings 
with bricks that can be kept clean if washed periodically; for even 
the best enameled bricks will not keep themselves clean, and the 
hardest rains will not wash off soot condensations. But washing is 
cheaper than painting. — Inland Architect. 



The falling of a piece of cornice, from the eleventh story of the 
Times Building on Park Row, New York, illustrates the danger of 
using stone for projecting construction in cities. Sandstone was 
employed in this case, and the Building Department stated that frost 
was the active agent in causing the accident. — Eng. News. 



278 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Fire-proofing Department. 



TEST OF FIRE-PROOFING MATERIAL. 

WHEN one considers the immense interests involved and the 
terrible consequences of the failure of any vital portion of 
a large building, the reasons for frequent and thorough testing of all 
kinds of building material is readily appreciated. Even with the 
utmost care unexpected weaknesses may be developed. While such 
conditions might not be entirely obviated by proper tests, it is quite 
certain that preliminary investigations would be apt to reveal indica- 
tions of possible failure, and a wise constructor would give a question- 
able material the benefit of the doubt by avoiding its use altogether. 
Tests are quite as desirable for ascertaining what to avoid as for 
affording a measure of possibilities, and our constructive literature is 
full of reports of both public and private tests of all sorts of materials. 
It is, however, with the more recently adopted materials of construc- 
tion that tests have been most numerous, and especially with fire- 
proofing in its various forms, a construction which has struggled out 
of an experimental stage, and from which, as has been admirably 
shown by Mr. Wight's articles in these columns, very definite, and 
on the whole extremely satisfactory conclusions have been reached, 
and there have been in recent years many exhaustive and satisfactory 
tests made with a view to determining the reliability of the various 
fire-proofing mediums. Any one who has compared reports of the 
various tests cannot, however, but be struck with one fact which is 
very prominent, namely, that the large majority of them have been 
devoted to an investigation of the material itself, independently of 
the method of use ; thus there have been experiments in Denver, 
New York, Boston, in fact in nearly every large city, which have 
shown conclusively that terra-cotta can be depended upon to resist a 
high degree of heat, and to properly protect a concealed steel con- 
struction. The results of most of these investigations are perma- 
nently on record, and are readily available to the student or the 
constructor, and the tests have been so thorough and impartial that 
it would seem as if, after the years which were taken to develop the 
fire-proofing industries and the numerous opportunities for showing 
the resisting powers, we ought to be pretty well down to a basis 
from which we can start in laying out any species of construction 
depending for its protection upon the qualities of burnt clay. We 
believe in tests. They not only keep alive an interest in scientific 
reasoning, but they serve to keep up the standard of the manufact- 
urer, and yet we have been sometimes led to question whether the 
more recent tests of fire-proof buildings have not been in the nature 
of thrashing old wheat, whether the time has not come to stop 
questioning whether terra-cotta will stand fire or whether something 
else is better, and to confine our tests to a more practical demon- 
stration of how to do rather than what to do with, admitting at the 
very start the results of investigations which are too manifestly de- 
cisive to admit of a great deal of argument. 

Theoretically and practically it has been established that terra- 
cotta, if properly applied, does protect. The theoretical demonstra- 
tion has been made in numerous private and semi-public tests of 
small sections of flooring, column protection, etc. The practical 
tests have been applied in such conflagrations as the Pittsburgh fire. 
Western Telegraph Building in New York, the Athletic Club in 
Chicago. Though opinions may differ as to the economic advisa- 
bility of using one material or another, or a different form, terra-cotta 
itself is no longer an experiment, it is a scientific fact, the records of 
which are open to any one who reads. 

But what we do need tests upon is the details of construction. 
No one is ready yet to admit that the last word has been uttered or 
the final solution achieved in the application of burnt clay to pur- 
poses of fire-proofing. There is a great deal of clumsiness in manip- 
ulation which must be obviated. There is weight to be reduced, 
there are shapes to be improved, and there are systems of application 



which would bear a great deal of study. Along these lines tests are 
of value, and a great many of them can be made to follow new and 
unsolved paths. The material itself, however, with all the variations 
of the different manufacturers in the different parts of the country, is 
practically the same throughout. It is not like steel, every melt of 
Ivhich may be different, and which, consequently, requires tests at 
frequent intervals. The extremes of hard and porous terra-cotta are 
perfectly understood, and can be scientifically analyzed and applied. 

An absolutely fire-proof building is, of course, an impossibility, 
for no structure has yet been devised which could not be affected to 
some extent by heat if the combination of conditions were favorable. 
We cannot fire-proof the contents of any structure by merely enclos- 
ing the supports in a fire-resi.sting envelope. But we can vastly im- 
prove not only the details of construction, the methods of applying the 
brick and terra-cotta, the manner in which the protecting envelope is 
applied to the beams and the columns, the precise arrangement of 
supports, ties, etc., but we can also, to advantage, make very decided 
and radical changes in the arrangement of so-called fire proof build- 
ings, by which their resisting powers can be greatly increased. Fire- 
proof construction is not merely a que.stion of floor and column 
protection, but one of the essential requirements is that the structure 
shall be so arranged that fire cannot readily spread from one part to 
another; consequently we need to devote more study than is usually 
allowed to the arrangement of corridors and partitions, as well as to 
the window openings and the construction of elevator wells and light 
shafts. It may be open to argument whether an elevator well is 
safer from a fire standpoint if it is enclosed in brick walls than if it 
is entirely open. In the former case it can easily become a huge 
blast chimney. In the latter case the fire enters it more readily. 
But certainly the partitions and elevator arrangements are not usually 
conspicuous for the amount of study which has been expended upon 
them, and we could well afford to expend some of our test money 
upon the determination of the best kind of construction to answer 
for partitions, to resist not only heat, but also the air pressure, which 
sometimes is quite considerable in a building, as well as the even 
more disastrous effects of the fireman's hose. One of our corre- 
spondents has said quite truly that in one of the notable instances in 
which a fire-proof building was exposed to the effect of a conflagra 
tion from an adjoining structure far more damage was done by the 
firemen than by the fire ; that if the building had been left alone the 
waves of fire would have beat against it impotently, but the combina- 
tion of water and fire was too much for it. All of which simply 
shows that we must consider all possibilities in designing a fire-proof 
construction. 

Then there is opportunity for considerable investigation in de- 
vising a fire-proof window. It has been suggested that wire glass 
could be used in metal frames, and that wire glass when properly set 
will melt before it will let the heat through. So far as we know, this 
has never been tried, and we should suppose that, even assuming the 
glass stood the heat, a few drops of water might change conditions 
considerably. Window frames and staff beads are almost invariably 
built of wood. In the fire in the Potter Building, New York, some 
time ago, if we are correctly informed, fire was communicated from 
story to story through an interior well by means of the wood finish 
around the windows. If instead of exposed wood the frames were 
to be set flush with the jambs or with a projecting terracotta mold- 
ing to cover the frame, and the sashes themselves were of sheet metal 
on a wood foundation, similar to the construction of tinned wooden 
shutters, the danger of ignition would be reduced to an insignificant 
minimum. Here again is another chance for a long series of valu- 
able fire-proofing tests. In fact, the pos.sibilities of improvement in 
even the best of our fire-proof structures are so manifest, there is so 
much remaining to be done which can be accomplished only through 
the direct agency of carefully conducted scientific experiments and 
tests, that we can well afford to admit the results of previous investi- 
gations, and can with great profit continue our investigations along 
the line of the unknown, having already so much firm ground to 
tread on. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



279 



A COMPETITIVE (?) TEST. 

New York, Dec. 20, 1897. 
To THE Editor The Brickbuildek : — 

Dear Sir: — The impression seeming to prevail among those 
not familiar with the details, that we were participants in an attempted 
joint test of our end-construction, porous hollow-tile arch, and one of 
the Roebling concrete method, which occurred on November 19, last, 
at 68th Street and Avenue A, this city, we ask that you kindly grant 
us the use of your columns for a dispassionate statement regarding 
it, from its inception to its final merited miscarriage. 

We do not dispute the fact that portions of the tile used in the 
construction of this arch were procured by John A. Roebling's Sons 
Company in a near-by city, but aside from that we had no voice in 
the matter of detail or the manner of construction. 

Under the administration of Stevenson Constable, Superintend- 
ent of Buildings, New York City, and the supervision of his brother, 
Howard, there have been no less than fourteen tests made of different 
systems of fire-proofing, all governed by the following conditions : — 
5 to 6 hours' firing, followed by water applied under a pressure of 
60 lbs. to the square inch. A full report of these various tests was 
furnished The Engineering Record (see Vol. 36, Nos. 16-19) by 
Stevenson Constable. 

Deeming the fire period — 5 to 6 hours — which had governed 
these fourteen tests inadequate to determine the resistance to intense 
heat of fire-proofing material, we, in March last, at the request of 
Mr. Constable, threw down a challenge to all, for a joint test of 24 
hours'' continuous Jire, of 10 in. porous end-construction flat arches, 
followed by water applied under a pressure of 60 lbs. to the square 
inch. On September 7, the John A. Roebling's Sons Company, in a 
letter addressed to Constable, purport to accept our challenge ; but 
instead of a fire test of 24 hours' continuous duration — the main 
purpose of our challenge — propose one of 4 hours only, which is to 
be followed by cooling, then application of water, and so repeated; 
and further providing : " The Roebling arch to be constructed in 
the same manner — -material, quality, and proportion — as they will 
guarantee to construct their floor systems in the future in the city 
of New York." " The material for the hollow brick arch to be 
purchased at some building in course of construction, where such 
material has been delivered by Henry Maurer & Son, without special 
selection as to quality, and to be the regular 8 in. hard-burnt clay or 
porous terracotta side or end construction." 

These conditions not confirming to those of our challenge, we 
declined the proposition and considered the whole matter settled ; 
at which conclusion it seems the Roebling Company also arrived. 

The John A. Roebling's Sons Company, however, instigated by 
Mr. Constable, determined to proceed with the test — under condi- 
tions imposed by themselves, and presumably the most favorable for 
their method — and with the material procured at considerable trouble 
and expense, with additional tile from other manufacturers, they pro- 
ceed to erect an end-construction arch of 5 ft. span, in a structure adjoin- 
ing a concrete arch prepared, superintended, and constructed by them. 

We quote: '-The Roebling arch in the test structure was iden- 
tical as to proportions, manipulation, etc., with the fire-proof arches 
erected by the John A. Roebling's Sons Company, and represents 
the standard construction of that company. 

" The hollow-tile arch is a modern pattern, end-construction 
type, of flat arch erected with care" (sic) "so as to represent as 
nearly as possible the usual workmanship, as found in fire-proof 
buildings now in the course of construction in New York City." 

It did not require deep penetration to discern the result — sure 
to follow — when a hollow-tile arch, constructed, as we see, under 
the fostering (i>) care of a rival concrete interest, came to be tested, 
and that test under the sole control of such interest ; the result we 
had foreseen followed. The end-construction arch, after 3 hours' 
firing, loaded with but 150 lbs. to the square foot, fell in; but in fall- 
ing disclosed the secret of its fall : glaring defects of construction ! 

A study of the results of other tests, both of hollow-tile and the 



Roebling concrete arch, which we collate below, will convincingly 
show that the test, of which this letter treats, was simply a farce. 

tests of hollow-tile arches. 

Denver, Col., Dec. 20, 1893. 
" An end-construction, porous terra- 
cotta arch of 5 ft. span, after undergoing 
a continuous fire test for 24 hours, was prac- 
tically uninjured, as it afterward supported 
a weight of bricks of 1 2,500 lbs. in a space 
3 ft. wide in the middle of the arch." 

Pittsburg, Pa., May^3, 1897. 
" The report of S. Albert Reed to the 
New York Tariff Association shows that 
the end construction, porous tile arches 
were superior to the side-construction, 
hard-burned tile arches; that all^floors of 
either method were practically uninjured." 

But our concrete friends claim that 
these tests were too far from New York 
to be conclusive, so we quote Stevenson 
Constable himself : — 

New York, Sept. 29, 1896. 

(See Engineering Record, No. 19, pp. 
402, 403.) 

" An end-construction, porous terra- 
cotta arch, loaded with 150 lbs. per scjuare 
foot, was subjected to afire test of 6 hours' 
duration, uninjured. Nearly 20 days there- 
after the load was increased to 1,960 lbs. 
per square foot, and the arch still declin- 
ing to faH, the test was discontinued. 
Maximum deflection .... 3.41 ins." 

May 20, 1897, Engineering Record, 
No. 19, p. 405 : — 

" A side-construction, hard-burned tile 
arch loaded with 150 lbs. to the square 
foot was tested under 5 hours' firing, un- 
injured. On May 22, 1897, load was in- 
creased to 600 lbs. per square foot without 
injury. 

Maximum deflection .... 1.84 ins. 
Maximum temperature . . 2,050 degs." 

It is an undisputed fact that in the preparation of hollow tile, 
the raw material (clay, etc.) is subjected in burning to a heat of fully 
2,8oa degs., sustained for from 6 to y days. 



Our concrete friends 
now claim : that an end- 
construction arch, of our 
material, but built under 
their direction, loaded 
with but 150 lbs. to the 
square foot, after firing 
for less than 3 hours, fell 
in. 

Maximum temperature, 
2,300 degs. 

Maximum deflection, 
3.65 ins. 



tests of roebling concrete arches. 

From report of Stevenson Constable, ^''- Constable 
New York, Sept. 25, 1896, Engineering 
Record, No. 359. 

"A Roebling concrete arch, which we 
are justified in presuming ' represented the 
standard construction of that Company,' 
loaded with 150 lbs. per square foot, was 
subjected to firing for 5 hours. Upon 
reopening doors before putting water on 
it was seen that all the plaster and wire 
netting had burned off except in the ex- 
treme corners. 

Maximum temperature . . 2,300 degs. 
Maximum deflection .... 4.485 ins. 



being 
restrained from interfer- 
ence, we can only quote 
from report in Engineer- 
ing Record, p. 556, — • 
source unknown to us : — 

" The Roebling arch 
remains intact, with 
shreds of the skin coat 
hanging to the ceiling, 
the brown coat remain- 
ing intact. 

" 2,300 degs. maximum 
temperature. 

"1.4 in. maximum de- 



flection." 
Yours truly, 

HENRY MAURER & SON. 
New York City, Dec. 20, 1897. 



28o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Mortar and Concrete. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS BRANDS OF AMERI- 
CAN NATURAL CEMENTS. 

BY CLIFFORD RICHARDSON. 

COMPARED with the typical high-grade lime and magnesian 
cements, which have been described, very considerable varia- 
tions are found in numerous other brands of the East and West. 

Rosendak Brands. The many brands of Rosendale cement from 
Ulster County, which are on the market, while in general, very similar 
and of excellent quality, still show very decided differences in certain 
directions. Some give much stronger mortars, both in initial and 
eventual strength, than others, and display very considerable varia- 
tions in their time of setting and density. They show corresponding 
physical and chemical differences. This is due to the variations in 
the rock from which they are made. It has been shown to differ in 
composition in the two principal strata found in Ulster County, and 
again in different exposures of the same stratum. Along the several 
miles of outcropping where Rosendale cement is made, extending 
from Rondout to High Falls, very varied rock is found. In most 
cases where a deficiency exists, it is in the amount of clay in the lime- 
stone. It carries too little, and the cement made from it is hot and 
lacking in strength. An examination of the analyses of five samples 
of Rosendale cement, given in a previous table, shows that from 8.68 
per cent, of oxides of iron and alumina to 15.20 per cent, is found. 
This alone would produce a marked difference in the several 
cements. Further, the magnesia is as high as 19 and as low as 14 per 
cent., the silica reaches 24 and falls as low as 1 1. It is easy to see, 
therefore, that different brands of Rosendale cement, or the same 
brand at different times, may vary, although the material as a whole 
is of one general character, and that individual brands can only be 
expected to be uniform when the greatest care is exercised. The 
best cement plainly contains, within limits, of course, the most silicates 
and the least magnesia. It will then be the least fiery and give the 
greatest returns in the strength for the mortar prepared with it. 

Depending upon its origin, Rosendale cement may vary so that 
tests of sand mortar, 2 to i, may fall as low as 30 lbs. at the age of 
seven days and reach 100 lbs. The cement may set slowly or too 
quickly. It will, eventually, in almost every case, yield results which 
are satisfactory in so far as that the mortar is dense and not brittle 
and continues to gain in strength with age, not deterioriating after 
long periods of time. Mortar of Rosendale cement is particularly 
desirable for laying up masonry, as it is plastic and trowels well. In 
concrete it is satisfactory only in the best brands or where a con- 
siderable time can elapse awaiting the acquisition of strength. 
Where centers are to be drawn rapid work cannot be done with 
Rosendale cements, so that when the Potomac Valley cements are 
available but little Rosendale is used, while in such work as fortifica- 
tions and gun emplacements, where slowness of setting is no objection, 
it is a most desirable material. 

Rosendale cement mortar will not withstand frost as well as the 
lime cements, but is superior in this respect to that made with many 
other magnesian cements. The greater the amount of magnesia in a 
cement the less it is able to resist cold weather. Rosendale cement 
suffers more in strength at an early period from the use of an exces- 
sive amount of water in mortar than lime cements and some magne- 
sian brands, but eventually recovers quite or nearly the same strength 
as whenle.ss water is used. A test of a Rosendale cement, initiated 
in 1892, illustrates this in the following figures: — 



2 parts quartz, 

7 days . . 

28 



part cement. 



Tensile strength per sq. in. 
Dry Mortar. Moist Mortar. 



38 

68 



20 
48 



Tensile strength per sq. in. 
Dr>' Mortar. Moist Mortar. 

3 months 200 140 

6 „ 220 198 

1 year 246 236 

2 years 242 232 

It appears that the deficiency in strength of the moist mortar at 
the age of three months has disappeared when it is one and two years 
old. 

Western New York Cements. The cements made at Buffalo 
and Akron, in Erie County, New York, are magnesian like the Rosen- 
dales, but they differ from the Ulster County cement very decidedly. 
They often have a greater initial strength, both in neat and sand 
mortars, but after the lapse of time fail to show the same increase 
and at times fall below some other cements at the age of a year. To 
what this is due may be seen on examining their composition. They 
contain a very much larger amount of magnesia, nearly 26 per 
cent, as compared to 14 in the best Rosendale, and the amount 
of alumina and iron oxide is reduced to between 7 and 10 per 
cent., as compared with 11 to 15. The peculiar differences be- 
tween the Erie and Ulster County cements is plainly due to this dif- 
ference in composition, and more especially to the larger amount of 
magnesia. This has been known to eventually cause some brands 
of this cement to expand sufficiently to reduce its strength, and in 
some cases to show a deficiency in strength without apparent expan- 
sion. The amount of expansion which takes place with these ce- 
ments may be seen in the concrete base of asphalt pavements in 
some cities, which at times are raised into waves several inches 
high, crossing the streets at intervals. These ridges are so marked 
that from time to time they must be cut out and the surfaces low- 
ered. 

Where the amount of concrete is not extensive, and expansion 
insufficient to produce heaving, the cements have, in most cases, 
given sufficiently satisfactory results. Their greater strength, when 
first used, gives them a certain advantage over other slower cements, 
but they are plainly not entirely well balanced in composition. The 
presence of so much magnesia necessitates great care in burning, 
and considerable variations will be found in the product, depending 
on the extent to which calcination is carried, and the way in which 
it is done. Hydration of the burned stone before grinding has, how- 
ever, improved these cetnents in recent years. They are in color a 
very light buff, and are not nearly as dense as the Rosendales. 
They require less water for working than any other cements, and are 
very plastic. Their use has extended over a large field of engineer- 
ing work. 

Potomac Magnesian Cements. Several cements are made in the 
Potomac Valley, not far from where the Round Top lime cement, 
already spoken of, is burned, which are magnesian in character. 
They are of local importance only, but are interesting from a techni- 
cal point of view in comparison with others of the same class. 
They contain about the same